Clinical Focus

  • Contraception
  • Long-Acting Reversible Contraception
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders
  • Adolescent Medicine

Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society, University of Rochester School of Medicine (Inducted 2011)

Professional Education

  • Medical Education: University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry (2011) NY
  • Residency: UCSF Pediatric Department (2014) CA
  • Internship: UCSF Pediatric Department (2012) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine (2018)
  • Fellowship: UCSF Adolescent Medicine (2017) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2014)

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

  • Adolescent Medicine (Fellowship Program)

All Publications

  • Clinical Characteristics of US Adolescents Hospitalized for Eating Disorders 2010-2022. Hospital pediatrics Rappaport, D. I., O'Connor, M., Reedy, C., Vo, M. 2023


    Eating disorders (EDs) affect a substantial number of American adolescents, with an increasing number seeking care for EDs during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of adolescents hospitalized with EDs during 2010 to 2022.We used data from a national database of 12 children's hospitals (PEDSnet). Adolescents aged 12 to 21 years hospitalized for ED, disordered eating, binge ED, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), or other EDs were included. Patients with complex or chronic illness or with EDs hospitalized for another reason were excluded. We analyzed demographic data, clinical characteristics, cardiac manifestations, coexistence of psychiatric conditions, and hospital stay characteristics.We included 13 403 hospitalizations by 8652 patients in this study. We found a gradual increase in hospitalizations for patients with EDs before the pandemic and a large increase during the pandemic. Mean age was 15.8 years with 85.9% described as female and 71.8% as white. Anorexia nervosa was the most common ED (57.5%), though hospitalization for patients with ARFID is increasing. Patients' median BMI percentage was 90.3%. Patients' malnutrition was classified as none (50.9%), mild (25.0%), moderate (18.6%), or severe (5.4%). Significant numbers of patients had a diagnosis of depression (58.5%) or anxiety (57.0%); 21.9% had suicidal thoughts. Nearly one-quarter (23.6%) required rehospitalization for ED treatment within 1 year.Hospitalizations for EDs among American adolescents are increasing, with a spike during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Significant numbers of patients hospitalized with EDs have suicidal thoughts. Trends in patients with ARFID require monitoring.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2023-007381

    View details for PubMedID 38124532

  • Medical complications and management of atypical anorexia nervosa. Journal of eating disorders Vo, M., Golden, N. 2022; 10 (1): 196


    Atypical anorexia nervosa (AAN) is a new diagnosis in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Patients with AAN have been recognized to have similar, if not more severe, medical and psychological complications compared with patients with typical Anorexia Nervosa; yet studies on medical complications and optimal treatment of AAN are lacking. Here we review what is known regarding medical presentation and management of patients with AAN.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s40337-022-00720-9

    View details for PubMedID 36522787

  • Usability and Utility of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Clinical Decision Support to Increase Knowledge and PrEP Initiations among Pediatric Providers. Applied clinical informatics Chan, C. T., Carlson, J., Lee, T. C., Vo, M., Nasr, A., Hart-Cooper, G. 2022


    OBJECTIVES: An effective clinical decision support system (CDSS) may address the current provider training barrier to offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to youth at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This study evaluated change in provider knowledge and likelihood to initiate PrEP after exposure to a PrEP CDSS. A secondary objective explored perceived provider utility of the CDSS and suggestions for improving CDSS effectiveness.METHODS: This was a prospective study using survey responses from a convenience sample of pediatric providers who launched the interruptive PrEP CDSS when ordering an HIV test. McNemar's test evaluated change in provider PrEP knowledge and likelihood to initiate PrEP. Qualitative responses on CDSS utility and suggested improvements were analyzed using Framework Analysis and were connected to quantitative analysis elements using the merge approach.RESULTS: Of the 73 invited providers, 43 had available outcome data and were included in the analysis. Prior to using the CDSS, 86% of participants had never prescribed PrEP. Compared to before CDSS exposure, there were significant increases in the proportion of providers who were knowledgeable about PrEP (p=0.0001), likely to prescribe PrEP (p<0.0001), and likely to refer their patient for PrEP (p<0.0001). Suggestions for improving the CDSS included alternative "triggers" for the CDSS earlier in visit workflows, having a non-interruptive CDSS, additional provider educational materials, access to patient-facing PrEP materials, and additional CDSS support for adolescent confidentiality and navigating financial implications of PrEP.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an interruptive PrEP CDSS attached to HIV test orders can be an effective tool to increase knowledge and likelihood to initiate PrEP among pediatric providers. Continual improvement of the PrEP CDSS based on provider feedback is required to optimize usability, effectiveness, and adoption. A highly usable PrEP CDSS may be a powerful tool to close the gap in youth PrEP access and uptake.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/a-1975-4277

