Clinical Assistant Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Co-Chair, New Investigator Special Interest Group, Academy of Eating Disorders (2015 - Present)
Fellowship, NIMH T32 Postdoctoral Fellowship, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Eating Disorders Research (2016)
Psy.D., PGSP-Stanford Consortium, CA (2013)
M.S., PGSP-Stanford Consortium, CA (2011)
B.A., College of Saint Benedict, MN (2006)
- Subtypes of Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa: Associations with Eating Disorder and Affective Symptoms JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT 2018; 40 (4): 691–700
Affect-based profiles of bulimia nervosa: The utility and validity of indicators assessed in the natural environment
2018; 259: 210–15
Theoretical conceptualizations of bulimia nervosa (BN) emphasize the role of emotion dysregulation in the development and maintenance of symptoms, which has been supported by ecological momentary assessment studies. Given the importance of affective disturbances in BN, this study aimed to classify a sample of adult women with BN (N = 130) based on primarily momentary affective indicators, including negative and positive affect, negative and positive affective lability, and depression. Participants completed baseline assessments followed by a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Latent profile analysis revealed four groups: (1) a "stable normal" group characterized by low affective lability and intensity; (2) a "stable depressed" group characterized by low affective lability and higher affect intensity; (3) an "unstable normal" group characterized by higher affective lability but lower affect intensity; and (4) an "unstable depressed" group characterized by higher affective lability and intensity. The stable depressed group evidenced the highest levels of eating psychopathology, borderline personality traits, and childhood trauma history, while the stable normal group generally evidenced the lowest levels of psychopathology. The findings demonstrate significant heterogeneity in the topography of affect experienced by individuals with BN, and suggest that chronic, intense negative affect may be particularly important to address in treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.09.080
View details for Web of Science ID 000423648700032
View details for PubMedID 29073557
Adolescent Loss-of-Control Eating and Weight Loss Maintenance After Bariatric Surgery
2018; 141 (1)
Loss-of-control (LOC) eating is common in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and is associated with poorer weight outcomes. Its long-term course in adolescent bariatric surgery patients and associations with weight outcomes are unclear.Adolescents (n = 234; age range = 13-19 years) undergoing bariatric surgery across 5 US sites were assessed for postsurgery follow-up at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, and 4 years. Descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models were used to describe the prevalence of LOC eating episodes involving objectively large amounts of food and continuous eating, respectively. Generalized linear mixed models investigated the association of any LOC eating with short- and long-term BMI changes.At baseline, objectively large LOC eating was reported by 15.4% of adolescents, and continuous LOC eating by 27.8% of adolescents. Both forms of LOC eating were significantly lower at all postsurgical time points relative to presurgery (range = 0.5%-14.5%; Ps < .05). However, both behaviors gradually increased from 6-month to 4-year follow-up (Ps < .05). Presurgical LOC eating was not related to percent BMI change over follow-up (P = .79). However, LOC eating at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up was associated with lower percent BMI change from baseline at the next consecutive assessment (Ps < .05).Although presurgical LOC eating was not related to relative weight loss after surgery, postoperative LOC eating may adversely affect long-term weight outcomes. Rates of LOC eating decreased from presurgery to 6-months postsurgery but increased thereafter. Therefore, this behavior may warrant additional empirical and clinical attention.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2017-1659
View details for Web of Science ID 000419003300021
View details for PubMedID 29237801
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5744387
Contextual factors associated with eating in the absence of hunger among adults with obesity
2017; 26: 33–39
Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is under-explored in adults with obesity. In this study, 50 adults with obesity recorded eating episodes and theoretically-relevant environmental, perceptual, and emotional correlates in the natural environment for 2weeks via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Generalized linear models and mixed models were used to characterize correlates and consequences of EAH vs. non-EAH episodes/tendencies (within-subjects and between-subjects effects, respectively), time of day, and time of day×EAH interactions. Approximately 21% of EMA-recorded eating episodes involved EAH, and 70% of participants reported at least 1 EAH episode. At the within-person level, participants' EAH episodes were associated with greater self-labeled overeating than their non-EAH episodes. At the between-person level, participants who tended to engage in more EAH reported less self-labeled overeating than those who engaged in less EAH. Across EAH and non-EAH episodes, eating in the evening was associated with overeating, expecting eating to be more rewarding, greater alcoholic beverage consumption, eating alone, eating because others are eating, and eating while watching television. Significant EAH×time of day interactions were also observed but the pattern of findings was not consistent. Findings suggest that EAH may be a relevant target for reducing food intake in individuals with obesity given its high prevalence and association with perceptions of overeating, although results should be extended using objective measures of food intake. Associations between evening eating episodes and perceptual and environmental factors should be further explored.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2017.01.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000407741200006
