Lingling Fan is a Ph.D. candidate in electrical engineering at Stanford University. Prior to her appointment at Stanford, she received her Bachelor of Science degree in physics, while she worked in the Department of Applied Physics at Yale University. Her research interests are in computational, experimental, and theoretical studies of photonic structures and devices, especially for neural networks, information processing, and radiative cooling applications. She has published more than 21 papers in this field, has given five invited talks at major international conferences, and currently holds two U.S. patents. In addition to her academic research, she completed internships at SWS research Shanghai in 2018 summer and X the Moonshot Factory of Google LLC in 2022 summer working on industry research projects. Lingling is a recipient of the National Scholarship from the Ministry of education of China from 2015 to 2018, a Hong Kong Shan-Yuan (C. W. Chu) scholarship in 2016, a Kathy Xu scholarship in 2018, an Engineering Fellowship from Stanford University in 2018, a CLEO presenter award in 2020, a DARE fellowship finalist in 2021 and an EECS rising star travel grant in 2022.

All Publications

  • Multidimensional Convolution Operation with Synthetic Frequency Dimensions in Photonics PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED Fan, L., Zhao, Z., Wang, K., Dutt, A., Wang, J., Buddhiraju, S., Wojcik, C. C., Fan, S. 2022; 18 (3)
  • Radiative-cooling-based nighttime electricity generation with power density exceeding 100 mW/m2. iScience Omair, Z., Assawaworrarit, S., Fan, L., Jin, W., Fan, S. 2022; 25 (8): 104858


    The outer space (3 K) represents an important thermodynamic resource. It has been known for decades that at nighttime, a sky-facing thermal emitter radiating strongly within the atmospheric transparency window (8-13mum), can reach below the ambient temperature. In recent studies, thermoelectric generators were used to harness this temperature difference between the emitter and ambient to generate electricity. However, the demonstrated power density has been limited by parasitic thermal losses. Here we show that these parasitic losses can be reduced through thermal engineering. We present a simple model showing the optimum power density can be approached by controlling the relation between the emitter area and the thermal resistance of the thermoelectric generator. We show that the stacking of multiple thermoelectric generators is an effective way to approach this optimum. We experimentally demonstrate a generated electric power density >100 mW/m2, representing>2-fold improvement over the previous results for nighttime radiative cooling.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.isci.2022.104858

    View details for PubMedID 35996585

  • Lineshape study of optical force spectra on resonant structures OPTICS EXPRESS Fan, L., Zhao, Z., Rituraj, Jin, W., Orenstein, M., Fan, S. 2022; 30 (4): 6142-6160


    Understanding the frequency spectrum of the optical force is important for controlling and manipulating micro- and nano-scale objects using light. Spectral resonances of these objects can significantly influence the optical force spectrum. In this paper, we develop a theoretical formalism based on the temporal coupled-mode theory that analytically describes the lineshapes of force spectra and their dependencies on resonant scatterers for arbitrary incident wavefronts. We obtain closed-form formulae and discuss the conditions for achieving symmetric as well as asymmetric lineshapes, pertaining, respectively, to a Lorentzian and Fano resonance. The relevance of formalism as a design tool is exemplified for a conceptual scheme of the size-sorting mechanism of small particles, which plays a role in biomedical diagnosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.452764

    View details for Web of Science ID 000754931700117

    View details for PubMedID 35209557

  • Coloured low-emissivity films for building envelopes for year-round energy savings NATURE SUSTAINABILITY Peng, Y., Fan, L., Jin, W., Ye, Y., Huang, Z., Zhai, S., Luo, X., Ma, Y., Tang, J., Zhou, J., Greenburg, L. C., Majumdar, A., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2021
  • Deep-Subwavelength Thermal Switch via Resonant Coupling in Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED Papadakis, G. T., Ciccarino, C. J., Fan, L., Orenstein, M., Narang, P., Fan, S. 2021; 15 (5)
  • Nighttime Radiative Cooling for Water Harvesting from Solar Panels ACS PHOTONICS Li, W., Dong, M., Fan, L., John, J., Chen, Z., Fan, S. 2021; 8 (1): 269–75
  • Maximal nighttime electrical power generation via optimal radiative cooling OPTICS EXPRESS Fan, L., Li, W., Jin, W., Orenstein, M., Fan, S. 2020; 28 (17): 25460–70


    We present a systematic optimization of nighttime thermoelectric power generation system utilizing radiative cooling. We show that an electrical power density >2 W/m2, two orders of magnitude higher than the previously reported experimental result, is achievable using existing technologies. This system combines radiative cooling and thermoelectric power generation and operates at night when solar energy harvesting is unavailable. The thermoelectric power generator (TEG) itself covers less than 1 percent of the system footprint area when achieving this optimal power generation, showing economic feasibility. We study the influence of emissivity spectra, thermal convection, thermoelectric figure of merit and the area ratio between the TEG and the radiative cooler on the power generation performance. We optimize the thermal radiation emitter attached to the cold side and propose practical material implementation. The importance of the optimal emitter is elucidated by the gain of 153% in power density compared to regular blackbody emitters.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.397714

    View details for Web of Science ID 000560936200091

    View details for PubMedID 32907066

  • Nonreciprocal radiative heat transfer between two planar bodies PHYSICAL REVIEW B Fan, L., Guo, Y., Papadakis, G. T., Zhao, B., Zhao, Z., Buddhiraju, S., Orenstein, M., Fan, S. 2020; 101 (8)