All Publications

  • Personal identifiability of user tracking data during observation of 360-degree VR video. Scientific reports Miller, M. R., Herrera, F., Jun, H., Landay, J. A., Bailenson, J. N. 2020; 10 (1): 17404


    Virtual reality (VR) is a technology that is gaining traction in the consumer market. With it comes an unprecedented ability to track body motions. These body motions are diagnostic of personal identity, medical conditions, and mental states. Previous work has focused on the identifiability of body motions in idealized situations in which some action is chosen by the study designer. In contrast, our work tests the identifiability of users under typical VR viewing circumstances, with no specially designed identifying task. Out of a pool of 511 participants, the system identifies 95% of users correctly when trained on less than 5min of tracking data per person. We argue these results show nonverbal data should be understood by the public and by researchers as personally identifying data.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-74486-y

    View details for PubMedID 33060713

  • Social interaction in augmented reality PLOS ONE Miller, M., Jun, H., Herrera, F., Villa, J., Welch, G., Bailenson, J. N. 2019; 14 (5)
  • Social interaction in augmented reality. PloS one Miller, M. R., Jun, H., Herrera, F., Yu Villa, J., Welch, G., Bailenson, J. N. 2019; 14 (5): e0216290


    There have been decades of research on the usability and educational value of augmented reality. However, less is known about how augmented reality affects social interactions. The current paper presents three studies that test the social psychological effects of augmented reality. Study 1 examined participants' task performance in the presence of embodied agents and replicated the typical pattern of social facilitation and inhibition. Participants performed a simple task better, but a hard task worse, in the presence of an agent compared to when participants complete the tasks alone. Study 2 examined nonverbal behavior. Participants met an agent sitting in one of two chairs and were asked to choose one of the chairs to sit on. Participants wearing the headset never sat directly on the agent when given the choice of two seats, and while approaching, most of the participants chose the rotation direction to avoid turning their heads away from the agent. A separate group of participants chose a seat after removing the augmented reality headset, and the majority still avoided the seat previously occupied by the agent. Study 3 examined the social costs of using an augmented reality headset with others who are not using a headset. Participants talked in dyads, and augmented reality users reported less social connection to their partner compared to those not using augmented reality. Overall, these studies provide evidence suggesting that task performance, nonverbal behavior, and social connectedness are significantly affected by the presence or absence of virtual content.

    View details for PubMedID 31086381

  • Grabity: A Wearable Haptic Interface for Simulating Weight and Grasping in Virtual Reality Choi, I., Culbertson, H., Miller, M. R., Olwal, A., Follmer, S., ACM ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2017: 119-130