Honors & Awards

  • Wilton W. Webster Fellowship in Pediatric Electrophysiology, Heart Rhythm Society (May 2021)
  • Azrieli International Postdoctoral Fellowship, The Azrieli Foundation (February 2021)
  • NSERC Canada Graduate Scholarship Doctoral Award, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (May 2016)
  • NSERC Canada Graduate Scholarship Master Award, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (May 2015)
  • Graduate Fellowship Award, Simon Fraser University (September 2014)
  • Travel and Minor Research Awards, Simon Fraser University (April 2014)
  • Open Undergraduate Scholarship, Simon Fraser University (January 2011)
  • Academic Entrance Scholarship, Simon Fraser University (May 2010)
  • British Columbia Provincial Exam Scholarship, Province of British Columbia (May 2010)
  • Passport to Education, Province of British Columbia (May 2010)

Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, Simon Fraser University, Cardiac Electrophysiology (2018)
  • Master of Arts, Durham University, Theology and Religion (2018)
  • Bachelor of Science, Simon Fraser University, Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology (2015)

Stanford Advisors

Research Interests

  • Philosophy
  • Research Methods
  • Science Education
  • Secondary Education


  • Why do cardiomyopathy mutations cause cardiac arrhythmias?, Stanford University


    Stanford Cardiovascular Institute

  • Re-engineering and repurposing drugs for cardiovascular use, Stanford University


    Stanford Cardiovascular Institute

All Publications

  • ARumenamides: A novel class of potential anti-arrhythmic compounds. Biophysical journal Abdelsayed, M., Page, D. A., Ruben, P. C. 2023; 122 (3S1): 99a

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bpj.2022.11.726

    View details for PubMedID 36785118

  • Action potential heterogeneity in the myosin binding protein C3 mutant, R943x. Biophysical journal Abdelsayed, M., Mercola, M. 2023; 122 (3S1): 35a-36a

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bpj.2022.11.408

    View details for PubMedID 36783823

  • ARumenamides: A novel class of potential antiarrhythmic compounds FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY Abdelsayed, M., Page, D., Ruben, P. C. 2022; 13: 976903


    Background: Most therapeutics targeting cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav1.5) attenuate the sodium current (INa) conducted through the pore of the protein. Whereas these drugs may be beneficial for disease states associated with gain-of-function (GoF) in Nav1.5, few attempts have been made to therapeutically treat loss-of-function (LoF) conditions. The primary impediment to designing efficacious therapies for LoF is a tendency for drugs to occlude the Nav1.5 central pore. We hypothesized that molecular candidates with a high affinity for the fenestrations would potentially reduce pore block. Methods and Results: Virtual docking was performed on 21 compounds, selected based on their affinity for the fenestrations in Nav1.5, which included a class of sulfonamides and carboxamides we identify as ARumenamide (AR). Six ARs, AR-051, AR-189, AR-674, AR-802, AR-807 and AR-811, were further docked against Nav1.5 built on NavAb and rNav1.5. Based on the virtual docking results, these particular ARs have a high affinity for Domain III-IV and Domain VI-I fenestrations. Upon functional characterization, a trend was observed in the effects of the six ARs on INa. An inverse correlation was established between the aromaticity of the AR's functional moieties and compound block. Due to its aromaticity, AR-811 blocked INa the least compared with other aromatic ARs, which also decelerated fast inactivation onset. AR-674, with its aliphatic functional group, significantly suppresses INa and enhances use-dependence in Nav1.5. AR-802 and AR-811, in particular, decelerated fast inactivation kinetics in the most common Brugada Syndrome Type 1 and Long-QT Syndrome Type 3 mutant, E1784K, without affecting peak or persistent INa. Conclusion: Our hypothesis that LoF in Nav1.5 may be therapeutically treated was supported by the discovery of ARs, which appear to preferentially block the fenestrations. ARs with aromatic functional groups as opposed to aliphatic groups efficaciously maintained Nav1.5 availability. We predict that these bulkier side groups may have a higher affinity for the hydrophobic milieu of the fenestrations, remaining there rather than in the central pore of the channel. Future refinements of AR compound structures and additional validation by molecular dynamic simulations and screening against more Brugada variants will further support their potential benefits in treating certain LoF cardiac arrhythmias.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fphar.2022.976903

