Honors & Awards


  • Committee Member, AANS Young Neurosurgeon's Committee (2020)
  • Abstract Achievement Award, American Society of Hematology (2017, 2018)

Professional Affiliations and Activities


  • Member, American Association of Neurological Surgeons (2019 - Present)
  • Member, Congress of Neurological Surgeons (2019 - Present)
  • Co-Chair, Otolaryngology Interest Group (2019 - 2020)
  • Member, American Society of Hematology (2017 - Present)
  • Member, American Society of Clinical Oncology (2016 - Present)

Membership Organizations


  • Neurosurgery Interest Group, Co-Chair

Education & Certifications


  • Bachelor of Science, Stanford University, BIO-BSH (2016)
  • Bachelor of Science, Stanford University, STATS-MIN (2016)

All Publications


  • Neurological adverse effects due to programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors. Journal of neuro-oncology Shi, S., Jaoube, J. A., Kanwar, R., Jin, M. C., Amorin, A., Varanasi, V., Eisinger, E., Thomas, R., Moore, J. M. 2020

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: PD-1 Immunotherapy is integral in treating multiple cancers, but has been associated with neurological adverse events (nAEs). Our study was aimed at identifying the clinical spectrum of nAEs associated with pembrolizumab and nivolumab.METHODS: We performed an IRB approved single-center retrospective cohort study on patients receiving either pembrolizumab or nivolumab. Patients that developed nAEs within 12months of treatment were identified. Descriptive statistics were conducted, and differences between groups were analyzed by the Chi-square or t test method.RESULTS: In total, 649 patients were identified. Seventeen patients (2.6%) developed nAEs. Eight of those were on pembrolizumab and nine were on nivolumab. Average age was 62.1years. Ten were males and 7 were females. Most patients had melanoma (6, 35.3%). Patients who developed nAEs more frequently had intracranial lesions at initiation of anti PD-1 therapy compared to those who did not develop nAEs (76.5% vs 27.8%; p-value<0.001). Fifteen patients (88.2%) permanently stopped PD-1 therapy. In 8 patients, treatment termination resolved symptoms attributed to immune checkpoint blockade. The majority of patients developed grade 3 or 4 nAEs (10 patients, 58.8%), and required hospitalization (11 patients, 64.7%). Eight patients died for nAEs referable causes.CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab and nivolumab are associated with the development of nAEs associated with increased risk of permanent discontinuation of treatment, hospitalization, and death. Melanoma patients might be at a particularly high risk of such side effects. Future studies are still required to better assess which patients benefit most from such therapies, while minimizing the risk of complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11060-020-03514-8

    View details for PubMedID 32350779

  • Integrating genomic features for non-invasive early lung cancer detection NATURE Chabon, J. J., Hamilton, E. G., Kurtz, D. M., Esfahani, M. S., Moding, E. J., Stehr, H., Schroers-Martin, J., Nabet, B. Y., Chen, B., Chaudhuri, A. A., Liu, C., Hui, A. B., Jin, M. C., Azad, T. D., Almanza, D., Jeon, Y., Nesselbush, M. C., Keh, L., Bonilla, R. F., Yoo, C. H., Ko, R. B., Chen, E. L., Merriott, D. J., Massion, P. P., Mansfield, A. S., Jen, J., Ren, H. Z., Lin, S. H., Costantino, C. L., Burr, R., Tibshirani, R., Gambhir, S. S., Berry, G. J., Jensen, K. C., West, R. B., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Loo, B. W., Kunder, C. A., Leung, A. N., Lui, N. S., Berry, M. F., Shrager, J. B., Nair, V. S., Haber, D. A., Sequist, L. V., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2020
  • Boda Bodas and Road Traffic Injuries in Uganda: An Overview of Traffic Safety Trends from 2009 to 2017. International journal of environmental research and public health Vaca, S. D., Feng, A. Y., Ku, S., Jin, M. C., Kakusa, B. W., Ho, A. L., Zhang, M., Fuller, A., Haglund, M. M., Grant, G. 2020; 17 (6)

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are an important contributor to the morbidity and mortality of developing countries. In Uganda, motorcycle taxis, known as boda bodas, are responsible for a growing proportion of RTIs. This study seeks to evaluate and comment on traffic safety trends from the past decade.METHODS: Traffic reports from the Ugandan police force (2009 to 2017) were analyzed for RTI characteristics. Furthermore, one month of casualty ward data in 2015 and 2018 was collected from the Mulago National Referral Hospital and reviewed for casualty demographics and trauma type.RESULTS: RTI motorcycle contribution rose steadily from 2009 to 2017 (24.5% to 33.9%). While the total number of crashes dropped from 22,461 to 13,244 between 2010 and 2017, the proportion of fatal RTIs increased from 14.7% to 22.2%. In the casualty ward, RTIs accounted for a greater proportion of patients and traumas in 2018 compared to 2015 (10%/41% and 36%/64%, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: Although RTIs have seen a gross reduction in Uganda, they have become more deadly, with greater motorcycle involvement. Hospital data demonstrate a rising need for trauma and neurosurgical care to manage greater RTI patient burden. Combining RTI prevention and care pathway improvements may mitigate current RTI trends.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph17062110

    View details for PubMedID 32235768

  • Circulating tumor DNA in Genetic Profiling and Monitoring of Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma Shyam, R., Kurtz, D., Alig, S., Jin, M., Link, M., Marks, L., Alizadeh, A. GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG. 2020: 81
  • Evaluating Shunt Survival Following Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting with and without Stereotactic Navigation in Previously Shunt-Naïve Patients. World neurosurgery Jin, M. C., Wu, A., Azad, T. D., Feng, A., Prolo, L. M., Veeravagu, A., Grant, G. A., Ratliff, J., Li, G. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.01.138

    View details for PubMedID 31996335

  • Liquid biopsy for pediatric diffuse midline glioma: a review of circulating tumor DNA and cerebrospinal fluid tumor DNA. Neurosurgical focus Azad, T. D., Jin, M. C., Bernhardt, L. J., Bettegowda, C. 2020; 48 (1): E9

    Abstract

    Diffuse midline glioma (DMG) is a highly malignant childhood tumor with an exceedingly poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The majority of these tumors harbor somatic mutations in genes encoding histone variants. These recurrent mutations correlate with treatment response and are forming the basis for molecularly guided clinical trials. The ability to detect these mutations, either in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) or cerebrospinal fluid tumor DNA (CSF-tDNA), may enable noninvasive molecular profiling and earlier prediction of treatment response. Here, the authors review ctDNA and CSF-tDNA detection methods, detail recent studies that have explored detection of ctDNA and CSF-tDNA in patients with DMG, and discuss the implications of liquid biopsies for patients with DMG.

