Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • 2020 Manuscript of the Year Award, Stanford Cardiovascular Institute (February 2021)
  • Cardiovascular Council Young Investigator Award, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (June 2018)
  • AAPM Young Investigator Award, American Association of Physicists in Medicine (May 2018)
  • CVIS Fellow, Stanford University
  • Edward J. Hoffman Graduate Fellowship, University of California, Los Angeles (September 2012)
  • Alavi-Mandell Prize for Outstanding Original Article, Journal of Nuclear Medicine (June 2011)
  • Sylvia Sorkin Greenfield Award, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA (October 2009)
  • Nuclear Oncology Council Young Investigator Award, First Place, Society of Nuclear Medicine (June 2009)
  • Brain Imaging Council Young Investigator Award, First Place, Society of Nuclear Medicine (June 2008)
  • Fred S. Grodins Award for Academic Excellence in Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California (May 2005)
  • Summa Cum Laude, University of Southern California (December 2004)
  • Elected to Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society, University of Southern California (December 2002)

Professional Education

  • Postdoctoral Fellowship, Stanford University
  • Ph.D., UCLA, Biomedical Physics (2013)
  • M.S., UCLA, Biomedical Physics (2011)
  • B.S., University of Southern California, Biomedical Engineering (2004)


  • Mirwais Wardak, Sarah Hooper, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir. "United States Patent 62/825,714 SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SYNTHETIC MEDICAL IMAGE GENERATION", Leland Stanford Junior University, Mar 28, 2019
  • Mirwais Wardak, Edwin Chang, Joseph C. Wu, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir. "United States Patent 62/749,305 PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF TERATOMA FORMATION FOR STEM CELL THERAPIES USING TUMOR-TREATING FIELDS", Leland Stanford Junior University, Oct 23, 2018

All Publications

  • Method for Selective Ablation of Undifferentiated Pluripotent Stem Cell Populations for Human Cardiomyocyte Transplantation JCI Insight Chour, T., Tian, L., Lau, E., Thomas, D., Itzhaki, I., Malak, O., Zhang, J., Qin, X., Wardak, M., Liu, Y., Chandy , M., Black, K. E., Lam , M. P., Neofytou, E., Wu, J. C. 2021
  • Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, MD, PhD (1962-2020). Journal of nuclear cardiology : official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Wu, J. C., Wardak, M., Chen, I. Y. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12350-020-02404-w

    View details for PubMedID 33131016

  • Molecular Imaging of Infective Endocarditis With 6''-[18F]Fluoromaltotriose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography. Circulation Wardak, M., Gowrishankar, G., Zhao, X., Liu, Y., Chang, E., Namavari, M., Haywood, T., Gabr, M. T., Neofytou, E., Chour, T., Qin, X., Vilches-Moure, J. G., Hardy, J., Contag, C. H., McConnell, M. V., Wu, J. C., Gambhir, S. S. 2020; 141 (21): 1729–31

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043924

    View details for PubMedID 32453662

  • Clinical evaluation of (4S)-4-(3-[18F]Fluoropropyl)-L-glutamate (18F-FSPG) for PET/CT imaging in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent prostate cancer Clinical Cancer Research Park, S. Y., Na, S. J., Kumar, M., Mosci, C., Wardak, M., Koglin, N., Bullich, S., Mueller, A., Berndt, M., Stephens, A. W., Cho, Y. M., Ahn, H., Chae, S. Y., Kim, H. O., Moon, D. H., Gambhir, S. S., Mittra, E. S. 2020
  • Initial evaluation of (4S)-4-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-L-glutamate (FSPG) PET/CT imaging in patients with head and neck cancer, colorectal cancer, or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. EJNMMI research Park, S. Y., Mosci, C. n., Kumar, M. n., Wardak, M. n., Koglin, N. n., Bullich, S. n., Mueller, A. n., Berndt, M. n., Stephens, A. W., Chin, F. T., Gambhir, S. S., Mittra, E. S. 2020; 10 (1): 100


