Christopher Gardner, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Cardiometabolic Effects of Omnivorous vs Vegan Diets in Identical Twins: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA network open
2023; 6 (11): e2344457
Increasing evidence suggests that, compared with an omnivorous diet, a vegan diet confers potential cardiovascular benefits from improved diet quality (ie, higher consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits, whole grains, nuts, and seeds).To compare the effects of a healthy vegan vs healthy omnivorous diet on cardiometabolic measures during an 8-week intervention.This single-center, population-based randomized clinical trial of 22 pairs of twins (N = 44) randomized participants to a vegan or omnivorous diet (1 twin per diet). Participant enrollment began March 28, 2022, and continued through May 5, 2022. The date of final follow-up data collection was July 20, 2022. This 8-week, open-label, parallel, dietary randomized clinical trial compared the health impact of a vegan diet vs an omnivorous diet in identical twins. Primary analysis included all available data.Twin pairs were randomized to follow a healthy vegan diet or a healthy omnivorous diet for 8 weeks. Diet-specific meals were provided via a meal delivery service from baseline through week 4, and from weeks 5 to 8 participants prepared their own diet-appropriate meals and snacks.The primary outcome was difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration from baseline to end point (week 8). Secondary outcome measures were changes in cardiometabolic factors (plasma lipids, glucose, and insulin levels and serum trimethylamine N-oxide level), plasma vitamin B12 level, and body weight. Exploratory measures were adherence to study diets, ease or difficulty in following the diets, participant energy levels, and sense of well-being.A total of 22 pairs (N = 44) of twins (34 [77.3%] female; mean [SD] age, 39.6 [12.7] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 25.9 [4.7]) were enrolled in the study. After 8 weeks, compared with twins randomized to an omnivorous diet, the twins randomized to the vegan diet experienced significant mean (SD) decreases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (-13.9 [5.8] mg/dL; 95% CI, -25.3 to -2.4 mg/dL), fasting insulin level (-2.9 [1.3] μIU/mL; 95% CI, -5.3 to -0.4 μIU/mL), and body weight (-1.9 [0.7] kg; 95% CI, -3.3 to -0.6 kg).In this randomized clinical trial of the cardiometabolic effects of omnivorous vs vegan diets in identical twins, the healthy vegan diet led to improved cardiometabolic outcomes compared with a healthy omnivorous diet. Clinicians can consider this dietary approach as a healthy alternative for their patients.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05297825.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.44457
View details for PubMedID 38032644
Culturally Tailoring Plant-Based Nutrition Interventions for Hispanic/Latino Adults at Risk for or With Type 2 Diabetes: An Integrative Review
HISPANIC HEALTH CARE INTERNATIONAL
2023; 21 (2): 89-103
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence continues to increase among Hispanic/Latino adults. The purpose of this study was to explore and analyze literature on culturally tailored nutrition interventions to identify how to best implement a whole food plant-based (WFPB) culinary intervention to improve health outcomes for Hispanic/Latino adults at risk for developing or diagnosed with T2DM. Methods: A methodological review was performed by searching PubMed, CINAHL Complete, PsycINFO, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts. Inclusion criteria consisted of peer-reviewed articles in English, from January 2009 to January 2020, using the search terms: "Hispanic adults or Latino adults", "culturally tailored or ethnic", "diabetes", "dietary or nutrition", "intervention", and "vegan or plant based". Studies included adults at risk for/diagnosed with T2DM. Results: Of 1,474 articles retrieved, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Four main themes were identified: participant interest, feasibility of intervention, development and implementation of intervention, and impact of the intervention. Conclusion: Further research should focus on culturally tailored nutrition interventions and use of a WFPB diet to reduce risk for T2DM in Hispanic/Latino adults. Continued discussion should be patient- and community-centered to promote equity, health, and disease prevention through the use of culturally tailored methods and design, not only limited to curriculum and language.
View details for DOI 10.1177/15404153221085696
View details for Web of Science ID 000971125500006
View details for PubMedID 35257611