Doctor of Philosophy, University of Oxford (2018)
Judith Frydman, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Small heat-shock proteins and their role in mechanical stress.
Cell stress & chaperones
The ability of cells to respond to stress is central to health. Stress can damage folded proteins, which are vulnerable to even minor changes in cellular conditions. To maintain proteostasis, cells have developed an intricate network in which molecular chaperones are key players. The small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) are a widespread family of molecular chaperones, and some sHSPs are prominent in muscle, where cells and proteins must withstand high levels of applied force. sHSPs have long been thought to act as general interceptors of protein aggregation. However, evidence is accumulating that points to a more specific role for sHSPs in protecting proteins from mechanical stress. Here, we briefly introduce the sHSPs and outline the evidence for their role in responses to mechanical stress. We suggest that sHSPs interact with mechanosensitive proteins to regulate physiological extension and contraction cycles. It is likely that further study of these interactions - enabled by the development of experimental methodologies that allow protein contacts to be studied under the application of mechanical force - will expand our understanding of the activity and functions of sHSPs, and of the roles played by chaperones in general.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12192-020-01095-z
View details for PubMedID 32253742
Structural and functional consequences of age-related isomerization in alpha-crystallins
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2019; 294 (19): 7546–55
Long-lived proteins are subject to spontaneous degradation and may accumulate a range of modifications over time, including subtle alterations such as side-chain isomerization. Recently, tandem MS has enabled identification and characterization of such peptide isomers, including those differing only in chirality. However, the structural and functional consequences of these perturbations remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined the impact of isomerization of aspartic acid or epimerization of serine at four sites mapping to crucial oligomeric interfaces in human αA- and αB-crystallin, the most abundant chaperone proteins in the eye lens. To characterize the effect of isomerization on quaternary assembly, we utilized synthetic peptide mimics, enzyme assays, molecular dynamics calculations, and native MS experiments. The oligomerization of recombinant forms of αA- and αB-crystallin that mimic isomerized residues deviated from native behavior in all cases. Isomerization also perturbs recognition of peptide substrates, either enhancing or inhibiting kinase activity. Specifically, epimerization of serine (αASer-162) dramatically weakened inter-subunit binding. Furthermore, phosphorylation of αBSer-59, known to play an important regulatory role in oligomerization, was severely inhibited by serine epimerization and altered by isomerization of nearby αBAsp-62. Similarly, isomerization of αBAsp-109 disrupted a vital salt bridge with αBArg-120, a contact that when broken has previously been shown to yield aberrant oligomerization and aggregation in several disease-associated variants. Our results illustrate how isomerization of amino acid residues, which may seem to be only a minor structural perturbation, can disrupt native structural interactions with profound consequences for protein assembly and activity.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.RA118.007052
View details for Web of Science ID 000470153300002
View details for PubMedID 30804217
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6514633
HspB1 phosphorylation regulates its intramolecular dynamics and mechanosensitive molecular chaperone interaction with filamin C
2019; 5 (5): eaav8421
Mechanical force-induced conformational changes in proteins underpin a variety of physiological functions, typified in muscle contractile machinery. Mutations in the actin-binding protein filamin C (FLNC) are linked to musculoskeletal pathologies characterized by altered biomechanical properties and sometimes aggregates. HspB1, an abundant molecular chaperone, is prevalent in striated muscle where it is phosphorylated in response to cues including mechanical stress. We report the interaction and up-regulation of both proteins in three mouse models of biomechanical stress, with HspB1 being phosphorylated and FLNC being localized to load-bearing sites. We show how phosphorylation leads to increased exposure of the residues surrounding the HspB1 phosphosite, facilitating their binding to a compact multidomain region of FLNC proposed to have mechanosensing functions. Steered unfolding of FLNC reveals that its extension trajectory is modulated by the phosphorylated region of HspB1. This may represent a posttranslationally regulated chaperone-client protection mechanism targeting over-extension during mechanical stress.
View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.aav8421
View details for Web of Science ID 000470125000077
View details for PubMedID 31131323
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6530996