CNS myelination requires VAMP2/3-mediated membrane expansion in oligodendrocytes.
2022; 13 (1): 5583
Myelin is required for rapid nerve signaling and is emerging as a key driver of CNS plasticity and disease. How myelin is built and remodeled remains a fundamental question of neurobiology. Central to myelination is the ability of oligodendrocytes to add vast amounts of new cell membrane, expanding their surface areas by many thousand-fold. However, how oligodendrocytes add new membrane to build or remodel myelin is not fully understood. Here, we show that CNS myelin membrane addition requires exocytosis mediated by the vesicular SNARE proteins VAMP2/3. Genetic inactivation of VAMP2/3 in myelinating oligodendrocytes caused severe hypomyelination and premature death without overt loss of oligodendrocytes. Through live imaging, we discovered that VAMP2/3-mediated exocytosis drives membrane expansion within myelin sheaths to initiate wrapping and power sheath elongation. In conjunction with membrane expansion, mass spectrometry of oligodendrocyte surface proteins revealed that VAMP2/3 incorporates axon-myelin adhesion proteins that are collectively required to form nodes of Ranvier. Together, our results demonstrate that VAMP2/3-mediated membrane expansion in oligodendrocytes is indispensable for myelin formation, uncovering a cellular pathway that could sculpt myelination patterns in response to activity-dependent signals or be therapeutically targeted to promote regeneration in disease.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-022-33200-4
View details for PubMedID 36151203
Young CSF restores oligodendrogenesis and memory in aged mice via Fgf17.
Recent understanding of how the systemic environment shapes the brain throughout life has led to numerous intervention strategies to slow brain ageing1-3. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) makes up the immediate environment of brain cells, providing them with nourishing compounds4,5. We discovered that infusing young CSF directly into aged brains improves memory function. Unbiased transcriptome analysis of the hippocampus identified oligodendrocytes to be most responsive to this rejuvenated CSF environment. We further showed that young CSF boosts oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation and differentiation in the aged hippocampus and in primary OPC cultures. Using SLAMseq to metabolically label nascent mRNA, we identified serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor that drives actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, as a mediator of OPC proliferation following exposure to young CSF. With age, SRF expression decreases in hippocampal OPCs, and the pathway is induced by acute injection with young CSF. We screened for potential SRF activators in CSF and found that fibroblast growth factor 17 (Fgf17) infusion is sufficient to induce OPC proliferation and long-term memory consolidation in aged mice while Fgf17 blockade impairs cognition in young mice. These findings demonstrate the rejuvenating power of young CSF and identify Fgf17 as a key target to restore oligodendrocyte function in the ageing brain.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-04722-0
View details for PubMedID 35545674
Clonally Expanded B Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Bind EBV EBNA1 and GlialCAM.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogenous autoimmune disease in which autoreactive lymphocytes attack the myelin sheath of the central nervous system (CNS). B lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients contribute to inflammation and secrete oligoclonal immunoglobulins1,2. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been linked to MS epidemiologically, but its pathological role remains unclear3. Here we demonstrate high-affinity molecular mimicry between the EBV transcription factor EBNA1 and the CNS protein GlialCAM, and provide structural and in-vivo functional evidence for its relevance. A cross-reactive CSF-derived antibody was initially identified by single-cell sequencing of the paired-chain B cell repertoire of MS blood and CSF, followed by protein microarray-based testing of recombinantly expressed CSF-derived antibodies against MS-associated viruses. Sequence analysis, affinity measurements, and the crystal structure of the EBNA1-peptide epitope in complex with the autoreactive Fab fragment allowed for tracking the development of the naïve EBNA1-restricted antibody to a mature EBNA1/GlialCAM cross-reactive antibody. Molecular mimicry is facilitated by a post-translational modification of GlialCAM. EBNA1 immunization exacerbates the mouse model of MS and anti-EBNA1/GlialCAM antibodies are prevalent in MS patients. Our results provide a mechanistic link for the association between MS and EBV, and could guide the development of novel MS therapies.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-04432-7
View details for PubMedID 35073561
Identification of discrete, intermingled hypocretin neuronal populations
JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY
2018; 526 (18): 2937–54
Neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area that express hypocretin (Hcrt) neuropeptides help regulate many behaviors including wakefulness and reward seeking. These neurons project throughout the brain, including to neural populations that regulate wakefulness, such as the locus coeruleus (LC) and tuberomammilary nucleus (TMN), as well as to populations that regulate reward, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). To address the roles of Hcrt neurons in seemingly disparate behaviors, it has been proposed that Hcrt neurons can be anatomically subdivided into at least two distinct subpopulations: a "medial group" that projects to the LC and TMN, and a "lateral group" that projects to the NAc and VTA. Here, we use a dual retrograde tracer strategy to test the hypotheses that Hcrt neurons can be classified based on their downstream projections and medial/lateral location within the hypothalamus. We found that individual Hcrt neurons were significantly more likely to project to both the LC and TMN or to both the VTA and NAc than would be predicted by chance. In contrast, we found that Hcrt neurons that projected to the LC or TMN were mostly distinct from Hcrt neurons that projected to the VTA or NAc. Interestingly, these two populations of Hcrt neurons are intermingled within the hypothalamus and cannot be classified into medial or lateral groups. These results suggest that Hcrt neurons can be distinguished based on their downstream projections but are intermingled within the hypothalamus.
View details for DOI 10.1002/cne.24490
View details for Web of Science ID 000452567100002
View details for PubMedID 30019757
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6283691
Tet2 Rescues Age-Related Regenerative Decline and Enhances Cognitive Function in the Adult Mouse Brain
2018; 22 (8): 1974–81
Restoring adult stem cell function provides an exciting approach for rejuvenating the aging brain. However, molecular mechanisms mediating neurogenic rejuvenation remain elusive. Here we report that the enzyme ten eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (Tet2), which catalyzes the production of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), rescues age-related decline in adult neurogenesis and enhances cognition in mice. We detected a decrease in Tet2 expression and 5hmC levels in the aged hippocampus associated with adult neurogenesis. Mimicking an aged condition in young adults by abrogating Tet2 expression within the hippocampal neurogenic niche, or adult neural stem cells, decreased neurogenesis and impaired learning and memory. In a heterochronic parabiosis rejuvenation model, hippocampal Tet2 expression was restored. Overexpressing Tet2 in the hippocampal neurogenic niche of mature adults increased 5hmC associated with neurogenic processes, offset the precipitous age-related decline in neurogenesis, and enhanced learning and memory. Our data identify Tet2 as a key molecular mediator of neurogenic rejuvenation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.02.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000425489700004
View details for PubMedID 29466726
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5870899
Gpr126 Is Critical for Schwann Cell Function during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
2017; 37 (12): 3106–8
View details for PubMedID 28330980