All Publications

  • Imaging the electron charge density in monolayer MoS2 at the Ångstrom scale. Nature communications Martis, J., Susarla, S., Rayabharam, A., Su, C., Paule, T., Pelz, P., Huff, C., Xu, X., Li, H. K., Jaikissoon, M., Chen, V., Pop, E., Saraswat, K., Zettl, A., Aluru, N. R., Ramesh, R., Ercius, P., Majumdar, A. 2023; 14 (1): 4363


    Four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D-STEM) has recently gained widespread attention for its ability to image atomic electric fields with sub-Ångstrom spatial resolution. These electric field maps represent the integrated effect of the nucleus, core electrons and valence electrons, and separating their contributions is non-trivial. In this paper, we utilized simultaneously acquired 4D-STEM center of mass (CoM) images and annular dark field (ADF) images to determine the projected electron charge density in monolayer MoS2. We evaluate the contributions of both the core electrons and the valence electrons to the derived electron charge density; however, due to blurring by the probe shape, the valence electron contribution forms a nearly featureless background while most of the spatial modulation comes from the core electrons. Our findings highlight the importance of probe shape in interpreting charge densities derived from 4D-STEM and the need for smaller electron probes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-023-39304-9

    View details for PubMedID 37474521

  • Fast-Response Flexible Temperature Sensors with Atomically Thin Molybdenum Disulfide. Nano letters Daus, A., Jaikissoon, M., Khan, A. I., Kumar, A., Grady, R. W., Saraswat, K. C., Pop, E. 2022


    Real-time thermal sensing on flexible substrates could enable a plethora of new applications. However, achieving fast, sub-millisecond response times even in a single sensor is difficult, due to the thermal mass of the sensor and encapsulation. Here, we fabricate flexible monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) temperature sensors and arrays, which can detect temperature changes within a few microseconds, over 100× faster than flexible thin-film metal sensors. Thermal simulations indicate the sensors' response time is only limited by the MoS2 interfaces and encapsulation. The sensors also have high temperature coefficient of resistance, ∼1-2%/K and stable operation upon cycling and long-term measurement when they are encapsulated with alumina. These results, together with their biocompatibility, make these devices excellent candidates for biomedical sensor arrays and many other Internet of Things applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c01344

    View details for PubMedID 35899996

  • Toward Low-Temperature Solid-Source Synthesis of Monolayer MoS2. ACS applied materials & interfaces Tang, A., Kumar, A., Jaikissoon, M., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. P., Pop, E. 2021


    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have been proposed for heterogeneous integration with existing silicon technology; however, their chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth temperatures are often too high. Here, we demonstrate direct CVD solid-source precursor synthesis of continuous monolayer (1L) MoS2 films at 560 °C in 50 min, within the 450-to-600 °C, 2 h thermal budget window required for back-end-of-the-line compatibility with modern silicon technology. Transistor measurements reveal on-state current up to 140 muA/mum at 1 V drain-to-source voltage for 100 nm channel lengths, the highest reported to date for 1L MoS2 grown below 600 °C using solid-source precursors. The effective mobility from transfer length method test structures is 29 ± 5 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 6.1 * 1012 cm-2 electron density, which is comparable to mobilities reported from films grown at higher temperatures. The results of this work provide a path toward the realization of high-quality, thermal-budget-compatible 2D semiconductors for heterogeneous integration with silicon manufacturing.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsami.1c06812

    View details for PubMedID 34427445