    (4S)-4-(3-[18F]Fluoropropyl)-L-glutamic acid ([18F]FSPG) measures system xC- transporter activity and shows promise for oncologic imaging. We present data on tumor uptake of this radiopharmaceutical in human subjects with head and neck cancer (HNC), colorectal cancer (CRC), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).A total of 15 subjects with HNC (n = 5), CRC (n = 5), or NHL (n = 5) were recruited (mean age 66.2 years, range 44-87 years). 301.4 ± 28.1 MBq (8.1 ± 0.8 mCi) of [18F]FSPG was given intravenously to each subject, and 3 PET/CT scans were obtained 0-2 h post-injection. All subjects also had a positive [18F]FDG PET/CT scan within 1 month prior to the [18F]FSPG PET scan. Semi-quantitative and visual comparisons of the [18F]FSPG and [18F]FDG scans were performed.[18F]FSPG showed strong uptake in all but one HNC subject. The lack of surrounding brain uptake facilitated tumor delineation in the HNC patients. [18F]FSPG also showed tumor uptake in all CRC subjects, but variable uptake in the NHL subjects. While the absolute [18F]FDG SUV values were comparable or higher than [18F]FSPG, the tumor-to-background SUV ratios were greater with [18F]FSPG than [18F]FDG.[18F]FSPG PET/CT showed promising results across 15 subjects with 3 different cancer types. Concordant visualization was mostly observed between [18F]FSPG and [18F]FDG PET/CT images, with some inter- and intra-individual uptake variability potentially reflecting differences in tumor biology. The tumor-to-background ratios were greater with [18F]FSPG than [18F]FDG in the cancer types evaluated. Future studies based on larger numbers of subjects and those with a wider array of primary and recurrent or metastatic tumors are planned to further evaluate the utility of this novel tracer.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13550-020-00678-2

    View details for PubMedID 32857284

  • Synthesis and Characterization of 9-(4-[18F]Fluoro-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl)-2-(phenylthio)-6-oxopurine as a Novel PET Agent for Mutant Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase Reporter Gene Imaging Molecular Imaging and Biology Fuchigami, T., Haywood, T., Gowrishankar, G., Anders, D., Namavari, M., Wardak, M., Gambhir, S. S. 2020
  • Recent Advances in Imaging Inflammation Post-Myocardial Infarction Using Positron Emission Tomography CURRENT CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING REPORTS D'Addabbo, J., Wardak, M., Nguyen, P. K. 2019; 12 (10)
  • 68Ga-labeled exendin-4 to image cardiac repair after myocardial infarction: From lizard venom to laboratory and beyond. Journal of nuclear cardiology : official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Wardak, M. 2019

    View details for PubMedID 30805772

  • Identifying Hypoperfusion in Moyamoya Disease With Arterial Spin Labeling and an [15O]-Water Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging Normative Database. Stroke Fan, A. P., Khalighi, M. M., Guo, J., Ishii, Y., Rosenberg, J., Wardak, M., Park, J. H., Shen, B., Holley, D., Gandhi, H., Haywood, T., Singh, P., Steinberg, G. K., Chin, F. T., Zaharchuk, G. 2019: STROKEAHA118023426


    Background and Purpose- Noninvasive imaging of brain perfusion has the potential to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Moyamoya disease and enable clinical imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to select revascularization therapies for patients. We used hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology to characterize the distribution of hypoperfusion in Moyamoya disease and its relationship to vessel stenosis severity, through comparisons with a normative perfusion database of healthy controls. Methods- To image CBF, we acquired [15O]-water PET as a reference and simultaneously acquired arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI scans in 20 Moyamoya patients and 15 age-matched, healthy controls on a PET/MRI scanner. The ASL MRI scans included a standard single-delay ASL scan with postlabel delay of 2.0 s and a multidelay scan with 5 postlabel delays (0.7-3.0s) to estimate and account for arterial transit time in CBF quantification. The percent volume of hypoperfusion in patients (determined as the fifth percentile of CBF values in the healthy control database) was the outcome measure in a logistic regression model that included stenosis grade and location. Results- Logistic regression showed that anterior ( P<0.0001) and middle cerebral artery territory regions ( P=0.003) in Moyamoya patients were susceptible to hypoperfusion, whereas posterior regions were not. Cortical regions supplied by arteries with stenosis on MR angiography showed more hypoperfusion than normal arteries ( P=0.001), but the extent of hypoperfusion was not different between mild-moderate versus severe stenosis. Multidelay ASL did not perform differently from [15O]-water PET in detecting perfusion abnormalities, but standard ASL overestimated the extent of hypoperfusion in patients ( P=0.003). Conclusions- This simultaneous PET/MRI study supports the use of multidelay ASL MRI in clinical evaluation of Moyamoya disease in settings where nuclear medicine imaging is not available and application of a normative perfusion database to automatically identify abnormal CBF in patients.

