All Publications

  • Predicting breast tumor proliferation from whole-slide images: The TUPAC16 challenge. Medical image analysis Veta, M., Heng, Y. J., Stathonikos, N., Bejnordi, B. E., Beca, F., Wollmann, T., Rohr, K., Shah, M. A., Wang, D., Rousson, M., Hedlund, M., Tellez, D., Ciompi, F., Zerhouni, E., Lanyi, D., Viana, M., Kovalev, V., Liauchuk, V., Phoulady, H. A., Qaiser, T., Graham, S., Rajpoot, N., Sjöblom, E., Molin, J., Paeng, K., Hwang, S., Park, S., Jia, Z., Chang, E. I., Xu, Y., Beck, A. H., van Diest, P. J., Pluim, J. P. 2019; 54: 111–21


    Tumor proliferation is an important biomarker indicative of the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Assessment of tumor proliferation in a clinical setting is a highly subjective and labor-intensive task. Previous efforts to automate tumor proliferation assessment by image analysis only focused on mitosis detection in predefined tumor regions. However, in a real-world scenario, automatic mitosis detection should be performed in whole-slide images (WSIs) and an automatic method should be able to produce a tumor proliferation score given a WSI as input. To address this, we organized the TUmor Proliferation Assessment Challenge 2016 (TUPAC16) on prediction of tumor proliferation scores from WSIs. The challenge dataset consisted of 500 training and 321 testing breast cancer histopathology WSIs. In order to ensure fair and independent evaluation, only the ground truth for the training dataset was provided to the challenge participants. The first task of the challenge was to predict mitotic scores, i.e., to reproduce the manual method of assessing tumor proliferation by a pathologist. The second task was to predict the gene expression based PAM50 proliferation scores from the WSI. The best performing automatic method for the first task achieved a quadratic-weighted Cohen's kappa score of κ = 0.567, 95% CI [0.464, 0.671] between the predicted scores and the ground truth. For the second task, the predictions of the top method had a Spearman's correlation coefficient of r = 0.617, 95% CI [0.581 0.651] with the ground truth. This was the first comparison study that investigated tumor proliferation assessment from WSIs. The achieved results are promising given the difficulty of the tasks and weakly-labeled nature of the ground truth. However, further research is needed to improve the practical utility of image analysis methods for this task.

    View details for PubMedID 30861443

  • Accurate Influenza Monitoring and Forecasting Using Novel Internet Data Streams: A Case Study in the Boston Metropolis. JMIR public health and surveillance Lu, F. S., Hou, S., Baltrusaitis, K., Shah, M., Leskovec, J., Sosic, R., Hawkins, J., Brownstein, J., Conidi, G., Gunn, J., Gray, J., Zink, A., Santillana, M. 2018; 4 (1): e4


    BACKGROUND: Influenza outbreaks pose major challenges to public health around the world, leading to thousands of deaths a year in the United States alone. Accurate systems that track influenza activity at the city level are necessary to provide actionable information that can be used for clinical, hospital, and community outbreak preparation.OBJECTIVE: Although Internet-based real-time data sources such as Google searches and tweets have been successfully used to produce influenza activity estimates ahead of traditional health care-based systems at national and state levels, influenza tracking and forecasting at finer spatial resolutions, such as the city level, remain an open question. Our study aimed to present a precise, near real-time methodology capable of producing influenza estimates ahead of those collected and published by the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC) for the Boston metropolitan area. This approach has great potential to be extended to other cities with access to similar data sources.METHODS: We first tested the ability of Google searches, Twitter posts, electronic health records, and a crowd-sourced influenza reporting system to detect influenza activity in the Boston metropolis separately. We then adapted a multivariate dynamic regression method named ARGO (autoregression with general online information), designed for tracking influenza at the national level, and showed that it effectively uses the above data sources to monitor and forecast influenza at the city level 1 week ahead of the current date. Finally, we presented an ensemble-based approach capable of combining information from models based on multiple data sources to more robustly nowcast as well as forecast influenza activity in the Boston metropolitan area. The performances of our models were evaluated in an out-of-sample fashion over 4 influenza seasons within 2012-2016, as well as a holdout validation period from 2016 to 2017.RESULTS: Our ensemble-based methods incorporating information from diverse models based on multiple data sources, including ARGO, produced the most robust and accurate results. The observed Pearson correlations between our out-of-sample flu activity estimates and those historically reported by the BPHC were 0.98 in nowcasting influenza and 0.94 in forecasting influenza 1 week ahead of the current date.CONCLUSIONS: We show that information from Internet-based data sources, when combined using an informed, robust methodology, can be effectively used as early indicators of influenza activity at fine geographic resolutions.

    View details for PubMedID 29317382

  • Deep Learning Assessment of Tumor Proliferation in Breast Cancer Histological Images Shah, M., Wang, D., Rubadue, C., Suster, D., Beck, A., Hu, X. H., Shyu, C. R., Bromberg, Y., Gao, J., Gong, Y., Korkin, D., Yoo, Zheng, J. H. IEEE. 2017: 600–603