All Publications


  • Altered Cortical Brain Structure and Increased Risk for Disease Seen Decades After Perinatal Exposure to Maternal Smoking: A Study of 9000 Adults in the UK Biobank. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) Salminen, L. E., Wilcox, R. R., Zhu, A. H., Riedel, B. C., Ching, C. R., Rashid, F., Thomopoulos, S. I., Saremi, A., Harrison, M. B., Ragothaman, A., Knight, V., Boyle, C. P., Medland, S. E., Thompson, P. M., Jahanshad, N. 2019

    Abstract

    Secondhand smoke exposure is a major public health risk that is especially harmful to the developing brain, but it is unclear if early exposure affects brain structure during middle age and older adulthood. Here we analyzed brain MRI data from the UK Biobank in a population-based sample of individuals (ages 44-80) who were exposed (n = 2510) or unexposed (n = 6079) to smoking around birth. We used robust statistical models, including quantile regressions, to test the effect of perinatal smoke exposure (PSE) on cortical surface area (SA), thickness, and subcortical volumes. We hypothesized that PSE would be associated with cortical disruption in primary sensory areas compared to unexposed (PSE-) adults. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, SA was significantly lower in the pericalcarine (PCAL), inferior parietal (IPL), and regions of the temporal and frontal cortex of PSE+ adults; these abnormalities were associated with increased risk for several diseases, including circulatory and endocrine conditions. Sensitivity analyses conducted in a hold-out group of healthy participants (exposed, n = 109, unexposed, n = 315) replicated the effect of PSE on SA in the PCAL and IPL. Collectively our results show a negative, long term effect of PSE on sensory cortices that may increase risk for disease later in life.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cercor/bhz060

    View details for PubMedID 31271414

  • Retrosplenial Cortical Neurons Encode Navigational Cues, Trajectories and Reward Locations During Goal Directed Navigation. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) Vedder, L. C., Miller, A. M., Harrison, M. B., Smith, D. M. 2016: -?

    Abstract

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) plays an important role in memory and spatial navigation. It shares functional similarities with the hippocampus, including the presence of place fields and lesion-induced impairments in spatial navigation, and the RSC is an important source of visual-spatial input to the hippocampus. Recently, the RSC has been the target of intense scrutiny among investigators of human memory and navigation. fMRI and lesion data suggest an RSC role in the ability to use landmarks to navigate to goal locations. However, no direct neurophysiological evidence of encoding navigational cues has been reported so the specific RSC contribution to spatial cognition has been uncertain. To examine this, we trained rats on a T-maze task in which the reward location was explicitly cued by a flashing light and we recorded RSC neurons as the rats learned. We found that RSC neurons rapidly encoded the light cue. Additionally, RSC neurons encoded the reward and its location, and they showed distinct firing patterns along the left and right trajectories to the goal. These responses may provide key information for goal-directed navigation, and the loss of these signals may underlie navigational impairments in subjects with RSC damage.

    View details for PubMedID 27473323