    View details for PubMedID 30636572

  • Simultaneous phase-contrast MRI and PET for noninvasive quantification of cerebral blood flow and reactivity in healthy subjects and patients with cerebrovascular disease. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI Ishii, Y. n., Thamm, T. n., Guo, J. n., Khalighi, M. M., Wardak, M. n., Holley, D. n., Gandhi, H. n., Park, J. H., Shen, B. n., Steinberg, G. K., Chin, F. T., Zaharchuk, G. n., Fan, A. P. 2019


    H215 O-positron emission tomography (PET) is considered the reference standard for absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, this technique requires an arterial input function measured through continuous sampling of arterial blood, which is invasive and has limitations with tracer delay and dispersion.To demonstrate a new noninvasive method to quantify absolute CBF with a PET/MRI hybrid scanner. This blood-free approach, called PC-PET, takes the spatial CBF distribution from a static H215 O-PET scan, and scales it to the whole-brain average CBF value measured by simultaneous phase-contrast MRI.Observational.Twelve healthy controls (HC) and 13 patients with Moyamoya disease (MM) as a model of chronic ischemic disease.3T/2D cardiac-gated phase-contrast MRI and H215 O-PET.PC-PET CBF values from whole brain (WB), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) in HCs were compared with literature values since 2000. CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), which is defined as the percent CBF change between baseline and post-acetazolamide (vasodilator) scans, were measured by PC-PET in MM patients and HCs within cortical regions corresponding to major vascular territories. Statistical Tests: Linear, mixed effects models were created to compare CBF and CVR, respectively, between patients and controls, and between different degrees of stenosis.The mean CBF values in WB, GM, and WM in HC were 42 ± 7 ml/100 g/min, 50 ± 7 ml/100 g/min, and 23 ± 3 ml/100 g/min, respectively, which agree well with literature values. Compared with normal regions (57 ± 23%), patients showed significantly decreased CVR in areas with mild/moderate stenosis (47 ± 17%, P = 0.011) and in severe/occluded areas (40 ± 16%, P = 0.016). Data Conclusion: PC-PET identifies differences in cerebrovascular reactivity between healthy controls and cerebrovascular patients. PC-PET is suitable for CBF measurement when arterial blood sampling is not accessible, and warrants comparison to fully quantitative H215 O-PET in future studies.3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019.

    View details for PubMedID 31044459

  • Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in Ischemic Heart Disease CURRENT CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING REPORTS Bakerman, I., Wardak, M., Nguyen, P. K. 2018; 11 (6)
  • The Gift of Light: Using Multiplexed Optical Imaging to Probe Cardiac Metabolism in Health and Disease. Circulation. Cardiovascular imaging Wardak, M. n., Nguyen, P. K. 2018; 11 (3): e007597

    View details for PubMedID 29555838

  • Reply: 6"-18F-Fluoromaltotriose PET Evaluation in Escherichia-Coli-Induced Myositis: is there Uptake Saturation in Control? Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine Wardak, M. n., Gowrishankar, G. n., Gambhir, S. S. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 29653976

  • F-Fluoromaltotriose: A Second Generation PET Tracer Targeting the Maltodextrin Transporter in Bacteria. Journal of nuclear medicine Gowrishankar, G., Hardy, J., Wardak, M., Namavari, M., Reeves, R., Neofytou, E., Srinivasan, A., Wu, J., Contag, C., Gambhir, S. 2017


    Purpose: 6"-(18)F-fluoromaltotriose is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer that can potentially be used to image and localize most bacterial infections, much like 2-deoxy-2-(18)F-fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) has been used to image and localize many cancers. However, unlike (18)F-FDG, 6"-(18)F-fluoromaltotriose is not taken up by inflammatory lesions and appears to be specific to bacterial infections by targeting the maltodextrin transporter that is expressed in most Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains of bacteria. Materials and Methods: 6"-(18)F-fluoromaltotriose was synthesized with high radiochemical purity and evaluated in several clinically relevant bacterial strains incultures in vitro and in living mice. Results: 6"-(18)F-fluoromaltotriose was taken up in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. 6"-[(18)F]-fluoromaltotriose was also able to detect Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a clinically relevant mouse model of wound infection. The utility of 6"-(18)F-fluoromaltotriose to help monitor antibiotic therapies was also evaluated in rats. Conclusion: 6"-(18)F-fluoromaltotriose is a promising new tracer that has significant diagnostic utility, with the potential to change the clinical management of patients suffering from infectious diseases of bacterial origin.