    View details for PubMedID 36351546

  • Association of the COVID-19 Pandemic With Adolescent and Young Adult Eating Disorder Care Volume. JAMA pediatrics Hartman-Munick, S. M., Lin, J. A., Milliren, C. E., Braverman, P. K., Brigham, K. S., Fisher, M. M., Golden, N. H., Jary, J. M., Lemly, D. C., Matthews, A., Ornstein, R. M., Roche, A., Rome, E. S., Rosen, E. L., Sharma, Y., Shook, J. K., Taylor, J. L., Thew, M., Vo, M., Voss, M., Woods, E. R., Forman, S. F., Richmond, T. K. 2022


    Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected youth mental health. Increases in site-specific eating disorder (ED) care have been documented; however, multisite studies demonstrating national trends are lacking.Objective: To compare the number of adolescent/young adult patients seeking inpatient and outpatient ED care before and after onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.Design, Setting, and Participants: Using an observational case series design, changes in volume in inpatient and outpatient ED-related care across 15 member sites (14 geographically diverse hospital-based adolescent medicine programs and 1 nonhospital-based ED program) of the US National Eating Disorder Quality Improvement Collaborative was examined. Sites reported monthly volumes of patients seeking inpatient and outpatient ED care between January 2018 and December 2021. Patient volumes pre- and postpandemic onset were compared separately for inpatient and outpatient settings. Demographic data such as race and ethnicity were not collected because this study used monthly summary data.Exposures: Onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly number of patients seeking inpatient/outpatient ED-related care.Results: Aggregate total inpatient ED admissions were 81 in January 2018 and 109 in February 2020. Aggregate total new outpatient assessments were 195 in January 2018 and 254 in February 2020. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the relative number of pooled inpatient ED admissions were increasing over time by 0.7% per month (95% CI, 0.2%-1.3%). After onset of the pandemic, there was a significant increase in admissions over time of 7.2% per month (95% CI, 4.8%-9.7%) through April 2021, then a decrease of 3.6% per month (95% CI, -6.0% to -1.1%) through December 2021. Prepandemic, pooled data showed relative outpatient ED assessment volume was stable over time, with an immediate 39.7% decline (95% CI, -50.4% to -26.7%) in April 2020. Subsequently, new assessments increased by 8.1% (95% CI, 5.3%-11.1%) per month through April 2021, then decreased by 1.5% per month (95% CI, -3.6% to 0.7%) through December 2021. The nonhospital-based ED program did not demonstrate a significant increase in the absolute number of admissions after onset of the pandemic but did see a significant increase of 8.2 (95% CI, 6.2-10.2) additional inquiries for care per month in the first year after onset of the pandemic.Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, there was a significant COVID-19 pandemic-related increase in both inpatient and outpatient volume of patients with EDs across sites, particularly in the first year of the pandemic. Given inadequate ED care availability prior to the pandemic, the increased postpandemic demand will likely outstrip available resources. Results highlight the need to address ED workforce and program capacity issues as well as improve ED prevention strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.4346

    View details for PubMedID 36342721

  • THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON ADOLESCENT/ YOUNG ADULT EATING DISORDER PATIENT VISITS: DATA FROM THE NATIONAL EATING DISORDER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT COLLABORATIVE Hartman-Munick, S. M., Lin, J. A., Milliren, C. E., Braverman, P. K., Fisher, M. M., Jary, J. M., Lemly, D. C., Ornstein, R. M., Roche, A., Rome, E. S., Rosen, E. L., Thew, M., Vo, M., Voss, M., Woods, E. R., Forman, S. F., Richmond, T. K. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2022: S7
  • Pediatric Provider Utilization of a Clinical Decision Support Alert and Association with HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Prescription Rates. Applied clinical informatics Chan, C. T., Vo, M., Carlson, J., Lee, T., Chang, M., Hart-Cooper, G. 2022; 13 (1): 30-36


