I'm a Ph.D candidate in Department of Energy Science and Engineering at Stanford University researching carbon-constrained energy and transport systems. I study how to reliably move away from fossil fuels while improving public health, consumer affordability, and system economics. My research is advised by Prof. InĂªs Azevedo.

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All Publications

  • Distributional impacts of fleet-wide change in light duty transportation: mortality risks of PM<sub>2.5</sub> emissions from electric vehicles and Tier 3 conventional vehicles ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Singh, M., Tessum, C. W., Marshall, J. D., Azevedo, I. L. 2024; 19 (3)
  • Ensuring greenhouse gas reductions from electric vehicles compared to hybrid gasoline vehicles requires a cleaner U.S. electricity grid. Scientific reports Singh, M., Yuksel, T., Michalek, J. J., Azevedo, I. M. 2024; 14 (1): 1639


    Emissions from electric vehicles depend on when they are charged and which power plants meet the electricity demand. We introduce a new metric, the critical emissions factors (CEFs), as the emissions intensity of electricity that needs to be achieved when charging to ensure electric vehicles achieve lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions parity with some of the most efficient gasoline hybrid vehicles across the United States. We use a consequential framework, consider 2018 as our reference year, and account for the effects of temperature and drive cycle on vehicle efficiency to account for regional climate and use conditions. We find that the Nissan Leaf and Chevy Bolt battery electric vehicles reduce lifecycle emissions relative to Toyota Prius and Honda Accord gasoline hybrids in most of the United States. However, in rural counties of the Midwest and the South, power grid marginal emissions reductions of up to 208 gCO2/kWh are still needed for these electric vehicles to have lower lifecycle emissions than gasoline hybrids. Except for the Northeast and Florida, the longer-range Tesla Model S battery-electric luxury sedan has higher emissions than the hybrids across the U.S., and the emissions intensity of the grid would need to decrease by up to 342 gCO2/kWh in some locations for it to achieve carbon parity with hybrid gasoline vehicles. Finally, we conclude that coal retirements and stricter standards on fossil fuel generators are more effective in the medium term at reducing consequential electric vehicle emissions than expansion of renewable capacity.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-024-51697-1

    View details for PubMedID 38238349