    View details for DOI 10.3171/2019.9.FOCUS19699

    View details for PubMedID 31896079

  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Resected Brain Metastases - Does the Surgical Corridor Need to be Targeted? Practical radiation oncology Shi, S., Sandhu, N., Jin, M., Wang, E., Liu, E., Jaoude, J. A., Schofield, K., Zhang, C., Gibbs, I. C., Hancock, S. L., Chang, S. D., Li, G., Gephart, M. H., Pollom, E. L., Soltys, S. G. 2020

    Abstract

    Although consensus guidelines for post-resection stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases recommend the surgical corridor leading to the resection cavity be included in the SRS plan, no study has reported patterns of tumor recurrence based on inclusion or exclusion of the corridor as a target. We reviewed tumor control and toxicity outcomes of post-resection SRS for deep brain metastases based on whether or not the surgical corridor was targeted.We retrospectively reviewed patients who had resected brain metastases treated with SRS between 2007 and 2018 and included only 'deep' tumors (defined as located ≥1.0 cm from the pial surface prior to resection).In 66 deep brain metastases in 64 patients, the surgical corridor was targeted in 43 (65%). There were no statistical differences in the cumulative incidences of progression at 12-months for targeting vs. not targeting the corridor, respectively, for: overall local failure 2% (95% Confidence Interval [CI],0-11%) vs. 9% (95% CI,1-25%; p=0.25), corridor failure 0% (95% CI,0-0%) vs. 9% (95% CI,1-25%; p=0.06), cavity failure 2% (95% CI,0-11%) vs. 0% (95% CI,0-0%; p=0.91), adverse radiation effect 5% (95% CI,1-15%) vs. 13% (95% CI,3-30%; p=0.22). Leptomeningeal disease (7% (95% CI,2-18%) vs. 26% (95% CI,10-45%; p=0.03)) was higher in those without the corridor targeted.Omitting the surgical corridor in post-operative SRS for resected brain metastases was not associated with statistically significant differences in corridor or cavity recurrence or adverse radiation effect. As seen in recent prospective trials of post-resection SRS, the dominant pattern of progression is within the resection cavity; omission of the corridor would yield a smaller SRS volume that could allow for dose escalation to potentially improve local cavity control.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.prro.2020.04.009

    View details for PubMedID 32428766

  • Dual antiplatelet therapy after carotid artery stenting: trends and outcomes in a large national database. Journal of neurointerventional surgery Sussman, E. S., Jin, M., Pendharkar, A. V., Pulli, B., Feng, A., Heit, J. J., Telischak, N. A. 2020

    Abstract

    While dual antiplatelet therapy (dAPT) is standard of care following carotid artery stenting (CAS), the optimal dAPT regimen and duration has not been established.We canvassed a large national database (IBM MarketScan) to identify patients receiving carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or CAS for treatment of ischemic stroke or carotid artery stenosis from 2007 to 2016. We performed univariable and multivariable regression methods to evaluate the impact of covariates on post-CAS stroke-free survival, including post-discharge antiplatelet therapy.A total of 79 084 patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke or carotid stenosis received CEA (71 178; 90.0%) or CAS (7906; 10.0%). After adjusting for covariates, <180 days prescribed post-CAS P2Y12-inhibition was associated with increased risk for stroke (<90 prescribed days HR=1.421, 95% CI 1.038 to 1.946; 90-179 prescribed days HR=1.484, 95% CI 1.045 to 2.106). The incidence of hemorrhagic complications was higher during the period of prescribed P2Y12-inhibition (1.16% per person-month vs 0.49% per person-month after discontinuation, P<0.001). The rate of extracranial hemorrhage was nearly six-fold higher while on dAPT (6.50% per patient-month vs 1.16% per patient-month, P<0.001), and there was a trend towards higher rate of intracranial hemorrhage that did not reach statistical significance (5.09% per patient-month vs 3.69% per patient-month, P=0.0556). Later hemorrhagic events beyond 30 days post-CAS were significantly more likely to be extracranial (P=0.028).Increased duration of post-CAS dAPT is associated with lower rates of readmissions for stroke, and with increased risk of hemorrhagic complications, particularly extracranial hemorrhage. The potential benefit of prolonging dAPT with regard to ischemic complications must be balanced with the corresponding increased risk of predominantly extracranial hemorrhagic complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016008

    View details for PubMedID 32414894

  • Elucidating Incidence and Outcomes of Perioperative Status Epilepticus after Neurosurgical Procedures American Association of Neurological Surgeons Jin, M. C., Zhang, M., Parker, J. J., Ratliff, J. K., Skirboll, S. 2020
  • Next Generation Sequencing of Cerebrospinal Fluid to Improve Diagnostic Sensitivity, Detect Spatial Heterogeneity, and Predict Outcomes for Advanced Lung Cancer Patients with Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis American Association of Neurological Surgeons Azad, T. D., Nanjo, S., Chabon, J., Jin, M. C., Connolly, I., Ko, R., Yoo, C., Iv, M., Nagpal, S., Gephart, M., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2020
  • Assessing the Incidence and Burden of Post-Neurosurgical Antidepressant Use in Children Undergoing Surgery for Refractory Seizures American Association of Neurological Surgeons Jin, M. C., Prolo, L. M., Parker, J. J., Gallentine, W., Grant, G. A. 2020
  • Evaluating Surgical Resection Extent and Adjuvant Therapy in the Management of Gliosarcoma American Association of Neurological Surgeons Liu, E. K., Jin, M. C., Shi, S., Gibbs, I., Thomas, R., Recht, L., Soltys, S. G., Pollom, E. L., Chang, S., Gephart, M., Nagpal, S., Li, G. 2020
  • Recurrence of cavernous malformations after surgery in childhood. Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics Prolo, L. M., Jin, M. C., Loven, T., Vogel, H., Edwards, M. S., Steinberg, G. K., Grant, G. A. 2020: 1–10