    View details for Web of Science ID 000868516700001

    View details for PubMedID 36249789

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9554508

  • Repurposing drugs to treat cardiovascular disease in the era of precision medicine. Nature reviews. Cardiology Abdelsayed, M., Kort, E. J., Jovinge, S., Mercola, M. 2022


    Drug repurposing is the use of a given therapeutic agent for indications other than that for which it was originally designed or intended. The concept is appealing because of potentially lower development costs and shorter timelines than are needed to produce a new drug. To date, drug repurposing for cardiovascular indications has been opportunistic and driven by knowledge of disease mechanisms or serendipitous observation rather than by systematic endeavours to match an existing drug to a new indication. Innovations in two areas of personalized medicine - computational approaches to associate drug effects with disease signatures and predictive model systems to screen drugs for disease-modifying activities - support efforts that together create an efficient pipeline to systematically repurpose drugs to treat cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, new experimental strategies that guide the medicinal chemistry re-engineering of drugs could improve repurposing efforts by tailoring a medicine to its new indication. In this Review, we summarize the historical approach to repurposing and discuss the technological advances that have created a new landscape of opportunities.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41569-022-00717-6

    View details for PubMedID 35606425

  • Left Ventricular Contraction Duration Is the Most Powerful Predictor of Cardiac Events in LQTS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of clinical medicine Abdelsayed, M., Bytyçi, I., Rydberg, A., Henein, M. Y. 2020; 9 (9)


    Long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is primarily an electrical disorder characterized by a prolonged myocardial action potential. The delay in cardiac repolarization leads to electromechanical (EM) abnormalities, which adds a diagnostic value for LQTS. Prolonged left ventricular (LV) contraction was identified as a potential risk for arrhythmia. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the best predictor of all EM parameters for cardiac events (CEs) in LQTS patients.We systematically searched all electronic databases up to March 2020, to select studies that assessed the relationship between echocardiographic indices-contraction duration (CD), mechanical dispersion (MD), QRS onset to peak systolic strain (QAoC), and the EM window (EMW); and electrical indices- corrected QT interval (QTC), QTC dispersion, RR interval in relation to CEs in LQTS. This meta-analysis included a total of 1041 patients and 373 controls recruited from 12 studies.The meta-analysis showed that LQTS patients had electrical and mechanical abnormalities as compared to controls-QTC, WMD 72.8; QTC dispersion, WMD 31.7; RR interval, WMD 91.5; CD, WMD 49.2; MD, WMD 15.9; QAoC, WMD 27.8; and EMW, WMD -62.4. These mechanical abnormalities were more profound in symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients in whom disturbances were already manifest, compared to controls. A CD ≥430 ms had a summary sensitivity (SS) of 71%, specificity of 84%, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) >19.5 in predicting CEs. EMW and QTC had a lower accuracy.LQTS is associated with pronounced EM abnormalities, particularly prolonged LV myocardial CD, which is profound in symptomatic patients. These findings highlight the significant role of EM indices like CD in managing LQTS patients.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jcm9092820

    View details for PubMedID 32878246

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7565502

  • SCN5A mutations in 442 neonates and children: genotype-phenotype correlation and identification of higher-risk subgroups EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Baruteau, A., Kyndt, F., Behr, E. R., Vink, A. S., Lachaud, M., Joong, A., Schott, J., Horie, M., Denjoy, I., Crotti, L., Shimizu, W., Bos, J. M., Stephenson, E. A., LeonieWong, Abrams, D. J., Davis, A. M., Winbo, A., Dubin, A. M., Sanatani, S., Liberman, L., Kaski, J., Rudic, B., Kwok, S., Rieubland, C., Tfelt-Hansen, J., Van Hare, G. F., Guyomarc'h-Delasalle, B., Blom, N. A., Wijeyeratne, Y. D., Gourraud, J., Le Marec, H., Ozawa, J., Fressart, V., Lupoglazoff, J., Dagradi, F., Spazzolini, C., Aiba, T., Tester, D. J., Zahavich, L. A., Beausejour-Ladouceur, V., Jadhav, M., Skinner, J. R., Franciosi, S., Krahn, A. D., Abdelsayed, M., Ruben, P. C., Yung, T., Ackerman, M. J., Wilde, A. A., Schwartz, P. J., Probst, V. 2018; 39 (31): 2879-+


