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  • How flood events affect rainbow trout: Evidence of a biomarker cascade in rainbow trout after exposure to PAH contaminated sediment suspensions AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY Brinkmann, M., Hudjetz, S., Kammann, U., Hennig, M., Kuckelkorn, J., Chinoraks, M., Cofalla, C., Wiseman, S., Giesy, J. P., Schaeffer, A., Hecker, M., Woelz, J., Schuettrumpf, H., Hollert, H. 2013; 128: 13-24

    Abstract

    Increasing frequency and intensity of flood events are major concerns in the context of climate change. In addition to the direct hydrological implications of such events, potential ecotoxicological impacts are of increasing interest. It is vital to understand mechanisms of contaminant uptake from suspended particulate matter (SPM) and related effects in aquatic biota under realistic conditions. However, little is known about these processes. Due to recent changes in climate, during summer temperatures of German rivers frequently exceed 25°C. Effects of re-suspension of sediments on biota under elevated temperature regimes are likely to differ from those under lower temperature regimes. To elucidate this differential response of aquatic vertebrates, rainbow trout were exposed to suspensions of sediment from the Rhine River that was spiked with a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The experiments were conducted under two different temperature regimes (24°C or 12°C). Physicochemical parameters, including concentration of PAHs in SPM, and biomarkers in fish (biliary PAH metabolites, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO), mRNA expression of some genes and micronuclei) were measured over the course of a 12d study. Concentrations of pyrene and phenanthrene decreased over time, while no decrease was observed for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene. The biomarker cascades, more specifically the temporal dynamics of biomarker reactions, did not only show quantitative differences (i.e. different induction intensity or rate of biomarker responses) at the two temperatures but also qualitative differences, i.e. different biomarker responses were observed. A slight significant increase of biliary metabolites in fish was observed in un-spiked sediment at 24°C. In bile of fish exposed to PAH spiked sediment concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene increased significantly during the first two days, and then decreased. At 12°C uptake of PAHs was slower and maximum metabolite concentrations in bile were less than in fish exposed at 24°C. Following a latency of two days, concentrations of PAH metabolites in bile of fish exposed at 24°C were followed by a peak in LPO. PAHs spiked into sediments under laboratory conditions were significantly more bioavailable than the PAHs that were already present in un-spiked field-collected sediments.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.11.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316531900002

  • How flood events affect rainbow trout: evidence of a biomarker cascade in rainbow trout after exposure to PAH contaminated sediment suspensions. Aquatic toxicology Brinkmann, M., Hudjetz, S., Kammann, U., Hennig, M., Kuckelkorn, J., Chinoraks, M., Cofalla, C., Wiseman, S., Giesy, J. P., Schäffer, A., Hecker, M., Wölz, J., Schüttrumpf, H., Hollert, H. 2013; 128-129: 13-24

    Abstract

    Increasing frequency and intensity of flood events are major concerns in the context of climate change. In addition to the direct hydrological implications of such events, potential ecotoxicological impacts are of increasing interest. It is vital to understand mechanisms of contaminant uptake from suspended particulate matter (SPM) and related effects in aquatic biota under realistic conditions. However, little is known about these processes. Due to recent changes in climate, during summer temperatures of German rivers frequently exceed 25°C. Effects of re-suspension of sediments on biota under elevated temperature regimes are likely to differ from those under lower temperature regimes. To elucidate this differential response of aquatic vertebrates, rainbow trout were exposed to suspensions of sediment from the Rhine River that was spiked with a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The experiments were conducted under two different temperature regimes (24°C or 12°C). Physicochemical parameters, including concentration of PAHs in SPM, and biomarkers in fish (biliary PAH metabolites, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO), mRNA expression of some genes and micronuclei) were measured over the course of a 12d study. Concentrations of pyrene and phenanthrene decreased over time, while no decrease was observed for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene. The biomarker cascades, more specifically the temporal dynamics of biomarker reactions, did not only show quantitative differences (i.e. different induction intensity or rate of biomarker responses) at the two temperatures but also qualitative differences, i.e. different biomarker responses were observed. A slight significant increase of biliary metabolites in fish was observed in un-spiked sediment at 24°C. In bile of fish exposed to PAH spiked sediment concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene increased significantly during the first two days, and then decreased. At 12°C uptake of PAHs was slower and maximum metabolite concentrations in bile were less than in fish exposed at 24°C. Following a latency of two days, concentrations of PAH metabolites in bile of fish exposed at 24°C were followed by a peak in LPO. PAHs spiked into sediments under laboratory conditions were significantly more bioavailable than the PAHs that were already present in un-spiked field-collected sediments.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.11.010

    View details for PubMedID 23261668