Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Baleen whale prey consumption based on high-resolution foraging measurements. Nature Savoca, M. S., Czapanskiy, M. F., Kahane-Rapport, S. R., Gough, W. T., Fahlbusch, J. A., Bierlich, K. C., Segre, P. S., Di Clemente, J., Penry, G. S., Wiley, D. N., Calambokidis, J., Nowacek, D. P., Johnston, D. W., Pyenson, N. D., Friedlaender, A. S., Hazen, E. L., Goldbogen, J. A. 2021; 599 (7883): 85-90


    Baleen whales influence their ecosystems through immense prey consumption and nutrient recycling1-3. It is difficult to accurately gauge the magnitude of their current or historic ecosystem role without measuring feeding rates and prey consumed. To date, prey consumption of the largest species has been estimated using metabolic models3-9 based on extrapolations that lack empirical validation. Here, we used tags deployed on seven baleen whale (Mysticeti) species (n=321 tag deployments) in conjunction with acoustic measurements of prey density to calculate prey consumption at daily to annual scales from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans. Our results suggest that previous studies3-9 have underestimated baleen whale prey consumption by threefold or more in some ecosystems. In the Southern Ocean alone, we calculate that pre-whaling populations of mysticetes annually consumed 430million tonnes of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), twice the current estimated total biomass of E. superba10, and more than twice the global catch of marine fisheries today11. Larger whale populations may have supported higher productivity in large marine regions through enhanced nutrient recycling: our findings suggest mysticetes recycled 1.2*104tonnesironyr-1 in the Southern Ocean before whaling compared to 1.2*103tonnesironyr-1 recycled by whales today. The recovery of baleen whales and their nutrient recycling services2,3,7 could augment productivity and restore ecosystem function lost during 20th century whaling12,13.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-021-03991-5

    View details for PubMedID 34732868

  • Tools for integrating inertial sensor data with video bio-loggers, including estimation of animal orientation, motion, and position ANIMAL BIOTELEMETRY Cade, D. E., Gough, W. T., Czapanskiy, M. F., Fahlbusch, J. A., Kahane-Rapport, S. R., Linsky, J. J., Nichols, R. C., Oestreich, W. K., Wisniewska, D. M., Friedlaender, A. S., Goldbogen, J. A. 2021; 9 (1)
  • Scaling of oscillatory kinematics and Froude efficiency in baleen whales. The Journal of experimental biology Gough, W. T., Smith, H. J., Savoca, M. S., Czapanskiy, M. F., Fish, F. E., Potvin, J., Bierlich, K. C., Cade, D. E., Clemente, J. D., Kennedy, J., Segre, P., Stanworth, A., Weir, C., Goldbogen, J. A. 2021


    High efficiency lunate-tail swimming with high-aspect-ratio lifting surfaces has evolved in many vertebrate lineages, from fish to cetaceans. Baleen whales (Mysticeti) are the largest swimming animals that exhibit this locomotor strategy and present an ideal study system to examine how morphology and the kinematics of swimming scale to the largest body sizes. We used data from whale-borne inertial sensors coupled with morphometric measurements from aerial drones to calculate the hydrodynamic performance of oscillatory swimming in six baleen whale species ranging in body length from 5-25m (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; Bryde's whale, Balaenoptera edeni; sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis; Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis; humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae; and blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus). We find that mass-specific thrust increases with both swimming speed and body size. Froude efficiency, defined as the ratio of useful power output to the rate of energy input (Sloop, 1978), generally increased with swimming speed but decreased on average with increasing body size. This finding is contrary to previous results in smaller animals where Froude efficiency increased with body size. Although our empirically-parameterized estimates for swimming baleen whale drag was higher than that of a simple gliding model, oscillatory locomotion at this scale exhibits generally high Froude efficiency as in other adept swimmers. Our results quantify the fine-scale kinematics and estimate the hydrodynamics of routine and energetically expensive swimming modes at the largest scale.

    View details for DOI 10.1242/jeb.237586

    View details for PubMedID 34109418

  • Modelling short-term energetic costs of sonar disturbance to cetaceans using high-resolution foraging data JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY Czapanskiy, M. F., Savoca, M. S., Gough, W. T., Segre, P. S., Wisniewska, D. M., Cade, D. E., Goldbogen, J. A. 2021
  • Cervical air sac oxygen profiles in diving emperor penguins: parabronchial ventilation and the respiratory oxygen store. The Journal of experimental biology Williams, C. L., Czapanskiy, M. F., John, J. S., Leger, J. S., Scadeng, M. n., Ponganis, P. J. 2020


    Some marine birds and mammals can perform dives of extraordinary duration and depth. Such dive performance is dependent on many factors, including total body oxygen (O2) stores. For diving penguins, the respiratory system (air sacs and lungs) constitutes 30-50% of the total body O2 store. To better understand the role and mechanism of parabronchial ventilation and O2 utilization in penguins both on the surface and during the dive, we examined air sac partial pressures of O2 (PO2) in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) equipped with backpack PO2 recorders. Cervical air sac PO2s at rest were lower than in other birds, while the cervical air sac to posterior thoracic air sac PO2 difference was larger. Pre-dive cervical air sac PO2s were often greater than those at rest, but had a wide range and were not significantly different from those at rest. The maximum respiratory O2 store and total body O2 stores calculated with representative anterior and posterior air sac PO2 data did not differ from prior estimates. The mean calculated anterior air sac O2 depletion rate for dives up to 11 min was approximately one-tenth that of the posterior air sacs. Low cervical air sac PO2s at rest may be secondary to a low ratio of parabronchial ventilation to parabronchial blood O2 extraction. During dives, overlap of simultaneously recorded cervical and posterior thoracic air sac PO2 profiles supported the concept of maintenance of parabronchial ventilation during a dive by air movement through the lungs.

    View details for DOI 10.1242/jeb.230219

    View details for PubMedID 33257430