     An electronic clinical decision support (CDS) alert can provide real-time provider support to offer pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to youth at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The purpose of this study was to evaluate provider utilization of a PrEP CDS alert in a large academic-community pediatric network and assess the association of the alert with PrEP prescribing rates. HIV test orders were altered for patients 13 years and older to include a hard-stop prompt asking if the patient would benefit from PrEP. If providers answered "Yes" or "Not Sure," the CDS alert launched with options to open a standardized order set, refer to an internal PrEP specialist, and/or receive an education module. We analyzed provider utilization using a frequency analysis. The rate of new PrEP prescriptions for 1 year after CDS alert implementation was compared with the year prior using Fisher's exact test. Of the 56 providers exposed to the CDS alert, 70% (n = 39) responded "Not sure" to the alert prompt asking if their patient would benefit from PrEP, and 54% (n = 30) chose at least one clinical support tool. The PrEP prescribing rate increased from 2.3 prescriptions per 10,000 patients to 6.6 prescriptions per 10,000 patients in the year post-intervention (p = 0.02). Our findings suggest a knowledge gap among pediatric providers in identifying patients who would benefit from PrEP. A hard-stop prompt within an HIV test order that offers CDS and provider education might be an effective tool to increase PrEP prescribing among pediatric providers.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0041-1740484

    View details for PubMedID 35021253

  • The Impact of DSM-5 on Eating Disorder Diagnoses. International journal of eating disorders Vo, M., Accurso, E. C., Goldschmidt, A. B., Le Grange, D. 2017; 50 (5): 578-581


    Eating disorder diagnostic criteria were revised from the fourth to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and -5, respectively). This study examines the impact of these revisions on rates of eating disorder diagnoses in treatment-seeking youth.Participants were 651 youth, ages 7-18 years, presenting to an outpatient eating disorders program who met criteria for a DSM-IV eating disorder diagnosis on intake. Patients completed well-validated semi-structured interviews to assess eating disorder psychopathology and psychiatric comorbidity.Participants were predominantly female (n = 588; 90.3%) with an average age of 15.28 years (SD = 2.21), mean percent of median Body Mass Index (mBMI) of 101.91 (SD = 31.73), and average duration of illness of 16.74 months (SD = 17.63). Cases of DSM-IV Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), now most consistent with DSM-5 Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder, decreased from 47.6% to 39.0%, Anorexia Nervosa increased from 29.6% to 33.5%, and Bulimia Nervosa increased from 22.7% to 24.7%.Consistent with previous studies, and in keeping with the aims of the DSM-5 for eating disorders, the revised diagnostic criteria reduced cases of DSM-IV EDNOS and increased cases of specified eating disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:578-581).

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22628

    View details for PubMedID 27862127

  • Eating Disorders in Adolescent and Young Adult Males: Presenting Characteristics JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Vo, M., Lau, J., Rubinstein, M. 2016; 59 (4): 397-400


    Data on the clinical characteristics of adolescent males with eating disorders are limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics, presenting vital signs, laboratory results, and relevant risk factors for eating disorders among males presenting to an outpatient adolescent and young adult medicine practice.Retrospective chart review of male eating disorder patients aged of 11-25 years presenting to the University of California, San Francisco Adolescent and Young Adult Eating Disorder Program between June 1, 2011, and November 1, 2014. Charts were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics and risk factors for eating disorders.Thirty-three patients were included; mean age was 16 years. Patients presented with mean heart rate was 58.7 bpm, and orthostatic heart rate change was 22 bpm, with 51.5% meeting Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine hospital admission criteria. Mean percent of median body mass index was 88%. Of patients with available laboratory data, 33.3% were anemic, 23.8% leukopenic, 19.0% thrombocytopenic, and 10.0% neutropenic. Half had a history of a psychiatric disorder; 41.5% had a history of overweight or obesity, and 12.1% had a family history of an eating disorder. The DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria were retrospectively applied to patients, with an increase in diagnosis of anorexia nervosa from 36.4% to 48.5%. Diagnoses of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, now Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder in DSM-5, decreased from 62.6% to 45.5%.Male patients with eating disorders presented with significant abnormalities; patients were bradycardic and orthostatic; and more than half met Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine admission criteria. Patients with available laboratory data demonstrated significant abnormalities consistent with malnutrition. Given that eating disorders are less likely to be detected in males, it is important to recognize early signs of malnutrition, particularly in those who present within the normal body mass index range for age.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.04.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385444100007

    View details for PubMedID 27287963