Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging using scanned beam differencing and iterative deconvolution in dynamic plan radiation delivery in a human breast phantom geometry
2019; 46 (7): 3067–77
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate high resolution optical luminescence sensing, referred to as Cherenkov excited luminescence scanning imaging (CELSI), could be achieved during a standard dynamic treatment plan for a whole breast radiotherapy geometry.The treatment plan beams induce Cherenkov light within tissue, and this excitation projects through the beam trajectory across the medium, inducing luminescence where there can be molecular reporter. Broad beams generally produce higher signal but low spatial resolution, yet for dynamic plans the scanning of the multileaf collimator allows for a beam-narrowing strategy by recursively temporal differencing each of the Cherenkov images and associated luminescence images. Then reconstruction from each of these size-reduced beamlets defined by the differenced Cherenkov images provides a well-conditioned matrix inversion, where the spatial frequencies are limited by the higher signal-to-noise ratio beamlets. A built-in stepwise convergence relies on stepwise beam size reduction, which is associated with a widening of the bandwidth of Cherenkov spatial frequency and resultant increase in spatial resolution. For the phantom experiments, europium nanoparticles were used as luminescent probes and embedded at depths ranging from 3 to 8 mm. An intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan was used to test this.The Cherenkov images spatially guided where the luminescence was measured from, providing high lateral resolution, and iterative reconstruction convergence showed that optimization of the initial and stopping beamlet widths could be achieved with 15 and 4.5 mm, respectively, using a luminescence imaging frame rate of 5/s. With the IMRT breast plan, the original lateral resolution was improved 2X, that is, 0.08-0.24 mm for target depths of 3-8 mm. In comparison, a dynamic wedge (DW) plan showed an inferior image fidelity, with relative contrast recovery decreasing from 0.86 to 0.79. The methodology was applied to a three-dimensional dataset to reconstruct Cherenkov excited luminescence intensity distributions showing volumetric recovery of a 0.5 mm diameter object composed of 0.5 μM luminescent microbeads.High resolution CELSI was achieved with a clinical breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plan. It is anticipated that this method can allow visualization and localization for luminescence/fluorescence tagged vasculature, lymph nodes, or superficial tagged regions with most dynamic treatment plans.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mp.13545
View details for Web of Science ID 000475671900014
View details for PubMedID 30980725