    Abstract

    Cavernous malformations (CMs) are commonly treated cerebrovascular anomalies in the pediatric population; however, the data on radiographic recurrence of pediatric CMs after surgery are limited. The authors aimed to study the clinical presentation, outcomes, and recurrence rate following surgery for a large cohort of CMs in children.Pediatric patients (≤ 18 years old) who had a CM resected at a single institution were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Fisher's exact test of independence was used to assess differences in categorical variables. Survival curves were evaluated using the Mantel-Cox method.Fifty-three patients aged 3 months to 18 years underwent resection of 74 symptomatic CMs between 1996 and 2018 at a single institution. The median length of follow-up was 5.65 years. Patients most commonly presented with seizures (45.3%, n = 24) and the majority of CMs were cortical (58.0%, n = 43). Acute radiographic hemorrhage was common at presentation (64.2%, n = 34). Forty-two percent (n = 22) of patients presented with multiple CMs, and they were more likely to develop de novo lesions (71%) compared to patients presenting with a single CM (3.4%). Both radiographic hemorrhage and multiple CMs were independently prognostic for a higher risk of the patient requiring subsequent surgery. Fifty percent (n = 6) of the 12 patients with both risk factors required additional surgery within 2.5 years of initial surgery compared to none of the patients with neither risk factor (n = 9).Patients with either acute radiographic hemorrhage or multiple CMs are at higher risk for subsequent surgery and require long-term MRI surveillance. In contrast, patients with a single CM are unlikely to require additional surgery and may require less frequent routine imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.3171/2020.2.PEDS19543

    View details for PubMedID 32357336

  • Evaluating Surgical Resection Extent and Adjuvant Therapy in the Management of Gliosarcoma. Frontiers in oncology Jin, M. C., Liu, E. K., Shi, S., Gibbs, I. C., Thomas, R., Recht, L., Soltys, S. G., Pollom, E. L., Chang, S. D., Hayden Gephart, M., Nagpal, S., Li, G. 2020; 10: 337

    Abstract

    Introduction: Gliosarcomas are clinically aggressive tumors, histologically distinct from glioblastoma. Data regarding the impact of extent of resection and post-operative adjuvant therapy on gliosarcoma outcomes are limited. Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed gliosarcoma diagnosed between 1999 and 2019 were identified. Clinical, molecular, and radiographic data were assembled based on historical records. Comparisons of categorical variables used Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact test while continuous values were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Survival comparisons were assessed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regressions. Results: Seventy-one gliosarcoma patients were identified. Secondary gliosarcoma was not associated with worse survival when compared to recurrent primary gliosarcoma (median survival 9.8 [3.8 to 21.0] months vs. 7.6 [1.0 to 35.7], p = 0.7493). On multivariable analysis, receipt of temozolomide (HR = 0.02, 95% CI 0.001-0.21) and achievement of gross total resection (GTR; HR = 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.77) were independently prognostic for improved progression-free survival (PFS) while only receipt of temozolomide was independently associated with extended overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.001-0.89). In patients receiving surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide, achievement of GTR was significantly associated with improved PFS (median 32.97 [7.1-79.6] months vs. 5.45 [1.8-26.3], p = 0.0092) and OS (median 56.73 months [7.8-104.5] vs. 14.83 [3.8 to 29.1], p = 0.0252). Conclusion: Multimodal therapy is associated with improved survival in gliosarcoma. Even in patients receiving aggressive post-operative multimodal management, total surgical removal of macroscopic disease remains important for optimal outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fonc.2020.00337

    View details for PubMedID 32219069

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7078164

  • Long-term follow-up of neurosurgical outcomes for adult patients in Uganda with traumatic brain injury. Journal of neurosurgery Jin, M. C., Kakusa, B., Ku, S., Vaca, S. D., Xu, L. W., Nalwanga, J., Kiryabwire, J., Ssenyonjo, H., Mukasa, J., Muhumuza, M., Fuller, A. T., Haglund, M. M., Grant, G. A. 2020: 1–11

    Abstract

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Uganda and other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Due to the difficulty of long-term in-person follow-up, there is a paucity of literature on longitudinal outcomes of TBI in LMICs. Using a scalable phone-centered survey, this study attempted to investigate factors associated with both mortality and quality of life in Ugandan patients with TBI.A prospective registry of adult patients with TBI admitted to the neurosurgical ward at Mulago National Referral Hospital was assembled. Long-term follow-up was conducted between 10.4 and 30.5 months after discharge (median 18.6 months). Statistical analyses included univariable and multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression to elucidate factors associated with mortality and long-term recovery.A total of 1274 adult patients with TBI were included, of whom 302 (23.7%) died as inpatients. Patients who died as inpatients received surgery less frequently (p < 0.001), had more severe TBI at presentation (p < 0.001), were older (p < 0.001), and were more likely to be female (p < 0.0001). Patients presenting with TBI resulting from assault were at reduced risk of inpatient death compared with those presenting with TBI caused by road traffic accidents (OR 0.362, 95% CI 0.128-0.933). Inpatient mortality and postdischarge mortality prior to follow-up were 23.7% and 9%, respectively. Of those discharged, 60.8% were reached through phone interviews. Higher Glasgow Coma Scale score at discharge (continuous HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.94) was associated with improved long-term survival. Tracheostomy (HR 4.38, 95% CI 1.05-16.7) and older age (continuous HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.009-1.05) were associated with poor long-term outcomes. More than 15% of patients continued to suffer from TBI sequelae years after the initial injury, including seizures (6.1%) and depression (10.0%). Despite more than 60% of patients seeking follow-up healthcare visits, mortality was still 9% among discharged patients, suggesting a need for improved longitudinal care to monitor recovery progress.Inpatient and postdischarge mortality remain high following admission to Uganda's main tertiary hospital with the diagnosis of TBI. Furthermore, posttraumatic sequelae, including seizures and depression, continue to burden patients years after discharge. Effective scalable solutions, including phone interviews, are needed to elucidate and address factors limiting in-hospital capacity and access to follow-up healthcare.