    To clarify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of children with SCN5A-mediated disease and to improve their risk stratification.A multicentre, international, retrospective cohort study was conducted in 25 tertiary hospitals in 13 countries between 1990 and 2015. All patients ≤16 years of age diagnosed with a genetically confirmed SCN5A mutation were included in the analysis. There was no restriction made based on their clinical diagnosis. A total of 442 children {55.7% boys, 40.3% probands, median age: 8.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 9.5] years} from 350 families were included; 67.9% were asymptomatic at diagnosis. Four main phenotypes were identified: isolated progressive cardiac conduction disorders (25.6%), overlap phenotype (15.6%), isolated long QT syndrome type 3 (10.6%), and isolated Brugada syndrome type 1 (1.8%); 44.3% had a negative electrocardiogram phenotype. During a median follow-up of 5.9 (IQR 5.9) years, 272 cardiac events (CEs) occurred in 139 (31.5%) patients. Patients whose mutation localized in the C-terminus had a lower risk. Compound genotype, both gain- and loss-of-function SCN5A mutation, age ≤1 year at diagnosis in probands and age ≤1 year at diagnosis in non-probands were independent predictors of CE.In this large paediatric cohort of SCN5A mutation-positive subjects, cardiac conduction disorders were the most prevalent phenotype; CEs occurred in about one-third of genotype-positive children, and several independent risk factors were identified, including age ≤1 year at diagnosis, compound mutation, and mutation with both gain- and loss-of-function.

    View details for PubMedID 30059973

  • A Mixed Periodic Paralysis & Myotonia Mutant, P1158S, Imparts pH-Sensitivity in Skeletal Muscle Voltage-gated Sodium Channels. Scientific reports Ghovanloo, M. R., Abdelsayed, M., Peters, C. H., Ruben, P. C. 2018; 8 (1): 6304


    Skeletal muscle channelopathies, many of which are inherited as autosomal dominant mutations, include myotonia and periodic paralysis. Myotonia is defined by a delayed relaxation after muscular contraction, whereas periodic paralysis is defined by episodic attacks of weakness. One sub-type of periodic paralysis, known as hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP), is associated with low potassium levels. Interestingly, the P1158S missense mutant, located in the third domain S4-S5 linker of the "skeletal muscle", Nav1.4, has been implicated in causing both myotonia and hypoPP. A common trigger for these conditions is physical activity. We previously reported that Nav1.4 is relatively insensitive to changes in extracellular pH compared to Nav1.2 and Nav1.5. Given that intense exercise is often accompanied by blood acidosis, we decided to test whether changes in pH would push gating in P1158S towards either phenotype. Our results suggest that, unlike in WT-Nav1.4, low pH depolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation and steady-state fast inactivation, decreases current density, and increases late currents in P1185S. Thus, P1185S turns the normally pH-insensitive Nav1.4 into a proton-sensitive channel. Using action potential modeling we predict a pH-to-phenotype correlation in patients with P1158S. We conclude that activities which alter blood pH may trigger the noted phenotypes in P1158S patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-018-24719-y

    View details for PubMedID 29674667

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5908869

  • The efficacy of Ranolazine on E1784K is altered by temperature and calcium. Scientific reports Abdelsayed, M., Ruprai, M., Ruben, P. C. 2018; 8 (1): 3643


    E1784K is the most common mixed syndrome SCN5a mutation underpinning both Brugada syndrome type 1 (BrS1) and Long-QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3). The charge reversal mutant enhances the late sodium current (INa) passed by the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.5), delaying cardiac repolarization. Exercise-induced triggers, like elevated temperature and cytosolic calcium, exacerbate E1784K late INa. In this study, we tested the effects of Ranolazine, the late INa blocker, on voltage-dependent and kinetic properties of E1784K at elevated temperature and cytosolic calcium. We used whole-cell patch clamp to measure INa from wild type and E1784K channels expressed in HEK293 cells. At elevated temperature, Ranolazine attenuated gain-of-function in E1784K by decreasing late INa, hyperpolarizing steady-state fast inactivation, and increasing use-dependent inactivation. Both elevated temperature and cytosolic calcium hampered the capacity of Ranolazine to suppress E1784K late INa. In-silico action potential (AP) simulations were done using a modified O'Hara Rudy (ORd) cardiac model. Simulations showed that Ranolazine failed to shorten AP duration, an effect augmented at febrile temperatures. The drug-channel interaction is clearly affected by external triggers, as reported previously with ischemia. Determining drug efficacy under various physiological states in SCN5a cohorts is crucial for accurate management of arrhythmias.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-018-22033-1

