All-Soft Supercapacitors Based on Liquid Metal Electrodes with Integrated Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes.
Soft energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors, are an essential component for powering integrated soft microsystems. However, conventional supercapacitors are mainly manufactured using hard/brittle materials that easily crack and eventually delaminate from the current collector by mechanical deformation. Therefore, to realize all-soft supercapacitors, the electrodes should be soft, stretchable, and highly conductive without compromising the electrochemical performance. This paper presents all-soft supercapacitors for integrated soft microsystems based on gallium-indium liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium alloy, EGaIn) electrodes with integrated functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Oxygen functional groups on the surface of the CNTs ensure strong adhesion between the functionalized CNTs and the thin native oxide layer on the surface of EGaIn, which enables delamination-free soft and stretchable electrodes even under mechanical deformation. The electrochemical performances of fabricated all-soft supercapacitors in a parallel-plate arrangement were investigated without and with applied mechanical deformation. The fabricated supercapacitors exhibit areal capacitances as high as 12.4 mF cm-2 and show nearly unchanged performance under 30% applied strain.Theymaintain >95% of their original capacitance after >4200 charging and discharging cycles with a periodic applied strain of 30%. Finally, fabricated supercapacitors have been successfully integrated with a commercial light-emitting diode to demonstrate an integrated soft microsystem.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.0c00129
View details for PubMedID 32379413
Nanofabrication for all-soft and high-density electronic devices based on liquid metal.
2020; 11 (1): 1002
Innovations in soft material synthesis and fabrication technologies have led to the development of integrated soft electronic devices. Such soft devices offer opportunities to interact with biological cells, mimicking their soft environment. However, existing fabrication technologies cannot create the submicron-scale, soft transducers needed for healthcare and medical applications involving single cells. This work presents a nanofabrication strategy to create submicron-scale, all-soft electronic devices based on eutectic gallium-indium alloy (EGaIn) using a hybrid method utilizing electron-beam lithography and soft lithography. The hybrid lithography process is applied to a biphasic structure, comprising a metallic adhesion layer coated with EGaIn, to create soft nano/microstructures embedded in elastomeric materials. Submicron-scale EGaIn thin-film patterning with feature sizes as small as 180nm and 1mum line spacing was achieved, resulting in the highest resolution EGaIn patterning technique to date. The resulting soft and stretchableEGaIn patterns offer a currently unrivaled combination of resolution, electrical conductivity, and electronic/wiring density.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-020-14814-y
View details for PubMedID 32081910