    View details for DOI 10.3171/2020.4.JNS193092

    View details for PubMedID 32619973

  • Impact of Proton Radiotherapy on Treatment Timing in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Central Nervous System Tumors Neuro-Oncology Practice Jin, M. C., Shi, S., Wu, A., Sandhu, N., Xiang, M., Soltys, S. G., Hiniker, S., Li, G., Pollom, E. L. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1093/nop/npaa034

  • Patterns of Care and Age-Specific Impact of Extent of Resection and Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Pediatric Pineoblastoma. Neurosurgery Jin, M. C., Prolo, L. M., Wu, A., Azad, T. D., Shi, S., Rodrigues, A. J., Soltys, S. G., Pollom, E. L., Li, G., Hiniker, S. M., Grant, G. A. 2020

    Abstract

    Pediatric pineoblastomas are highly aggressive tumors that portend poor outcomes despite multimodal management. Controversy remains regarding optimal disease management.To evaluate patterns of care and optimal clinical management of pediatric pineoblastoma.A total of 211 pediatric (age 0-17 yr) histologically confirmed pineoblastoma patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2015 were queried from the National Cancer Database. Wilcoxon rank-sum statistics and chi-squared analyses were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Univariable and multivariable Cox regressions were used to evaluate prognostic impact of covariates. Propensity-score matching was used to balance baseline characteristics.Older patients (age ≥ 4 yr) experienced improved overall survival compared to younger patients (age < 4 yr) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.41; 95% CI 0.25-0.66). Older patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.21; 95% CI 2.61-10.78) and those residing in high-income regions (aOR = 3.16; 95% CI 1.21-8.61) received radiotherapy more frequently. Radiotherapy was independently associated with improved survival in older (adjusted HR [aHR] = 0.31; 95% CI 0.12-0.87) but not younger (aHR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.20-1.90) patients. The benefits of radiotherapy were more pronounced in patients receiving surgery than in those not receiving surgery (aHR [surgical patients] = 0.23; 95% CI 0.08-0.65; aHR [nonsurgical patients] = 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.97). Older patients experienced improved outcomes associated with aggressive resection (P = .041); extent of resection was not associated with survival in younger patients (P = .880).Aggressive tumor resection was associated with improved survival only in older pediatric patients. Radiotherapy was more effective in patients receiving surgery. Age-stratified approaches might allow for improved disease management of pediatric pineoblastoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/neuros/nyaa023

    View details for PubMedID 32110805

  • Proton radiotherapy and treatment delay in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The Laryngoscope Jin, M. C., Harris, J. P., Sabolch, A. N., Gensheimer, M., Le, Q., Beadle, B. M., Pollom, E. L. 2019

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: For patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), delays in the initiation of radiotherapy (RT) have been closely associated with worse outcomes. We sought to investigate whether RT modality (proton vs. photon) is associated with differences in the time to initiation of RT.METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic HNSCC between 2004 and 2015 who received either proton or photon RT as part of their initial treatment. Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between use of proton RT and delayed RT initiation.RESULTS: A total of 175,088 patients with HNSCC receiving either photon or proton RT were identified. Patients receiving proton RT were more likely to be white, reside in higher income areas, and have private insurance. Proton RT was associated with delayed RT initiation compared to photon RT (median 59days vs. 45, P <0.001). Receipt of proton therapy was independently associated with RT initiation beyond 6weeks after diagnosis (adjusted OR [aOR, definitive RT] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-2.30) or surgery (aOR [adjuvant RT] = 4.08; 95% CI 2.64-6.62). In the context of adjuvant proton RT, increases in treatment delay were associated with worse overall survival (weeks, adjusted hazard ratio =1.099, 95% CI 1.011-1.194).CONCLUSION: Use of proton therapy is associated with delayed RT in both the definitive and adjuvant settings for patients with HNSCC and could be associated with poorer outcomes.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b Laryngoscope, 122:0000-0000, 2019 Laryngoscope, 2019.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.28458

    View details for PubMedID 31837165

  • Patterns of Opioid and Benzodiazepine Use in Opioid-Naive Patients with Newly Diagnosed Low Back and Lower Extremity Pain. Journal of general internal medicine Azad, T. D., Zhang, Y., Stienen, M. N., Vail, D., Bentley, J. P., Ho, A. L., Fatemi, P., Herrick, D., Kim, L. H., Feng, A., Varshneya, K., Jin, M., Veeravagu, A., Bhattacharya, J., Desai, M., Lembke, A., Ratliff, J. K. 2019

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: The morbidity and mortality associated with opioid and benzodiazepine co-prescription is a pressing national concern. Little is known about patterns of opioid and benzodiazepine use in patients with acute low back pain or lower extremity pain.OBJECTIVE: To characterize patterns of opioid and benzodiazepine prescribing among opioid-naive, newly diagnosed low back pain (LBP) or lower extremity pain (LEP) patients and to investigate the relationship between benzodiazepine prescribing and long-term opioid use.DESIGN/SETTING: We performed a retrospective analysis of a commercial database containing claims for more than 75 million enrollees in the USA.PARTICIPANTS: Participants were adult patients newly diagnosed with LBP or LEP between 2008 and 2015 who did not have a red flag diagnosis, had not received an opioid prescription in the 6months prior to diagnosis, and had 12months of continuous enrollment after diagnosis.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Among patients receiving at least one opioid prescription within 12months of diagnosis, we defined discrete patterns of benzodiazepine prescribing-continued use, new use, stopped use, and never use. We tested the association of these prescription patterns with long-term opioid use, defined as six or more fills within 12months.RESULTS: We identified 2,497,653 opioid-naive patients with newly diagnosed LBP or LEP. Between 2008 and 2015, 31.9% and 11.5% of these patients received opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions, respectively, within 12months of diagnosis. Rates of opioid prescription decreased from 34.8% in 2008 to 27.0% in 2015 (P<0.001); however, prescribing of benzodiazepines only decreased from 11.6% in 2008 to 10.8% in 2015. Patients with continued or new benzodiazepine use consistently used more opioids than patients who never used or stopped using benzodiazepines during the study period (one-way ANOVA, P<0.001). For patients with continued and new benzodiazepine use, the odds ratio of long-term opioid use compared with those never prescribed a benzodiazepine was 2.99 (95% CI, 2.89-3.08) and 2.68 (95% CI, 2.62-2.75), respectively.LIMITATIONS: This study used administrative claims analyses, which rely on accuracy and completeness of diagnostic, procedural, and prescription codes.CONCLUSION: Overall opioid prescribing for low back pain or lower extremity pain decreased substantially during the study period, indicating a shift in management within the medical community. Rates of benzodiazepine prescribing, however, remained at approximately 11%. Concurrent prescriptions of benzodiazepines and opioids after LBP or LEP diagnosis were associated with increased risk of long-term opioid use.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-019-05549-8