View details for PubMedID 28131964
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5735853
Trajectories of Higher- and Lower-Order Dimensions of Negative and Positive Affect Relative to Restrictive Eating in Anorexia Nervosa
JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
2017; 126 (5): 495–505
Despite robust support for the role of affect in the maintenance of binge eating and purging, the relationship between affect and restrictive eating remains poorly understood. To investigate the relationship between restrictive eating and affect, ecological momentary assessment data from 118 women with anorexia nervosa (AN) were used to examine trajectories of higher-order dimensions of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), as well as lower-order dimensions of NA (Fear, Guilt) and PA (Joviality, Self-Assurance) relative to restrictive eating. Affect trajectories were modeled before and after restrictive eating episodes and AN subtype was examined as a moderator of these trajectories. Across the sample, Guilt significantly increased before and decreased after restrictive eating episodes. Global NA, Global PA, Fear, Joviality, and Self-Assurance did not vary relative to restrictive eating episodes across the sample. However, significant subtype by trajectory interactions were detected for PA indices. Among individuals with AN restricting subtype, Global PA, Joviality, and Self-Assurance decreased prior to and Self-Assurance increased following restrictive eating episodes. In contrast, Global PA and Self-Assurance increased prior to, but did not change following, restrictive eating episodes among individuals with AN binge eating/purging subtype. Results suggest that dietary restriction may function to mitigate guilt across AN subtypes and to enhance self-assurance among individuals with AN restricting subtype. (PsycINFO Database Record
View details for DOI 10.1037/abn0000202
View details for Web of Science ID 000404972000003
View details for PubMedID 27893231
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5446939
Empirically derived personality subtyping for predicting clinical symptoms and treatment response in bulimia nervosa.
International journal of eating disorders
Evidence suggests that eating disorder subtypes reflecting under-controlled, over-controlled, and low psychopathology personality traits constitute reliable phenotypes that differentiate treatment response. This study is the first to use statistical analyses to identify these subtypes within treatment-seeking individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and to use these statistically derived clusters to predict clinical outcomes.Using variables from the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire, K-means cluster analyses identified under-controlled, over-controlled, and low psychopathology subtypes within BN patients (n = 80) enrolled in a treatment trial. Generalized linear models examined the impact of personality subtypes on Eating Disorder Examination global score, binge eating frequency, and purging frequency cross-sectionally at baseline and longitudinally at end of treatment (EOT) and follow-up. In the longitudinal models, secondary analyses were conducted to examine personality subtype as a potential moderator of response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced (CBT-E) or Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy for BN (ICAT-BN).There were no baseline clinical differences between groups. In the longitudinal models, personality subtype predicted binge eating (P = 0.03) and purging (P = 0.01) frequency at EOT and binge eating frequency at follow-up (p = 0.045). The over-controlled group demonstrated the best outcomes on these variables. In secondary analyses, there was a treatment by subtype interaction for purging at follow-up (P = 0.04), which indicated a superiority of CBT-E over ICAT-BN for reducing purging among the over-controlled group.Empirically derived personality subtyping appears to be a valid classification system with potential to guide eating disorder treatment decisions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016).
View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22622
View details for PubMedID 27611235
Reciprocal associations between negative affect, binge eating, and purging in the natural environment in women with bulimia nervosa.
Journal of abnormal psychology
2016; 125 (3): 381-386
Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN. (PsycINFO Database Record
View details for DOI 10.1037/abn0000135
View details for PubMedID 26692122
Loss of control eating and eating disorders in adolescents before bariatric surgery.
The International journal of eating disorders
This study assessed loss of control (LOC) eating and eating disorders (EDs) in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery for severe obesity.Preoperative baseline data from the Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) multisite observational study (n = 242; median BMI = 51 kg/m(2) ; mean age= 17; 76% female adolescents; 72% Caucasian) included anthropometric and self-report questionnaires, including the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R), the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids) RESULTS: LOC eating (27%) was common and ED diagnoses included binge-eating disorder (7%), night eating syndrome (5%), and bulimia nervosa (1%). Compared to those without LOC eating, those with LOC eating reported greater depressive symptomatology and greater impairment in weight-related quality of life.Before undergoing bariatric surgery, adolescents with severe obesity present with problematic disordered eating behaviors and meet diagnostic criteria for EDs. LOC eating, in particular, was associated with several negative psychosocial factors. Findings highlight targets for assessment and intervention in adolescents before bariatric surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016).