    View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.117.191452

    View details for PubMedID 28490473

  • Automated Movement Correction for Dynamic PET/CT Images: Evaluation with Phantom and Patient Data PLOS ONE Ye, H., Wong, K., Wardak, M., Dahlbom, M., Kepe, V., Barrio, J. R., Nelson, L. D., Small, G. W., Huang, S. 2014; 9 (8)


    Head movement during a dynamic brain PET/CT imaging results in mismatch between CT and dynamic PET images. It can cause artifacts in CT-based attenuation corrected PET images, thus affecting both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the dynamic PET images and the derived parametric images. In this study, we developed an automated retrospective image-based movement correction (MC) procedure. The MC method first registered the CT image to each dynamic PET frames, then re-reconstructed the PET frames with CT-based attenuation correction, and finally re-aligned all the PET frames to the same position. We evaluated the MC method's performance on the Hoffman phantom and dynamic FDDNP and FDG PET/CT images of patients with neurodegenerative disease or with poor compliance. Dynamic FDDNP PET/CT images (65 min) were obtained from 12 patients and dynamic FDG PET/CT images (60 min) were obtained from 6 patients. Logan analysis with cerebellum as the reference region was used to generate regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) for FDDNP scan before and after MC. For FDG studies, the image derived input function was used to generate parametric image of FDG uptake constant (Ki) before and after MC. Phantom study showed high accuracy of registration between PET and CT and improved PET images after MC. In patient study, head movement was observed in all subjects, especially in late PET frames with an average displacement of 6.92 mm. The z-direction translation (average maximum = 5.32 mm) and x-axis rotation (average maximum = 5.19 degrees) occurred most frequently. Image artifacts were significantly diminished after MC. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the FDDNP DVR and FDG Ki values in the parietal and temporal regions after MC. In conclusion, MC applied to dynamic brain FDDNP and FDG PET/CT scans could improve the qualitative and quantitative aspects of images of both tracers.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0103745

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341105100021

    View details for PubMedID 25111700

  • F-18-FLT and F-18-FDOPA PET kinetics in recurrent brain tumors EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING Wardak, M., Schiepers, C., Cloughesy, T. F., Dahlbom, M., Phelps, M. E., Huang, S. 2014; 41 (6): 1199-1209


    In this study, kinetic parameters of the cellular proliferation tracer (18)F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluoro-L-thymidine (FLT) and the amino acid probe 3,4-dihydroxy-6-(18)F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (FDOPA) were measured before and early after the start of therapy, and were used to predict the overall survival (OS) of patients with recurrent malignant glioma using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis.High-grade recurrent brain tumors in 21 patients (11 men and 10 women, age range 26 - 76 years) were investigated. Each patient had three dynamic PET studies with each probe: at baseline and after 2 and 6 weeks from the start of treatment. Treatment consisted of biweekly cycles of bevacizumab (an angiogenesis inhibitor) and irinotecan (a chemotherapeutic agent). For each study, about 3.5 mCi of FLT (or FDOPA) was administered intravenously and dynamic PET images were acquired for 1 h (or 35 min for FDOPA). A total of 126 PET scans were analyzed. A three-compartment, two-tissue model was applied to estimate tumor FLT and FDOPA kinetic rate constants using a metabolite- and partial volume-corrected input function. MLR analysis was used to model OS as a function of FLT and FDOPA kinetic parameters for each of the three studies as well as their relative changes between studies. An exhaustive search of MLR models using three or fewer predictor variables was performed to find the best models.Kinetic parameters from FLT were more predictive of OS than those from FDOPA. The three-predictor MLR model derived using information from both probes (adjusted R(2) = 0.83) fitted the OS data better than that derived using information from FDOPA alone (adjusted R(2) = 0.41), but was only marginally different from that derived using information from FLT alone (adjusted R(2) = 0.82). Standardized uptake values (either from FLT alone, FDOPA alone, or both together) gave inferior predictive results (best adjusted R(2) = 0.25).For recurrent malignant glioma treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan, FLT kinetic parameters obtained early after the start of treatment (absolute values and their associated changes) can provide sufficient information to predict OS with reasonable confidence using MLR. The slight increase in accuracy for predicting OS with a combination of FLT and FDOPA PET information may not warrant the additional acquisition of FDOPA PET for therapy monitoring in patients with recurrent glioma.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00259-013-2678-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335572600018