    View details for PubMedID 31720966

  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Resected Brain Metastases: Single-Institutional Experience of over 500 Cavities Shi, S., Sandhu, N., Wang, E. H., Liu, E., Jaoude, J., Jin, M., Schofield, K., Zhang, C., Gibbs, I. C., Hancock, S. L., Chang, S. D., Li, G., Hayden, M., Soltys, S. G., Pollom, E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: E90
  • Factors Associated with Treatment Failure and Radiation Necrosis Following Cavity Radiosurgery for Resected Brain Metastases Wang, E. H., Shi, S., Sandhu, N., Liu, E., Jin, M., Schofield, K., Zhang, C., Jaoude, J., Gibbs, I. C., Hancock, S. L., Chang, S. D., Li, G., Hayden, M., Soltys, S. G., Pollom, E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: E92
  • Prognostic Factors and Treatment Patterns in the Management of Giant Cell Glioblastoma WORLD NEUROSURGERY Jin, M. C., Wu, A., Xiang, M., Azad, T. D., Soltys, S. G., Li, G., Pollom, E. L. 2019; 128: E217–E224
  • Dynamic Risk Profiling Using Serial Tumor Biomarkers for Personalized Outcome Prediction. Cell Kurtz, D. M., Esfahani, M. S., Scherer, F., Soo, J., Jin, M. C., Liu, C. L., Newman, A. M., Duhrsen, U., Huttmann, A., Casasnovas, O., Westin, J. R., Ritgen, M., Bottcher, S., Langerak, A. W., Roschewski, M., Wilson, W. H., Gaidano, G., Rossi, D., Bahlo, J., Hallek, M., Tibshirani, R., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2019

    Abstract

    Accurate prediction of long-term outcomes remains a challenge in the care of cancer patients. Due to the difficulty of serial tumor sampling, previous prediction tools have focused on pretreatment factors. However, emerging non-invasive diagnostics have increased opportunities for serial tumor assessments. We describe the Continuous Individualized Risk Index (CIRI), a method to dynamically determine outcome probabilities for individual patients utilizing risk predictors acquired over time. Similar to "win probability" models in other fields, CIRI provides a real-time probability by integrating risk assessments throughout a patient's course. Applying CIRI to patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, we demonstrate improved outcome prediction compared to conventional risk models. We demonstrate CIRI's broader utility in analogous models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and breast adenocarcinoma and perform a proof-of-concept analysis demonstrating how CIRI could be used to develop predictive biomarkers for therapy selection. We envision thatdynamic risk assessment will facilitate personalized medicine and enable innovative therapeutic paradigms.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2019.06.011

    View details for PubMedID 31280963

  • Efficacy and toxicity of particle radiotherapy in WHO grade II and grade III meningiomas: a systematic review. Neurosurgical focus Wu, A., Jin, M. C., Meola, A., Wong, H., Chang, S. D. 2019; 46 (6): E12

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVEAdjuvant radiotherapy has become a common addition to the management of high-grade meningiomas, as immediate treatment with radiation following resection has been associated with significantly improved outcomes. Recent investigations into particle therapy have expanded into the management of high-risk meningiomas. Here, the authors systematically review studies on the efficacy and utility of particle-based radiotherapy in the management of high-grade meningioma.METHODSA literature search was developed by first defining the population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study design (PICOS). A search strategy was designed for each of three electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, and Scopus. Data extraction was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Outcomes of interest included local disease control, overall survival, and toxicity, which were compared with historical data on photon-based therapies.RESULTSEleven retrospective studies including 240 patients with atypical (WHO grade II) and anaplastic (WHO grade III) meningioma undergoing particle radiation therapy were identified. Five of the 11 studies included in this systematic review focused specifically on WHO grade II and III meningiomas; the others also included WHO grade I meningioma. Across all of the studies, the median follow-up ranged from 6 to 145 months. Local control rates for high-grade meningiomas ranged from 46.7% to 86% by the last follow-up or at 5 years. Overall survival rates ranged from 0% to 100% with better prognoses for atypical than for malignant meningiomas. Radiation necrosis was the most common adverse effect of treatment, occurring in 3.9% of specified cases.CONCLUSIONSDespite the lack of randomized prospective trials, this review of existing retrospective studies suggests that particle therapy, whether an adjuvant or a stand-alone treatment, confers survival benefit with a relatively low risk for severe treatment-derived toxicity compared to standard photon-based therapy. However, additional controlled studies are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.3171/2019.3.FOCUS1967

    View details for PubMedID 31153145

  • Stereotactic radiosurgery for resected brain metastases: Does the surgical corridor need to be treated? Shi, S., Jaoude, J., Sandhu, N., Wang, E., Schofield, K., Jin, M. C., Zhang, C., Liu, E., Pollom, E. L., Soltys, S. G. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2019
  • Prognostic Value of Circulating Tumor DNA in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Reply JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Kurtz, D. M., Scherer, F., Jin, M. C., Soo, J., Craig, A. M., Esfahani, M. S., Chabon, J. J., Stehr, H., Liu, C., Tibshirani, R., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Khodadoust, M. S., Advani, R. H., Newman, A. M., Duehrsen, U., Huettmann, A., Meignan, M., Casasnovas, O., Westin, J. R., Roschewski, M., Wilson, W. H., Gaidano, G., Rossi, D., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2019; 37 (9): 755-+
  • Stem cell therapies for acute spinal cord injury in humans: a review NEUROSURGICAL FOCUS Jin, M. C., Medress, Z. A., Azad, T. D., Doulames, V. M., Veeravagu, A. 2019; 46 (3): E10