View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22546
View details for PubMedID 27196378
A latent profile analysis of childhood trauma in women with bulimia nervosa: Associations with borderline personality disorder psychopathology.
The International journal of eating disorders
The aim of this study was to empirically examine naturally occurring groups of individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) based on their childhood trauma (CT) histories and to compare these groups on a clinically relevant external validator, borderline personality disorder (BPD) psychopathology.This study examined the relationship between CT and BPD psychopathology among 133 women with BN using latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify participants based on histories of CT. Participants completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P), the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines-Revised (DIB-R), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ).The LPA revealed four trauma profiles: low/no trauma, emotional trauma, sexual trauma, and polytrauma. Results indicated that the sexual and polytrauma profiles displayed significantly elevated scores on the DIB-R and that the low/no and emotional trauma profiles did not differ significantly on the DIB-R. Secondary analyses revealed elevated levels of a composite CT score among those with both BN and BPD psychopathology compared to those with BN only.These findings suggest that both childhood sexual abuse and the additive effects of childhood polytrauma may be linked to BPD psychopathology in BN. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016).
View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22532
View details for PubMedID 27038436
Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.122
- Are Sudden Gains Important in the Treatment of Eating Disorders? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS 2016; 49 (1): 32-35
A Naturalistic Examination of the Temporal Patterns of Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors in Anorexia Nervosa
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS
2016; 49 (1): 77-83
Evidence supports the presence of significant variability in the timing of affective experiences and eating disorder (ED) behaviors across ED populations. This study examined the naturalistic timing of affective states and ED behaviors in anorexia nervosa (AN).Women (N = 118) with full or subthreshold DSM-IV AN completed 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving self-reports of affect and ED behaviors. Patterns of positive affect, negative affect, and tension/anxiety across hours of the day and days of the week were examined using linear mixed models. Variation in ED behavior occurrence (i.e., binge eating, vomiting, exercise, meal skipping, and self-weighing) across hours of the day and days of the week was examined using general estimating equations.Results revealed significant variation in tension/anxiety across hours of the day; there were no significant associations between time of day and negative or positive affect. All affective variables significantly varied across days of the week, with both negative affect and tension/anxiety highest in the middle of the week and lowest on the weekends. The ED behaviors all significantly varied across hours of the day, with binge eating and vomiting most common in later hours, exercise and self-weighing most common in earlier hours, and meal skipping most common at times corresponding to breakfast and lunch. ED behaviors did not significantly vary across days of the week.The significant patterns of variation in the timing of affective experiences and ED behaviors may have utility in informing theories and interventions for AN.
View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22447
View details for Web of Science ID 000367663200008
View details for PubMedID 26282336
Eating Disorders and Problematic Eating Behaviours Before and After Bariatric Surgery: Characterization, Assessment and Association with Treatment Outcomes
EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW
2015; 23 (6): 417-425
Accumulating evidence suggests that bariatric surgery candidates are likely to present with eating disorders (EDs) and/or problematic eating behaviours (EBs), and research suggests that these problems may persist or develop after bariatric surgery. While there is growing evidence indicating that EDs and EBs may impact bariatric surgery outcomes, the definitions and assessment methods used lack consensus, and findings have been mixed. The aims of this paper were (1) to summarize the existing literature on pre-operative and post-operative EDs and problematic EBs; (2) to discuss the terms, definitions and assessment measures used across studies; and (3) to consider the extent to which the presence of these problems impact surgery outcomes. We highlight the importance of investigators utilizing consistent definitions and assessment methodologies across studies.
View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.2397
View details for Web of Science ID 000365753200001
View details for PubMedID 26315343
Clinical utility of subtyping binge eating disorder by history of anorexia or bulimia nervosa in a treatment sample
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS
2015; 48 (6): 785-789
This study examined whether having a history of anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) is associated with response to treatment in adults with binge eating disorder (BED).Data from 189 adults diagnosed with BED who were randomly assigned to one of three group cognitive-behavioral (CBT) treatments were analyzed to compare those with and without a history of AN/BN.A total of 16% of the sample had a history of AN/BN. The BED subgroup with a history of AN/BN presented with higher rates of mood disorders and greater eating-related symptom severity at baseline. Participants with a history of AN/BN also had higher global eating disorder (ED) symptoms at end of treatment (EOT), and more frequent objective binge-eating episodes at EOT and 12-month follow-up.These findings suggest that in adults with BED, a history of AN/BN is predictive of greater eating-related symptom severity following group-based CBT and poorer short- and long-term binge-eating outcomes. These findings suggest that considering ED history in the treatment of adults with BED may be clinically useful.