    View details for PubMedID 29483621

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5827758

  • Arrhythmogenic triggers associated with Sudden Cardiac Death. Channels (Austin, Tex.) Abdelsayed, M., Peters, C. H., Ruben, P. C. 2018; 12 (1): 76-77

    View details for DOI 10.1080/19336950.2017.1388057

    View details for PubMedID 28976236

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5972799

  • Differential calcium sensitivity in NaV 1.5 mixed syndrome mutants. The Journal of physiology Abdelsayed, M., Baruteau, A. E., Gibbs, K., Sanatani, S., Krahn, A. D., Probst, V., Ruben, P. C. 2017; 595 (18): 6165-6186


    SCN5a mutations may express gain-of-function (Long QT Syndrome-3), loss-of-function (Brugada Syndrome 1) or both (mixed syndromes), depending on the mutation and environmental triggers. One such trigger may be an increase in cytosolic calcium, accompanying exercise. Many mixed syndromes mutants, including ∆KPQ, E1784K, 1795insD and Q1909R, are found in calcium-sensitive regions. Elevated cytosolic calcium attenuates gain-of-function properties in ∆KPQ, 1795insD and Q1909R, but not in E1784K. By contrast, elevated cytosolic calcium further exacerbates gain-of-function in E1784K by destabilizing slow inactivation. Action potential modelling, using a modified O'Hara Rudy model, suggests that elevated heart rate rescues action potential duration in ∆KPQ, 1795insD and Q1909R, but not in E1784K. Action potential simulations suggest that E1784K carriers have an increased intracellular sodium-to-calcium ratio under bradycardia and tachycardia conditions. Elevated cytosolic calcium, which is common during high heart rates, ameliorates or exacerbates the mixed syndrome phenotype depending on the genetic signature.Inherited arrhythmias may arise from mutations in the gene for SCN5a, which encodes the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, NaV 1.5. Mutants in NaV 1.5 result in Brugada Syndrome (BrS1), Long-QT Syndrome (LQT3) or mixed syndromes (an overlap of BrS1/LQT3). Exercise is a potential arrhythmogenic trigger in mixed syndromes. We aimed to determine the effects of elevated cytosolic calcium, which is common during exercise, in mixed syndrome NaV 1.5 mutants. We used whole-cell patch clamp to assess the biophysical properties of NaV 1.5 wild-type (WT), ∆KPQ, E1784K, 1795insD and Q1909R mutants in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transiently transfected with the NaV 1.5 α subunit (WT or mutants), β1 subunit and enhanced green fluorescent protein. Voltage-dependence and kinetics were measured at cytosolic calcium levels of approximately 0, 500 and 2500 nm. In silico, action potential (AP) model simulations were performed using a modified O'Hara Rudy model. Elevated cytosolic calcium attenuates the late sodium current in ∆KPQ, 1795insD and Q1909R, but not in E1784K. Elevated cytosolic calcium restores steady-state slow inactivation (SSSI) to the WT-form in Q1909R, but depolarized SSSI in E1784K. Our AP simulations showed a frequency-dependent reduction of AP duration in ∆KPQ, 1795insD and Q1909R carriers. In E1784K, AP duration is relatively prolonged at both low and high heart rates, resulting in a sodium overload. Cellular perturbations during exercise may affect BrS1/LQT3 patients differently depending on their individual genetic signature. Thus, exercise may be therapeutic or may be an arrhythmogenic trigger in some SCN5a patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1113/JP274536