    Abstract

    Recent advances in stem cell biology present significant opportunities to advance clinical applications of stem cell-based therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI). In this review, the authors critically analyze the basic science and translational evidence that supports the use of various stem cell sources, including induced pluripotent stem cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. They subsequently explore recent advances in stem cell biology and discuss ongoing clinical translation efforts, including combinatorial strategies utilizing scaffolds, biogels, and growth factors to augment stem cell survival, function, and engraftment. Finally, the authors discuss the evolution of stem cell therapies for SCI by providing an overview of completed (n = 18) and ongoing (n = 9) clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.3171/2018.12.FOCUS18602

    View details for Web of Science ID 000460130200010

    View details for PubMedID 30835679

  • Reply to J. Wang et al. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Kurtz, D. M., Scherer, F., Jin, M. C., Soo, J., Craig, A. F., Esfahani, M. S., Chabon, J. J., Stehr, H., Liu, C. L., Tibshirani, R., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Khodadoust, M. S., Advani, R. H., Newman, A. M., Duhrsen, U., Huttmann, A., Meignan, M., Casasnovas, O., Westin, J. R., Roschewski, M., Wilson, W. H., Gaidano, G., Rossi, D., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2019: JCO1801907

    View details for PubMedID 30753108

  • Circulating tumor DNA analysis for detection of minimal residual disease after chemoradiotherapy for localized esophageal cancer. Gastroenterology Azad, T. D., Chaudhuri, A. A., Fang, P., Qiao, Y., Esfahani, M. S., Chabon, J. J., Hamilton, E. G., Yang, Y. D., Lovejoy, A., Newman, A. M., Kurtz, D. M., Jin, M., Schroers-Martin, J., Stehr, H., Liu, C. L., Bik-Yu Hui, A., Patel, V., Maru, D., Lin, S. H., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2019

    Abstract

    Biomarkers are needed to identify patients at risk of tumor progression following chemoradiotherapy for localized esophageal cancer. These could improve identification of patients at risk for cancer progression and selection of therapy.We performed deep sequencing (CAPP-Seq) analyses of plasma cell-free DNA collected from 45 patients before and after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer, as well as DNA from leukocytes, and fixed esophageal tumor biopsies collected during esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Patients were treated from May 2010 through October 2015; 23 patients subsequently underwent esophagectomy and 22 did not undergo surgery. We also sequenced DNA from blood samples from 40 healthy individuals (controls). We analyzed 802 regions of 607 genes for single-nucleotide variants previously associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. Patients underwent imaging analyses 6-8 weeks after chemoradiotherapy and were followed for 5 years. Our primary aim was to determine whether detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) following chemoradiotherapy is associated with risk of tumor progression (growth of local, regional, or distant tumors, detected by imaging or biopsy).The median proportion of tumor-derived DNA in total cell-free DNA before treatment was 0.07%, indicating that ultrasensitive assays are needed for quantification and analysis of ctDNA from localized esophageal tumors. Detection of ctDNA following chemoradiotherapy was associated with tumor progression (hazard ratio, 18.7; P<.0001), formation of distant metastases (hazard ratio, 32.1; P<.0001), and shorter disease-specific survival times (hazard ratio, 23.1; P<.0001). A higher proportion of patients with tumor progression had new mutations detected in plasma samples collected after chemoradiotherapy than patients without progression (P=.03). Detection of ctDNA after chemoradiotherapy preceded radiographic evidence of tumor progression by an average of 2.8 months. Among patients who received chemoradiotherapy without surgery, combined ctDNA and metabolic imaging analysis predicted progression in 100% of patients with tumor progression, compared with 71% for only ctDNA detection and 57% for only metabolic imaging analysis (P<.001 for comparison of either technique to combined analysis).In an analysis of cell-free DNA in blood samples from patients who underwent chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer, detection of ctDNA was associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and disease-specific survival. Analysis of ctDNA might be used to identify patients at highest risk for tumor progression.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.10.039

    View details for PubMedID 31711920

  • Stereotactic radiosurgery for resected brain metastases: single-institutional experience of over 500 cavities. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Shi, S., Sandhu, N., Jin, M. C., Wang, E., Jaoude, J. A., Schofield, K., Zhang, C., Liu, E., Gibbs, I. C., Hancock, S. L., Chang, S. D., Li, G., Hayden-Gephart, M., Adler, J. R., Soltys, S. G., Pollom, E. L. 2019

    Abstract

    Post-operative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has less detrimental impact on cognition and quality of life compared to whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and is increasingly used for resected brain metastases (BMs). Post-operative SRS techniques are not standardized, and there is a concern for a different pattern of failure following post-operative SRS compared to WBRT. We aim to study the efficacy, toxicity, and failure pattern of post-operative SRS.We retrospectively reviewed outcomes of patients with resected BMs treated with post-operative SRS between 2007 and 2018. Overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidences of local failure (LF), overall distant intracranial failure [distant parenchymal failure (DPF), nodular leptomeningeal disease (nLMD), classical leptomeningeal disease (cLMD)], and adverse radiation effect (ARE) were reported. Neurological death was determined for patients with leptomeningeal disease (LMD).A total of 442 patients with 501 resected BMs were treated over 475 total SRS courses. Median clinical follow-up and OS after SRS were 10.1 months [interquartile range (IQR) 3.6-20.7 months] and 13.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.8-15.2 months], respectively. At 12 months, event rates were 7% (95% CI 5%-10%) for LF, 9% (95% CI 7%-12%) for ARE, 44% (95% CI 40%-49%) for overall distant intracranial failure, 37% (95% CI 33%-42%) for DPF and 13% (95% CI 10%-17%) for LMD. The overall incidence of LMD was 15.8% (53% cLMD, 46% nLMD). cLMD was associated with shorter survival than nLMD (2.0 versus 11.2 months, p<0.01) and a higher proportion of neurological death (67% versus 41%, p=0.02). A total of 15% of patients ultimately received WBRT.We report the largest clinical experience of post-operative SRS for resected BMs, showing excellent local control and low toxicity. Intracranial failure was predominantly distant, with a rising incidence of LMD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.11.022

    View details for PubMedID 31785338

  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Pediatric and Adult Intracranial and Spinal Ependymomas. Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery Shi, S., Jin, M. C., Koenig, J., Gibbs, I. C., Soltys, S. G., Chang, S. D., Li, G., Hayden Gephart, M., Hiniker, S. M., Pollom, E. L. 2019: 1–6