View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22422
View details for Web of Science ID 000360075900029
View details for PubMedID 25959549
Eating Disorder Questionnaire (EDQ)
Encyclopedia of Feeding and Eating Disorders
edited by Wade, T.
View details for DOI 10.1007/978-981-287-087-2_103-1
Personality Disorders as Comorbidities in Eating Disorders
Encyclopedia of Feeding and Eating Disorders
edited by Wade, T.
View details for DOI 10.1007/978-981-287-087-2_86-1
Impact of Psychiatric Comorbidity on Eating Disorder Outcomes
Encyclopedia of Feeding and Eating Disorders
edited by Wade, T.
View details for DOI 10.1007/978-981-287-087-2_58-1
Incorporating social support in the treatment of anorexia nervosa: Special considerations for older adolescents and young adults.
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cbpra.2015.09.002
All Better? How Former Anorexia Nervosa Patients Define Recovery and Engaged in Treatment
EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW
2010; 18 (4): 260-270
The purpose of this study was to explore how individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in treatment and define recovery. A mixed methods design was used to triangulate the experience of 20 women with a history of AN. Interview data were analysed thematically to explore frequency of emergent themes and current eating disorder psychopathology was assessed using standardized self-report measures. Participants' mean age was 29.35 (SD = 12.11). Participants' scores were indicative of persistent psychopathology. Those with more involvement in treatment choice had better motivation to change and normalized eating. Participants' definition of recovery mapped on well to current research conceptualizations, though a substantial proportion of the group expressed some ambivalence around the concept. Results are interpreted in the context of self-determination theory of motivation and suggest that patients should be involved collaboratively in the formulation of shared goals and concepts of recovery in treatment settings.
View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.1020
View details for Web of Science ID 000280080100003
View details for PubMedID 20589765
A Controlled Trial of the Methylphenidate Transdermal System on Before-School Functioning in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY
2010; 71 (5): 548-556
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently manifest behavioral difficulties in the morning prior to school. Our aim was to examine the effects of the methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on before-school ADHD symptoms and functioning in children with ADHD.In this randomized crossover study, conducted from May 2007 until December 2008, 6- to 12-year-old subjects with DSM-IV-defined ADHD received either MTS or a placebo transdermal system (PTS) at 10 mg for 1 week and then 20 mg for 1 week. Subjects were then crossed over directly to the other treatment for the remaining 2 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the ADHD Rating Scale. All analyses were intent to treat, with the last observation carried forward.Thirty subjects completed at least 1 week of treatment, and 26 subjects completed the entire protocol. The sample was primarily male, with a mean +/- SD age of 9.17 +/- 1.84 years. Compared to PTS, there were significant reductions with MTS in the ADHD Rating Scale score (P < .001). Adverse effects of MTS during the active (versus PTS) phase were similar to those seen in other controlled trials of MTS.These results show that MTS is effective not only for morning ADHD symptoms, but also in improving associated activities and functioning that occur before school in children with ADHD.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00586157.