    View details for PubMedID 24604590

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4008691

  • Automated VOI Analysis in FDDNP PET Using Structural Warping: Validation through Classification of Alzheimer's Disease Patients. International journal of Alzheimer's disease Wilks, M. Q., Protas, H., Wardak, M., Kepe, V., Small, G. W., Barrio, J. R., Huang, S. 2012; 2012: 512069-?


    We evaluate an automated approach to the cortical surface mapping (CSM) method of VOI analysis in PET. Although CSM has been previously shown to be successful, the process can be long and tedious. Here, we present an approach that removes these difficulties through the use of 3D image warping to a common space. We test this automated method using studies of FDDNP PET in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. For each subject, VOIs were created, through CSM, to extract regional PET data. After warping to the common space, a single set of CSM-generated VOIs was used to extract PET data from all subjects. The data extracted using a single set of VOIs outperformed the manual approach in classifying AD patients from MCIs and controls. This suggests that this automated method can remove variance in measurements of PET data and can facilitate accurate, high-throughput image analysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2012/512069

    View details for PubMedID 22482071

  • Discriminant Analysis of F-18-Fluorothymidine Kinetic Parameters to Predict Survival in Patients with Recurrent High-Grade Glioma CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Wardak, M., Schiepers, C., Dahlbom, M., Cloughesy, T., Chen, W., Satyamurthy, N., Czernin, J., Phelps, M. E., Huang, S. 2011; 17 (20): 6553-6562


    The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether changes in 3'-deoxy-3'-[¹⁸F]fluorothymidine (¹⁸F-FLT) kinetic parameters, taken early after the start of therapy, could predict overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with recurrent malignant glioma undergoing treatment with bevacizumab and irinotecan.High-grade recurrent brain tumors were investigated in 18 patients (8 male and 10 female), ages 26 to 76 years. Each had 3 dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) studies as follows: at baseline and after 2 and 6 weeks from the start of treatment, ¹⁸F-FLT (2.0 MBq/kg) was injected intravenously, and dynamic PET images were acquired for 1 hour. Factor analysis generated factor images from which blood and tumor uptake curves were derived. A three-compartment, two-tissue model was applied to estimate tumor ¹⁸F-FLT kinetic rate constants using a metabolite- and partial volume-corrected input function. Different combinations of predictor variables were exhaustively searched in a discriminant function to accurately classify patients into their known OS and PFS groups. A leave-one-out cross-validation technique was used to assess the generalizability of the model predictions.In this study population, changes in single parameters such as standardized uptake value or influx rate constant did not accurately classify patients into their respective OS groups (<1 and ≥ 1 year; hit ratios ≤ 78%). However, changes in a set of ¹⁸F-FLT kinetic parameters could perfectly separate these two groups of patients (hit ratio = 100%) and were also able to correctly classify patients into their respective PFS groups (<100 and ≥ 100 days; hit ratio = 88%).Discriminant analysis using changes in ¹⁸F-FLT kinetic parameters early during treatment seems to be a powerful method for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic regimens.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-3290

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296359400021

    View details for PubMedID 21868765

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3833447

  • A bootstrap method for identifying image regions affected by intra-scan body movement during a PET/CT scan IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record Huang, S. C., Ye, H., Wardak, M., Wong, K. P., Dahlbom, M., Shao, W., Small, G. W., Barrio, J. R. 2011: 2905–8
  • Quantitative analysis of [F-18]FDDNP PET using subcortical white matter as reference region EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING Wong, K., Wardak, M., Shao, W., Dahlbom, M., Kepe, V., Liu, J., Satyamurthy, N., Small, G. W., Barrio, J. R., Huang, S. 2010; 37 (3): 575-588


