An Integrated Genomic, Proteomic, and Immunopeptidomic Approach to Discover Treatment-Induced Neoantigens.
Frontiers in immunology
2021; 12: 662443
All nucleated mammalian cells express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins that present peptides on cell surfaces for immune surveillance. These MHC-presented peptides (pMHC) are necessary for directing T-cell responses against cells harboring non-self antigens derived from pathogens or from somatic mutations. Alterations in tumor-specific antigen repertoires - particularly novel MHC presentation of mutation-bearing peptides (neoantigens) - can be potent targets of anti-tumor immune responses. Here we employed an integrated genomic and proteomic antigen discovery strategy aimed at measuring how interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) alters antigen presentation, using a human lymphoma cell line, GRANTA-519. IFN-gamma treatment resulted in 126 differentially expressed proteins (2% of all quantified proteins), which included components of antigen presentation machinery and interferon signaling pathways, and MHC molecules themselves. In addition, several proteasome subunits were found to be modulated, consistent with previous reports of immunoproteasome induction by IFN-gamma exposure. This finding suggests that a modest proteomic response to IFN-gamma could create larger alteration to cells' antigen/epitope repertoires. Accordingly, MHC immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric analysis of eluted peptide repertoires revealed exclusive signatures of IFN-gamma induction, with 951 unique peptides reproducibly presented by MHC-I and 582 presented by MHC-II. Furthermore, an additional set of pMHCs including several candidate neoantigens, distinguished control and the IFN-gamma samples by their altered relative abundances. Accordingly, we developed a classification system to distinguish peptides which are differentially presented due to altered expression from novel peptides resulting from changes in antigen processing. Taken together, these data demonstrate that IFN-gamma can re-shape antigen repertoires by identity and by abundance. Extending this approach to models with greater clinical relevance could help develop strategies by which immunopeptide repertoires are intentionally reshaped to improve endogenous or vaccine-induced anti-tumor immune responses and potentially anti-viral immune responses.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2021.662443
View details for PubMedID 33936100
Automated Ligand Purification Platform Accelerates Immunopeptidome Analysis by Mass Spectrometry.
Journal of proteome research
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-presented peptides (pMHC) give insight into T cell immune responses, a critical step toward developing a new generation of targeted immunotherapies. Recent instrumentation advances have propelled mass spectrometry to being arguably the most robust technology for discovering and quantifying naturally presented pMHC from cells and tissues. However, sample preparation has remained a major limitation due to time-consuming and labor-intensive workflows. We developed a high-throughput and automated platform with enhanced speed, sensitivity, and reproducibility relative to prior studies. This pipeline is capable of processing up to 96 samples in 6 h or less yielding high-quality pMHC mixtures ready for mass spectrometry. Here, we describe our efforts to optimize purification and mass spectrometer parameters, ultimately allowing us to identify as many as almost 5000 pMHC I and 7400 pMHC II from as little as 2.5 * 107 Raji cells each. We believe that this platform will facilitate and accelerate immunopeptidome profiling and benefit clinical research for immunotherapies.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00464
View details for PubMedID 33331781
Bid maintains mitochondrial cristae structure and function and protects against cardiac disease in an integrative genomics study
Bcl-2 family proteins reorganize mitochondrial membranes during apoptosis, to form pores and rearrange cristae. In vitro and in vivo analysis integrated with human genetics reveals a novel homeostatic mitochondrial function for Bcl-2 family protein Bid. Loss of full-length Bid results in apoptosis-independent, irregular cristae with decreased respiration. Bid-/- mice display stress-induced myocardial dysfunction and damage. A gene-based approach applied to a biobank, validated in two independent GWAS studies, reveals that decreased genetically determined BID expression associates with myocardial infarction (MI) susceptibility. Patients in the bottom 5% of the expression distribution exhibit >4 fold increased MI risk. Carrier status with nonsynonymous variation in Bid's membrane binding domain, BidM148T, associates with MI predisposition. Furthermore, Bid but not BidM148T associates with Mcl-1Matrix, previously implicated in cristae stability; decreased MCL-1 expression associates with MI. Our results identify a role for Bid in homeostatic mitochondrial cristae reorganization, that we link to human cardiac disease.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.40907
View details for Web of Science ID 000449914200001
View details for PubMedID 30281024
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6234033