View details for DOI 10.4088/JCP.09m05779pur
View details for Web of Science ID 000277946400006
View details for PubMedID 20492851
An Open Study of Adjunct OROS-Methylphenidate in Children Who Are Atomoxetine Partial Responders: II. Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics
JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
2009; 19 (5): 493-499
The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerability of adding OROS methylphenidate (MPH) to children who are partial responders to atomoxetine (ATMX) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).This was a two-phase, 7-week, open study in children aged 6-17 years. Phase 1 initiated ATMX for a minimum of 4 weeks. Phase 2 entered partial responders to ATMX and added OROS MPH to their regimen. Safety was assessed using blood pressure and heart rate measurements, electrocardiogram readings, AEs, laboratories, and ATMX levels.Fifty subjects who were partial responders to ATMX received the combination therapy, with 41 subjects completing the entire protocol. As reported elsewhere (Wilens et al., 2009 ), OROS MPH added to partial responders of ATMX was accompanied by a 40% reduction in the ADHD rating scale score and improvements in executive functioning. However, the combination of ATMX plus OROS MPH was associated with greater rates of insomnia, irritability, and loss of appetite compared to ATMX alone. A small significant increase in diastolic blood pressure was observed during adjunctive OROS MPH, with no clinically meaningful changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters during the study. ATMX levels and liver function tests did not significantly change during the combination treatment.Adjunct OROS MPH in ATMX partial responders yielded an additive adverse effect burden in this short-term study. Further controlled research with larger samples of children is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1089/cap.2008.0126
View details for Web of Science ID 000271392100003
View details for PubMedID 19877973
An Open Study of Adjunct OROS-Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents Who Are Atomoxetine Partial Responders: I. Effectiveness
JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
2009; 19 (5): 485-492
This study evaluated the effectiveness of adding OROS methylphenidate (MPH) to children who are partial responders to atomoxetine (ATMX) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).This is a two-phase, 7-week, open study in children aged 6-17 years. Phase I initiated ATMX for a minimum of 4 weeks. Phase II entered partial responders to ATMX and added up to 54 mg of OROS MPH to their regimen. Subjects were assessed on multiple outcomes, including ADHD, executive functioning, and adverse effects. All analyses were intent to treat, with last observation carried forward.Fifty subjects who were partial responders to ATMX were treated with the combination therapy, with 41 subjects completing the entire protocol. There was a 40% reduction in their ADHD Rating Scale from the start of phase II through the end of study (from 21.14 +/- 9.9 to 12.8 +/- 9.7, t = 6.5, p < 0.0001). In addition, there was a clinically significant reduction in the Clinical Global Index of ADHD severity from moderate to mild ADHD (start of phase II, 3.7; end of phase II, 2.7, 27%, t = 6.5, p < 0.0001), as well as improvements in executive functioning.These results suggest that OROS MPH added to the regimen of partial responders to ATMX improves ADHD and executive functioning, necessitating further controlled trials.
View details for DOI 10.1089/cap.2008.0125
View details for Web of Science ID 000271392100002
View details for PubMedID 19877972
Cigarette smoking associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
2008; 153 (3): 414-419
To evaluate the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and severity of physical dependence on nicotine in a controlled study of adolescents and young adults with ADHD.In controlled longitudinal family studies of ADHD, we examined self-reports on the modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ) for degrees of physical dependence on nicotine.We obtained mFTQ data from 80 ADHD probands and 86 control probands (mean age, 19.2 years). The smokers with ADHD had significantly higher scores on the mFTQ, indicative of more severe physical dependence on nicotine. Similarly, in current smokers, a positive linear relationship was found between mFTQ score and both inattentive and hyperactive ADHD symptoms. Environmental factors, such as current parental smoking, peer smoking, and living with a smoker, all increased the risk for smoking in those with ADHD compared with controls.Male and female smokers with ADHD manifest more severe physical dependence on smoking compared with controls. Important environmental factors appear to add to the risk of smoking associated with ADHD.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.04.030
View details for Web of Science ID 000259207700024
View details for PubMedID 18534619
Misuse and diversion of stimulants prescribed for ADHD: A systematic review of the literature
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY
2008; 47 (1): 21-31
Recent studies have provided variable information on the frequency and context of diversion and the use of nonprescribed and prescribed stimulant medications in adolescent and young adult populations. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature is to evaluate the extent and characteristics of stimulant misuse and diversion in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD individuals.We conducted a systematic review of the literature of available studies looking at misuse and diversion of prescription ADHD medications using misuse, diversion, stimulants, illicit use, and ADHD medications as key words for the search.We identified 21 studies representing 113,104 subjects. The studies reported rates of past year nonprescribed stimulant use to range from 5% to 9% in grade school- and high school-age children and 5% to 35% in college-age individuals. Lifetime rates of diversion ranged from 16% to 29% of students with stimulant prescriptions asked to give, sell, or trade their medications. Recent work suggests that whites, members of fraternities and sororities, individuals with lower grade point averages, use of immediate-release compared to extended-release preparations, and individuals who report ADHD symptoms are at highest risk for misusing and diverting stimulants. Reported reasons for use, misuse, and diversion of stimulants include to concentrate, improve alertness, "get high," or to experiment.The literature suggests that individuals both with and without ADHD misuse stimulant medications. Recent work has begun to document the context, motivation, and demographic profile of those most at risk for using, misusing, and diverting stimulants. The literature highlights the need to carefully monitor high-risk individuals for the use of nonprescribed stimulants and educate individuals with ADHD as to the pitfalls of the misuse and diversion of the stimulants.
View details for DOI 10.1097/chi.0b01361815a56f1
View details for Web of Science ID 000251827300005
View details for PubMedID 18174822