Ferumoxytol Is Not Retained in Kidney Allografts in Patients Undergoing Acute Rejection.
Molecular imaging and biology
To evaluate whether ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect allograft rejection in pediatric kidney transplant patients.The USPIO ferumoxytol has a long blood half-life and is phagocytosed by macrophages. In an IRB-approved single-center prospective clinical trial, 26 pediatric patients and adolescents (age 10-26 years) with acute allograft rejection (n = 5), non-rejecting allografts (n = 13), and normal native kidneys (n = 8) underwent multi-echo T2* fast spoiled gradient-echo (FSPGR) MRI after intravenous injection (p.i.) of 5 mg Fe/kg ferumoxytol. T2* relaxation times at 4 h p.i. (perfusion phase) and more than 20 h p.i. (macrophage phase) were compared with biopsy results. The presence of rejection was assessed using the Banff criteria, and the prevalence of macrophages on CD163 immunostains was determined based on a semi-quantitative scoring system. MRI and histology data were compared among patient groups using t tests, analysis of variance, and regression analyses with a significance threshold of p < 0.05.At 4 h p.i., mean T2* values were 6.6 ± 1.5 ms for native kidneys and 3.9 ms for one allograft undergoing acute immune rejection. Surprisingly, at 20-24 h p.i., one rejecting allograft showed significantly prolonged T2* relaxation times (37.0 ms) compared to native kidneys (6.3 ± 1.7 ms) and non-rejecting allografts (7.6 ± 0.1 ms). Likewise, three additional rejecting allografts showed significantly prolonged T2* relaxation times compared to non-rejecting allografts at later post-contrast time points, 25-97 h p.i. (p = 0.008). Histological analysis revealed edema and compressed microvessels in biopsies of rejecting allografts. Allografts with and without rejection showed insignificant differences in macrophage content on histopathology (p = 0.44).After ferumoxytol administration, renal allografts undergoing acute rejection show prolonged T2* values compared to non-rejecting allografts. Since histology revealed no significant differences in macrophage content, the increasing T2* value is likely due to the combined effect of reduced perfusion and increased edema in rejecting allografts.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-017-1084-8
View details for PubMedID 28411307
- How to Provide Gadolinium-Free PET/MR Cancer Staging of Children and Young Adults in Less than 1 h: the Stanford Approach Molecular Imaging and Biology 2017
Three-dimensional Radiologic Assessment of Chemotherapy Response in Ewing Sarcoma Can Be Used to Predict Clinical Outcome.
2016; 280 (3): 905-915
Purpose To compare the agreement of three-dimensional (3D) tumor measurements for therapeutic response assessment of Ewing sarcoma according to the Children's Oncology Group (COG) criteria, one-dimensional (1D) Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and two-dimensional (2D) measurements defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) with tumor volume measurements as the standard of reference and to determine which method correlates best with clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of three institutions. Seventy-four patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 14.5 years ± 6.5) with newly diagnosed Ewing sarcoma treated at three medical centers were evaluated. Primary tumor size was assessed on pre- and posttreatment magnetic resonance images according to 1D RECIST, 2D WHO, and 3D COG measurements. Tumor responses were compared with the standard of reference (tumor volume) on the basis of RECIST, COG, and WHO therapeutic response thresholds. Agreement between the percentage reduction measurements of the methods was assessed with concordance correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, and Spearman rank correlation. Agreement between therapeutic responses was assessed with Kendall tau and unweighted κ statistics. Tumor responses were compared with patient survival by using the log-rank test, Kaplan-Meier plots, and Cox regression. Results Agreement with the reference standard was significantly better for 3D measurement than for 1D and 2D measurements on the basis of RECIST and COG therapeutic response thresholds (concordance correlation of 0.41, 0.72, and 0.84 for 1D, 2D, and 3D measurements, respectively; P < .0001). Comparison of overall survival of responders and nonresponders demonstrated P values of .4133, .0112, .0032, and .0027 for 1D, 2D, 3D, and volume measurements, respectively, indicating that higher dimensional measurements were significantly better predictors of overall survival. Conclusion The 3D tumor measurements according to COG are better predictors of therapeutic response of Ewing sarcoma than 1D RECIST or 2D WHO measurements and show a significantly higher correlation with clinical outcomes. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2016151301
View details for PubMedID 26982677
Speeding up PET/MR for cancer staging of children and young adults.
Combining (18)F-FDG PET with whole-body MR for paediatric cancer staging is practically feasible if imaging protocols can be streamlined. We compared (18)F-FDG PET/STIR with accelerated (18)F-FDG PET/FSPGR for whole-body tumour imaging in children and young adults.Thirty-three children and young adults (17.5 ± 5.5 years, range 10-30) with malignant lymphoma or sarcoma underwent a (18)F-FDG PET staging examination, followed by ferumoxytol-enhanced STIR and FSPGR whole-body MR. (18)F-FDG PET scans were fused with MR data and the number and location of tumours on each integrated examination were determined. Histopathology and follow-up imaging served as standard of reference. The agreement of each MR sequence with the reference and whole-body imaging times were compared using Cohen's kappa coefficient and Student's t-test, respectively.Comparing (18)F-FDG PET/FSPGR to (18)F-FDG PET/STIR, sensitivities were 99.3 % for both, specificities were statistically equivalent, 99.8 versus 99.9 %, and the agreement with the reference based on Cohen's kappa coefficient was also statistically equivalent, 0.989 versus 0.992. However, the total scan-time for accelerated FSPGR of 19.8 ± 5.3 minutes was significantly shorter compared to 29.0 ± 7.6 minutes for STIR (p = 0.001).F-FDG PET/FSPGR demonstrated equivalent sensitivities and specificities for cancer staging compared to (18)F-FDG PET/STIR, but could be acquired with shorter acquisition time.• Breath-hold FSPGR sequences shorten the data acquisition time for whole-body MR and PET/MR. • Ferumoxytol provides long-lasting vascular contrast for whole-body MR and PET/MR. • (18) F-FDG PET/FSPGR data provided equal sensitivity and specificity for cancer staging compared to (18) F-FDG PET/STIR.
View details for PubMedID 27048532
- Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol. PloS one 2015; 10 (11)
Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol.
2015; 10 (11)
Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment.Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations.4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001). Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3) compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3). Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron.Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0142665
View details for PubMedID 26569397