    Abstract

    We report efficacy and toxicity outcomes with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for intracranial and spinal ependymoma.We analyzed adult and pediatric patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent intracranial or spinal ependymoma lesions treated with SRS at our institution. Following SRS, local failure (LF) was defined as failure within or adjacent to the SRS target volume, while distant failure (DF) was defined as failure outside of the SRS target volume. Time to LF and DF was analyzed using competing risk analysis with death as a competing risk.Overall survival (OS) was calculated from the date of first SRS to the date of death or censored at the date of last follow-up using the Kaplan-Meier method.Twenty-one patients underwent SRS to 40 intracranial (n = 30) or spinal (n = 10) ependymoma lesions between 2007 and 2018, most commonly with 18 or 20 Gy in 1 fraction. Median follow-up for all patients after first SRS treatment was 54 months (range 2-157). The 1-year, 2-year, and 5-year rates of survival among patients with initial intracranial ependymoma were 86, 74, and 52%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidences of LF and DF after SRS among intracranial ependymoma patients were 25% (95% CI 11-43) and 42% (95% CI 22-60), respectively. No spinal ependymoma patient experienced LF, DF, or death within 2 years of SRS. Three patients had adverse radiation effects.SRS is a viable treatment option for intracranial and spinal ependymoma with excellent local control and acceptable toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000502653

    View details for PubMedID 31590165

  • Risk of Subsequent Primary Cancers After External Beam Radiotherapy Treatment of Pediatric Low Grade Gliomas: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis 1973 to 2015 Congress of Neurological Surgeons Rodrigues, A., Jin, M. C., Wu, A., Li, G., Grant, G. A. 2019
  • Patterns of Care and Age Specific Impact of Resection Extent and Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Pediatric Pineoblastoma Congress of Neurological Surgeons Jin, M. C., Prolo, L. M., Wu, A., Azad, T. D., Shi, S., Rodrigues, A., Soltys, S. G., Pollom, E., Li, G., Hiniker, S., Grant, G. A. 2019
  • Intracranial Response of Brain Metastases to Osimertinib With or Without Upfront Stereotactic Radiosurgery in TKI-Naïve Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients Congress of Neurological Surgeons Jin, M. C., Liu, E. K., Macaulay, C. W., Gian, A., Shi, S., Koenig, J., Li, G., Soltys, S. G., Pollom, E. L. 2019
  • Interim Circulating Tumor DNA As a Prognostic Biomarker in the Setting of Interim PET-Based Adaptive Therapy for DLBCL American Society of Hematology Macaulay, C., Alig, S., Kurtz, D. M., Jin, M. C., Opat, S., Soo, J., Sworder, B., Hertzberg, M. S., Gandhi, M. K., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2019
  • Circulating DNA for Molecular Response Prediction, Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms and Quantification of CAR T-Cells during Axicabtagene Ciloleucel Therapy American Society of Hematology Sworder, B., Kurtz, D. M., Macaulay, C., Frank, M. J., Alig, S., Garofalo, A., Sahaf, B., Esfahani, M. S., Spiegel, J. Y., Oak, J., Beygi, S., Jin, M. C., Chabon, J. J., Khodadoust, M. S., Majzner, R. G., Mackall, C. L., Diehn, M., Miklos, D. B., Alizadeh, A. A. 2019
  • Towards Non-Invasive Classification of DLBCL Genetic Subtypes By Ctdna Profiling American Society of Hematology Esfahani, M. S., Alig, S., Kurtz, D. M., Soo, J., Jin, M. C., Macaulay, C., Craig, A., Garofalo, A., Steen, C. B., Scherer, F., Sworder, B., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2019
  • Phased Variant Enrichment for Enhanced Minimal Residual Disease Detection from Cell-Free DNA American Society of Hematology Kurtz, D. M., Soo, J., Alig, S., Keh, L. C., Macaulay, C., Jin, M. C., Scherer, F., Hamilton, E. G., Liu, C., Chen, B., Craig, A., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2019
  • Short Diagnosis-to-Treatment Interval Is Associated with Higher Levels of Circulating Tumor DNA in Aggressive B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma American Society of Hematology Alig, S., Macaulay, C., Kurtz, D. M., Ulrich, D., Andreas, H., Jin, M. C., Sworder, B., Garofalo, A., Esfahani, M. S., Soo, J., Scherer, F., Craig, A., Casasnovas, O., Westin, J. R., Gaidano, G., Rossi, D., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2019
  • Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Mortality Trends in the United States, 1973-2013. JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery Qian, Z. J., Jin, M. C., Meister, K. D., Megwalu, U. C. 2019

    Abstract

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing by 3% annually. This increase is often thought to be attributable to overdiagnosis in adults. A previous study reported a 1.1% annual increase in the incidence of pediatric thyroid cancer. However, the analysis was limited to the period from 1973 to 2004 and was performed in a linear fashion, which does not account for changes in incidence trends over time.To analyze trends in pediatric thyroid cancer incidence based on demographic and tumor characteristics at diagnosis.This cross-sectional study included individuals younger than 20 years who had a diagnosis of thyroid cancer in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 database from 1973 to 2013. Cases of thyroid cancer were identified using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition and were categorized by histologic type, stage, and tumor size.Annual percent change (APC) in the incidence rates was calculated using joinpoint regression analysis.Among 1806 patients included in the analysis, 1454 (80.5%) were female and 1503 (83.2%) were white; most patients were aged 15 to 19 years. The overall incidence rates of thyroid cancer increased annually from 0.48 per 100 000 person-years in 1973 to 1.14 per 100 000 person-years in 2013. Incidence rates gradually increased from 1973 to 2006 (APC, 1.11%; 95% CI, 0.56%-1.67%) and then markedly increased from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 9.56%; 95% CI, 5.09%-14.22%). The incidence rates of large tumors (>20 mm) gradually increased from 1983 to 2006 (APC, 2.23%; 95% CI, 0.93%-3.54%) and then markedly increased from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 8.84%; 95% CI, 3.20%-14.79%); these rates were not significantly different from incidence rates of small (1-20 mm) tumors. The incidence rates of regionally extended thyroid cancer gradually increased from 1973 to 2006 (APC, 1.44%; 95% CI, 0.68%-2.21%) and then markedly increased from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 11.16%; 95% CI, 5.26%-17.40%); these rates were not significantly different from the incidence rates of localized disease.The incidence rates of pediatric thyroid cancer increased more rapidly from 2006 to 2013 than from 1973 to 2006. The findings suggest that there may be a co-occurring increase in thyroid cancer in the pediatric population in addition to enhanced detection.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoto.2019.0898