    View details for PubMedID 28734073

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5599485

  • Exome Sequencing and the Management of Neurometabolic Disorders. The New England journal of medicine Tarailo-Graovac, M., Shyr, C., Ross, C. J., Horvath, G. A., Salvarinova, R., Ye, X. C., Zhang, L. H., Bhavsar, A. P., Lee, J. J., Drögemöller, B. I., Abdelsayed, M., Alfadhel, M., Armstrong, L., Baumgartner, M. R., Burda, P., Connolly, M. B., Cameron, J., Demos, M., Dewan, T., Dionne, J., Evans, A. M., Friedman, J. M., Garber, I., Lewis, S., Ling, J., Mandal, R., Mattman, A., McKinnon, M., Michoulas, A., Metzger, D., Ogunbayo, O. A., Rakic, B., Rozmus, J., Ruben, P., Sayson, B., Santra, S., Schultz, K. R., Selby, K., Shekel, P., Sirrs, S., Skrypnyk, C., Superti-Furga, A., Turvey, S. E., Van Allen, M. I., Wishart, D., Wu, J., Wu, J., Zafeiriou, D., Kluijtmans, L., Wevers, R. A., Eydoux, P., Lehman, A. M., Vallance, H., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S., Sinclair, G., Wasserman, W. W., van Karnebeek, C. D. 2016; 374 (23): 2246-55


    Whole-exome sequencing has transformed gene discovery and diagnosis in rare diseases. Translation into disease-modifying treatments is challenging, particularly for intellectual developmental disorder. However, the exception is inborn errors of metabolism, since many of these disorders are responsive to therapy that targets pathophysiological features at the molecular or cellular level.To uncover the genetic basis of potentially treatable inborn errors of metabolism, we combined deep clinical phenotyping (the comprehensive characterization of the discrete components of a patient's clinical and biochemical phenotype) with whole-exome sequencing analysis through a semiautomated bioinformatics pipeline in consecutively enrolled patients with intellectual developmental disorder and unexplained metabolic phenotypes.We performed whole-exome sequencing on samples obtained from 47 probands. Of these patients, 6 were excluded, including 1 who withdrew from the study. The remaining 41 probands had been born to predominantly nonconsanguineous parents of European descent. In 37 probands, we identified variants in 2 genes newly implicated in disease, 9 candidate genes, 22 known genes with newly identified phenotypes, and 9 genes with expected phenotypes; in most of the genes, the variants were classified as either pathogenic or probably pathogenic. Complex phenotypes of patients in five families were explained by coexisting monogenic conditions. We obtained a diagnosis in 28 of 41 probands (68%) who were evaluated. A test of a targeted intervention was performed in 18 patients (44%).Deep phenotyping and whole-exome sequencing in 41 probands with intellectual developmental disorder and unexplained metabolic abnormalities led to a diagnosis in 68%, the identification of 11 candidate genes newly implicated in neurometabolic disease, and a change in treatment beyond genetic counseling in 44%. (Funded by BC Children's Hospital Foundation and others.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1515792

    View details for PubMedID 27276562

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4983272

  • Loss-of-function mutations in SCN4A cause severe foetal hypokinesia or 'classical' congenital myopathy. Brain : a journal of neurology Zaharieva, I. T., Thor, M. G., Oates, E. C., van Karnebeek, C., Hendson, G., Blom, E., Witting, N., Rasmussen, M., Gabbett, M. T., Ravenscroft, G., Sframeli, M., Suetterlin, K., Sarkozy, A., D'Argenzio, L., Hartley, L., Matthews, E., Pitt, M., Vissing, J., Ballegaard, M., Krarup, C., Slørdahl, A., Halvorsen, H., Ye, X. C., Zhang, L. H., Løkken, N., Werlauff, U., Abdelsayed, M., Davis, M. R., Feng, L., Phadke, R., Sewry, C. A., Morgan, J. E., Laing, N. G., Vallance, H., Ruben, P., Hanna, M. G., Lewis, S., Kamsteeg, E. J., Männikkö, R., Muntoni, F. 2016; 139 (Pt 3): 674-91