    Subcortical white matter is known to be relatively unaffected by amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the use of subcortical white matter as a reference region to quantify [(18)F]FDDNP binding in the human brain.Dynamic [(18)F]FDDNP PET studies were performed on 7 control subjects and 12 AD patients. Population efflux rate constants (k(')(2)) from subcortical white matter (centrum semiovale) and cerebellar cortex were derived by a simplified reference tissue modeling approach incorporating physiological constraints. Regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimates were derived using Logan and simplified reference tissue approaches, with either subcortical white matter or cerebellum as reference input. Discriminant analysis with cross-validation was performed to classify control subjects and AD patients.The population estimates of k(')(2) in subcortical white matter did not differ significantly between control subjects and AD patients but the variability of individual estimates of k(')(2) determined in white matter was lower than that in cerebellum. Logan DVR showed dependence on the efflux rate constant in white matter. The DVR estimates in the frontal, parietal, posterior cingulate, and temporal cortices were significantly higher in the AD group (p<0.01). Incorporating all these regional DVR estimates as predictor variables in discriminant analysis yielded accurate classification of control subjects and AD patients with high sensitivity and specificity, and the results agreed well with those using the cerebellum as the reference region.Subcortical white matter can be used as a reference region for quantitative analysis of [(18)F]FDDNP with the Logan method which allows more accurate and less biased binding estimates, but a population efflux rate constant has to be determined a priori.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00259-009-1293-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274544600016

    View details for PubMedID 19882153

  • Movement Correction Method for Human Brain PET Images: Application to Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic F-18-FDDNP Scans JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Wardak, M., Wong, K., Shao, W., Dahlbom, M., Kepe, V., Satyamurthy, N., Small, G. W., Barrio, J. R., Huang, S. 2010; 51 (2): 210-218


    Head movement during a PET scan (especially a dynamic scan) can affect both the qualitative and the quantitative aspects of an image, making it difficult to accurately interpret the results. The primary objective of this study was to develop a retrospective image-based movement correction (MC) method and evaluate its implementation on dynamic 2-(1-{6-[(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene)malononitrile ((18)F-FDDNP) PET images of cognitively intact controls and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).Dynamic (18)F-FDDNP PET images, used for in vivo imaging of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, were obtained from 12 AD patients and 9 age-matched controls. For each study, a transmission scan was first acquired for attenuation correction. An accurate retrospective MC method that corrected for transmission-emission and emission-emission misalignments was applied to all studies. No restriction was assumed for zero movement between the transmission scan and the first emission scan. Logan analysis, with the cerebellum as the reference region, was used to estimate various regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) values in the brain before and after MC. Discriminant analysis was used to build a predictive model for group membership, using data with and without MC.MC improved the image quality and quantitative values in (18)F-FDDNP PET images. In this subject population, no significant difference in DVR value was observed in the medial temporal (MTL) region of controls and patients with AD before MC. However, after MC, significant differences in DVR values in the frontal, parietal, posterior cingulate, MTL, lateral temporal (LTL), and global regions were seen between the 2 groups (P < 0.05). In controls and patients with AD, the variability of regional DVR values (as measured by the coefficient of variation) decreased on average by more than 18% after MC. Mean DVR separation between controls and patients with AD was higher in frontal, MTL, LTL, and global regions after MC. Group classification by discriminant analysis based on (18)F-FDDNP DVR values was markedly improved after MC.The streamlined and easy-to-use MC method presented in this work significantly improves the image quality and the measured tracer kinetics of (18)F-FDDNP PET images. The proposed MC method has the potential to be applied to PET studies on patients having other disorders (e.g., Down syndrome and Parkinson's disease) and to brain PET scans with other molecular imaging probes.

    View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.109.063701

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274152800022

    View details for PubMedID 20080894

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2929579

  • [18F]FDDNP–PET imaging in persons at–risk for familial AD Alzheimer’s & Dementia Ringman, J. M., Wardak, M., Kepe, V., Barrio, J. R., Huang, S., Yu, C., Geschwind, D., Schaffer, B., Rodriguez, Y., Small, G. W., Cummings, J. L. 2006; 2: S66