    View details for PubMedID 31120475

  • Lymphoma Virome Dynamics Revealed By Cell-Free DNA Sequencing Schroers-Martin, J. G., Garofalo, A., Soo, J., Jin, M. C., Kurtz, D. M., Buedts, L., Duehrsen, U., Huettmann, A., Cottereau, A., Meignan, M., Casasnovas, O., Westin, J. R., Gaidano, G., Rossi, D., Roschewski, M., Wilson, W. H., Advani, R. H., Vandenberghe, P., Diehn, M., Khush, K., Alizadeh, A. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2018
  • Noninvasive Genotyping and Monitoring of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Jin, M. C., Schroers-Martin, J. G., Kurtz, D. M., Buedts, L., Esfahani, M. S., Macaulay, C., Sworder, B., Soo, J., Glover, C., Roschewski, M., Wilson, W. H., Duhrsen, U., Huettmann, A., Rossi, D., Gaidano, G., Westin, J. R., Maeda, L. S., Advani, R. H., Vandenberghe, P., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2018
  • Circulating Tumor DNA Measurements As Early Outcome Predictors in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Kurtz, D. M., Scherer, F., Jin, M. C., Soo, J., Craig, A. M., Esfahani, M., Chabon, J. J., Stehr, H., Liu, C., Tibshirani, R., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Khodadoust, M. S., Advani, R. H., Levy, R., Newman, A. M., Duehrsen, U., Huettmann, A., Meignan, M., Casasnovas, R., Westin, J. R., Roschewski, M., Wilson, W. H., Gaidano, G., Rossi, D., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2018; 36 (28): 2845-+
  • Circulating Tumor DNA Measurements As Early Outcome Predictors in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Kurtz, D. M., Scherer, F., Jin, M. C., Soo, J., Craig, A. F., Esfahani, M. S., Chabon, J. J., Stehr, H., Liu, C. L., Tibshirani, R., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Khodadoust, M. S., Advani, R. H., Levy, R., Newman, A. M., Duhrsen, U., Huttmann, A., Meignan, M., Casasnovas, R., Westin, J. R., Roschewski, M., Wilson, W. H., Gaidano, G., Rossi, D., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2018: JCO2018785246

    Abstract

    Purpose Outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma remain heterogeneous, with existing methods failing to consistently predict treatment failure. We examined the additional prognostic value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) before and during therapy for predicting patient outcomes. Patients and Methods We studied the dynamics of ctDNA from 217 patients treated at six centers, using a training and validation framework. We densely characterized early ctDNA dynamics during therapy using cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing to define response-associated thresholds within a discovery set. These thresholds were assessed in two independent validation sets. Finally, we assessed the prognostic value of ctDNA in the context of established risk factors, including the International Prognostic Index and interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. Results Before therapy, ctDNA was detectable in 98% of patients; pretreatment levels were prognostic in both front-line and salvage settings. In the discovery set, ctDNA levels changed rapidly, with a 2-log decrease after one cycle (early molecular response [EMR]) and a 2.5-log decrease after two cycles (major molecular response [MMR]) stratifying outcomes. In the first validation set, patients receiving front-line therapy achieving EMR or MMR had superior outcomes at 24 months (EMR: EFS, 83% v 50%; P = .0015; MMR: EFS, 82% v 46%; P < .001). EMR also predicted superior 24-month outcomes in patients receiving salvage therapy in the first validation set (EFS, 100% v 13%; P = .011). The prognostic value of EMR and MMR was further confirmed in the second validation set. In multivariable analyses including International Prognostic Index and interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans across both cohorts, molecular response was independently prognostic of outcomes, including event-free and overall survival. Conclusion Pretreatment ctDNA levels and molecular responses are independently prognostic of outcomes in aggressive lymphomas. These risk factors could potentially guide future personalized risk-directed approaches.

    View details for PubMedID 30125215

  • Circulating Tumor DNA Quantitation for Early Response Assessment of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Chaudhuri, A. A., Nabet, B. Y., Merriott, D. J., Jin, M., Chen, E. L., Chabon, J. J., Newman, A. M., Stehr, H., Say, C., Carter, J. N., Walters, S., Becker, H., Das, M., Padda, S. K., Loo, B. W., Wakelee, H. A., Neal, J. W., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E1–E2
  • Circulating Tumor DNA Quantitation for Early Response Assessment of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Lung Cancer Merriott, D. J., Chaudhuri, A. A., Jin, M., Chabon, J. J., Newman, A., Stehr, H., Say, C., Carter, J. N., Walters, S., Becker, H. R., Das, M., Padda, S., Loo, B. W., Wakelee, H. A., Neal, J. W., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: S20–S21
  • Elucidation of distinct mutational patterns between diffuse large B cell lymphoma subtypes utilizing circulating tumor DNA. Soo, J., Kurtz, D., Scherer, F., Craig, A. M., Jin, M. C., Westin, J. R., Rossi, D., Gaidano, G., Advani, R. H., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2017
  • Noninvasive detection of clinically relevant copy number alterations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Jin, M. C., Kurtz, D., Esfahani, M., Scherer, F., Craig, A. M., Soo, J., Khodadoust, M., Saganty, R., Chabon, J. J., Schroers-Martin, J., Stehr, H., Advani, R. H., Rossi, D., Gaidano, G., Westin, J. R., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2017
  • Noninvasive Detection of BCL2, BCL6, and MYC Translocations in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Kurtz, D. M., Scherer, F., Newman, A. M., Craig, A., Jin, M., Stehr, H., Chabon, J. J., Esfahani, M., Liu, C., Zhou, L., Glover, C., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G., Advani, R. H., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Levy, R., Ohgami, R. S., Davis, R., Kunder, C. A., Westin, J. R., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2016