    Congenital myopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of muscle disorders characterized by congenital or early-onset hypotonia and muscle weakness, and specific pathological features on muscle biopsy. The phenotype ranges from foetal akinesia resulting in in utero or neonatal mortality, to milder disorders that are not life-limiting. Over the past decade, more than 20 new congenital myopathy genes have been identified. Most encode proteins involved in muscle contraction; however, mutations in ion channel-encoding genes are increasingly being recognized as a cause of this group of disorders. SCN4A encodes the α-subunit of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.4). This channel is essential for the generation and propagation of the muscle action potential crucial to muscle contraction. Dominant SCN4A gain-of-function mutations are a well-established cause of myotonia and periodic paralysis. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified homozygous or compound heterozygous SCN4A mutations in a cohort of 11 individuals from six unrelated kindreds with congenital myopathy. Affected members developed in utero- or neonatal-onset muscle weakness of variable severity. In seven cases, severe muscle weakness resulted in death during the third trimester or shortly after birth. The remaining four cases had marked congenital or neonatal-onset hypotonia and weakness associated with mild-to-moderate facial and neck weakness, significant neonatal-onset respiratory and swallowing difficulties and childhood-onset spinal deformities. All four surviving cohort members experienced clinical improvement in the first decade of life. Muscle biopsies showed myopathic features including fibre size variability, presence of fibrofatty tissue of varying severity, without specific structural abnormalities. Electrophysiology suggested a myopathic process, without myotonia. In vitro functional assessment in HEK293 cells of the impact of the identified SCN4A mutations showed loss-of-function of the mutant Nav1.4 channels. All, apart from one, of the mutations either caused fully non-functional channels, or resulted in a reduced channel activity. Each of the affected cases carried at least one full loss-of-function mutation. In five out of six families, a second loss-of-function mutation was present on the trans allele. These functional results provide convincing evidence for the pathogenicity of the identified mutations and suggest that different degrees of loss-of-function in mutant Nav1.4 channels are associated with attenuation of the skeletal muscle action potential amplitude to a level insufficient to support normal muscle function. The results demonstrate that recessive loss-of-function SCN4A mutations should be considered in patients with a congenital myopathy.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/brain/awv352

    View details for PubMedID 26700687

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4766374

  • Effects of Amiodarone and N-desethylamiodarone on Cardiac Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels. Frontiers in pharmacology Ghovanloo, M. R., Abdelsayed, M., Ruben, P. C. 2016; 7: 39


    Amiodarone (AMD) is a potent antiarrhythmic drug with high efficacy for treating atrial fibrillation and tachycardia. The pharmacologic profile of AMD is complex. AMD possesses biophysical characteristics of all of class I, II, III, and IV agents. Despite its adverse side effects, AMD remains the most commonly prescribed antiarrhythmic drug. AMD was described to prolong the QT interval and can lead to torsades de pointes. Our goal was to study the effects of AMD on peak and late sodium currents (INa,P and INa,L) and determine whether these effects change as AMD is metabolized into N-desethylamiodarone (DES). We hypothesized that AMD and DES block both INa,P and INa,L with similar profiles due to structural similarities. Given the inherent small amounts of INa,L in NaV1.5, we screened AMD and DES against the Long QT-3-causing mutation, ΔKPQ, to better detect any drug-mediated effect on INa,L. Our results show that AMD and DES do not affect WT or ΔKPQ activation; however, both drugs altered the apparent valence of steady-state fast-inactivation. In addition, AMD and DES preferentially block ΔKPQ peak conductance compared to WT. Both compounds significantly increase INa,L and window currents. We conclude that both compounds have pro-arrhythmic effects on NaV1.5, especially ΔKPQ; however, DES seems to have a greater pro-arrhythmic effect than AMD.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fphar.2016.00039

    View details for PubMedID 26973526

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4771766

  • Triggers for arrhythmogenesis in the Brugada and long QT 3 syndromes. Progress in biophysics and molecular biology Peters, C. H., Abdelsayed, M., Ruben, P. C. 2016; 120 (1-3): 77-88


    Cardiac arrhythmias are a prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality. In many cases, inheritable mutations in the genes encoding cardiac ion channels are the underlying cause of arrhythmias. Relative to other arrhythmogenic disorders, Brugada syndrome (BrS) is recently identified and not well-understood. Although most often referred to as a disease of cardiac sodium channels, familial BrS is now associated with 9 different genes. Of these genes, 4 alter sodium currents, and the most common known genetic cause remains loss-of-function mutants in the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A. Long QT syndrome (LQTs) has a much longer history and is associated with at least 17 genes. LQT3, which is the third most common LQTs, is due to gain-of-function mutations in SCN5A. The first sign for BrS and LQTs patients may be sudden death. The triggers for these sudden deaths include exercise, fever, ischemia, and drug use. In this paper we review the effects of acidosis and fever on BrS and LQTs, discuss Brugada phenocopy syndrome drawing from published literature, and present our own patch-clamp data from mutant channels at low pH. We show that, at low pH, there is a preferential block of peak currents and preferential increase of persistent current in a common BrS/LQTs mutant compared to wild type sodium channels. Our data complements the existing literature on the importance of environmental triggers to arrhythmias.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2015.12.009

    View details for PubMedID 26713557

  • Differential thermosensitivity in mixed syndrome cardiac sodium channel mutants. The Journal of physiology Abdelsayed, M., Peters, C. H., Ruben, P. C. 2015; 593 (18): 4201-23


    Cardiac arrhythmias are often associated with mutations in SCN5A the gene that encodes the cardiac paralogue of the voltage-gated sodium channel, NaV 1.5. The NaV 1.5 mutants R1193Q and E1784K give rise to both long QT and Brugada syndromes. Various environmental factors, including temperature, may unmask arrhythmia. We sought to determine whether temperature might be an arrhythmogenic trigger in these two mixed syndrome mutants. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to measure the biophysical properties of NaV 1.5 WT, E1784K and R1193Q mutants. Recordings were performed using Chinese hamster ovary (CHOk1) cells transiently transfected with the NaV 1.5 α subunit (WT, E1784K, or R1193Q), β1 subunit, and eGFP. The channels' voltage-dependent and kinetic properties were measured at three different temperatures: 10ºC, 22ºC, and 34ºC. The E1784K mutant is more thermosensitive than either WT or R1193Q channels. When temperature is elevated from 22°C to 34°C, there is a greater increase in late INa and use-dependent inactivation in E1784K than in WT or R1193Q. However, when temperature is lowered to 10°C, the two mutants show a decrease in channel availability. Action potential modelling using Q10 fit values, extrapolated to physiological and febrile temperatures, show a larger transmural voltage gradient in E1784K compared to R1193Q and WT with hyperthermia. The E1784K mutant is more thermosensitive than WT or R1193Q channels. This enhanced thermosensitivity may be a mechanism for arrhythmogenesis in patients with E1784K sodium channels.

    View details for DOI 10.1113/JP270139

    View details for PubMedID 26131924

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4594293

  • A thermosensitive mutation alters the effects of lacosamide on slow inactivation in neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels, NaV1.2. Frontiers in pharmacology Abdelsayed, M., Sokolov, S., Ruben, P. C. 2013; 4: 121


    Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by seizures and convulsions. The basis of epilepsy is an increase in neuronal excitability that, in some cases, may be caused by functional defects in neuronal voltage gated sodium channels (NaVs). The C121W mutation of the β1 subunit, in particular, gives rise to the thermosensitive generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) phenotype. Lacosamide is used to treat epileptic seizures and is distinct from other anti-seizure drugs by targeting NaV slow-inactivation. We studied the effects of a physiologically relevant concentration of lacosamide on the biophysical properties of NaV1.2 channels associated with either WT-β1 or the mutant C121W-β1 subunit. Biophysical parameters were measured at both normal (22°C) and elevated (34°C) temperatures to elicit the differential temperature-sensitivity of C121W. Lacosamide was more effective in NaV1.2 associated with the WT-β1 than with C121W-β1 at either temperature. There is also a more potent effect by lacosamide on slow inactivation at elevated temperatures. Our data suggest a modulatory role is imparted by the β1 subunit in the interaction between the drug and the channel.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fphar.2013.00121

    View details for PubMedID 24065921

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3778253

  • Voltage-gated sodium channels: pharmaceutical targets via anticonvulsants to treat epileptic syndromes. Channels (Austin, Tex.) Abdelsayed, M., Sokolov, S. 2013; 7 (3): 146-52


    Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by seizures and convulsions. The basis of epilepsy is an increase in neuronal excitability that, in some cases, may be caused by functional defects in neuronal voltage gated sodium channels, Nav1.1 and Nav1.2. The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as effective therapies for epilepsy have been characterized by extensive research. Most of the classic AEDs targeting Nav share a common mechanism of action by stabilizing the channel's fast-inactivated state. In contrast, novel AEDs, such as lacosamide, stabilize the slow-inactivated state in neuronal Nav1.1 and Nav1.7 isoforms. This paper reviews the different mechanisms by which this stabilization occurs to determine new methods for treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.4161/chan.24380

    View details for PubMedID 23531742

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3710341