Dr Abdelwahab is currently a Clinical Instructor in the Sleep Surgery Division, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery at Stanford. His previous academic work in the department has focused on nasal and facial skeletal surgery in the division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. His previous clinical training included dual training in maxillofacial surgery and rhinology.
Clinical Instructor, Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery Divisions
A Review and Modification of Dorsal Preservation Rhinoplasty Techniques.
Facial plastic surgery & aesthetic medicine
; 22 (2): 71–79
Importance: Although conventional hump resections are a hallmark of rhinoplasty, there has been a rekindled interest in dorsal preservation (DP) techniques as a means for addressing the dorsal hump, with claims of superior functional and aesthetic results. As such, an understanding of DP, including technical considerations and outcomes, is imperative. Observations: DP allows for mobilization of the osseocartilaginous nasal vault as a single unit and thereby prevents disruption of the natural keystone area. The osseous nasal vault is managed with a transverse osteotomy and either a bilateral single lateral osteotomy (pushdown procedure) or bilateral bony wedge resections (letdown procedure) to allow for descent of the nasal dorsum. A variety of approaches to the septum exist, each differentiated by the location of cartilage resection: subdorsal, high-septal, midseptal, or inferior septum. These techniques result in pleasing dorsal aesthetic lines but may be limited by a higher rate of dorsal hump recurrence. Patency of the internal nasal valve (INV) is theoretically improved with DP. Robust series with patient-reported outcomes are lacking, although several reports and early experience at our center with a newly described high-septal resection technique do suggest positive functional and cosmetic outcomes with DP. Conclusions and Relevance: With the recent revitalized interest in DP, an understanding of the potential benefits, techniques, and challenges associated with this surgery is helpful. Maintenance of the dorsum as a single unit has implications for maintaining structural integrity at the nasal keystone, pleasing dorsal aesthetic lines, and the patency of the INV. As surgeons continue to develop and employ these techniques, critical assessment of patient-reported outcomes and objective nasal measurements, with an emphasis on comparison with standard hump takedown techniques, will be valuable.
View details for DOI 10.1089/fpsam.2020.0017
View details for PubMedID 32130066
Impact of rapid palatal expansion on the internal nasal valve and obstructive nasal symptoms in children
SLEEP AND BREATHING
The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of rapid palatal expansion (RPE) on the nasal airway subjectively by utilizing patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) and objectively by evaluating validated internal nasal valve (INV) measurements obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pediatrics.In this retrospective cohort study, subjects who underwent RPE from March to December 2018 with cone beam CT and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores were included. Exclusion criteria included craniofacial deformity, allergies, asthma, recent nasal trauma, or surgery. INV measurements (angle and cross-sectional area), diastema, midpalatal suture opening, and NOSE scores were evaluated.Fifty-one subjects met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 10.1 ± 2.6. Pre-expansion mean NOSE score was 32.55 (moderate) while post-expansion was 13.92 (mild). Mean NOSE score improved significantly by an average of 18.63 following post-expansion (P < 0.0001). The patients' right and left INV angles increased significantly by a mean of 2.42° and 2.65° respectively (P < 0.0001). Right and left INV cross-sectional areas increased significantly by an average of 14.35 mm2 (P < 0.0001) and 14.17 mm2 (P < 0.0001) respectively. An average expansion of the diastema and the suture was 1.60 mm and 3.05 mm respectively (P < 0.0001), with an average of 6.29 mm of expansion. We found the amount of diastema expansion to correlate with change in NOSE score (R = - 0.32, P = 0.022). Age and diastema showed a negative correlation (R = - 0.44, P = 0.0019), while INV angle and diastema showed a statistically significant positive correlation (R = 0.28, P = 0.048).RPE showed improvement in both NOSE scores and objective measures of the INV. This may show the possibility of considering RPE in managing resistant pediatric nasal airways. Future studies should include collaboration with pediatric otolaryngologists, with the inclusion of pediatric patients with persistent nasal obstruction.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11325-020-02140-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000546893500002
View details for PubMedID 32648185
Paramedian forehead flap pedicle division after 7 days using laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography.
Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
The paramedian forehead flap is a major workhorse for reconstruction of medium- to large-sized nasal defects. The tissue bridge that results from the vascular pedicle results in significant cosmetic deformity, with associated social and occupational costs to the patient. This prospective cross-sectional study sought to assess efficacy and safety of takedown of the flap pedicle at 1week using indocyanine green (ICG) angiography to assist in determining neovascularization of the flap. This study was performed at a tertiary care center from April 13, 2018 to March 22, 2019. Patients eligible for enrollment included those with defects appropriate for reconstruction with a paramedian forehead flap, partial-thickness defect, vascularized tissue in more than 50% of the recipient bed, and lack of nicotine use. Ten patients were included, and all underwent reconstructive surgery by a single surgeon. Laser-assisted ICG angiography was used during the first stage as well as at the second stage both immediately before and after flap division. Perfusion was in both time-independent and time-dependent analyses relative to a cheek reference point. Herein, we found successful 7-day flap takedown with no flap-related complications in all patients. There was an average of approximately 44% flap-to-cheek vascularity across all patients, and pre-division flap perfusion correlated well with post-division perfusion. In conclusion, in carefully selected patients with amenable defects, division of the pedicle at 1week after initial flap transfer is safe and has the potential to limit the morbidity associated with the procedure.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2020.05.079
View details for PubMedID 32565139
Impact of Dorsal Preservation Rhinoplasty Versus Dorsal Hump Resection on the Internal Nasal Valve: a Quantitative Radiological Study.
Aesthetic plastic surgery
This study evaluates the impact of different hump takedown techniques, namely the conventional hump resection with midvault reconstruction, the push-down (PD) and the let-down (LD) procedures, on the INV dimensions.In this cadaveric study, six heads were divided randomly into either the conventional hump resection technique (Group A; n = 6 sides) or DPR techniques (n = 6 sides). This latter group was subdivided such that initially a PD procedure was performed (Group B; n = 6 sides), followed by a LD procedure on the same heads (Group C; n = 6 sides). A validated radiological method was used to measure the INV angle and cross-sectional area (CSA) in a modified coronal plane both pre- and post-procedurally.Group A did not show significant reduction in the INV angle nor in CSA (p = 0.068 and p = 0.156, respectively). In the push-down group (B), we observed a mean change of 2.05° in the angles and 0.3 cm2 in the CSA (p = 0.0163 and p < 0.001, respectively). The LD group (C) did not show significant reduction in the INV angle nor in CSA (p = 0.437 and p = 0.331, respectively).Neither the conventional hump resection nor the LD DPR technique reduced the INV dimensions. However, the PD preservation technique significantly reduced the INV dimensions.This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00266-020-01627-z
View details for PubMedID 32016500
Functional Outcomes of Septal Extension Grafting in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty: A Cohort Analysis.
Facial plastic surgery & aesthetic medicine
Background: Septal extension grafts (SEGs) are used widely in rhinoplasty as a means of controlling tip position. Grafts positioned in a side-to-side configuration may cause nasal airway obstruction. Methods: Retrospective cohort analysis of patients undergoing cosmetic rhinoplasty. Patients undergoing SEG placement were grouped according to completion of the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) or Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey (SCHNOS). The latter has a cosmetic (C) and functional (O) domain. Each group was matched to a cohort that did not undergo SEG placement using criteria: preoperative NOSE or SCHNOS-O score, age, and gender. Patient demographics and outcomes, including NOSE, SCHNOS, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, were compared between SEG and no-SEG groups using univariate and multivariate analyses. If patients underwent placement of an SEG and complained of obstruction, the laterality of the graft in relation to the complaint was examined. Results: SEGs were placed in 79 patients, of whom 77 completed the NOSE survey and 37 completed the SCHNOS-O both pre- and postoperatively. These patients were matched to patients without SEGs. For both the SCHNOS and NOSE-matched cohorts, functional outcomes (NOSE, SCHNOS-O, and VAS-F) did not significantly differ between SEG and no-SEG groups. These findings were also observed when patients were stratified by cosmetic surgery alone versus combined functional and cosmetic surgery. On multivariate linear regression analysis, when accounting for intraoperative techniques, there was no difference in postoperative NOSE or SCHNOS-O outcomes between the SEG and no-SEG cohorts. Side of postoperative nasal obstruction did not correlate with side of SEG placement. Conclusion: SEGs, when used in a unilateral side-to-side configuration, yield excellent aesthetic results without compromising functional outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1089/fpsam.2020.0304
View details for PubMedID 32716730
Facial Paralysis and Communicative Participation: The Importance of Facial Symmetry at Rest.
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
There is a paucity of research devoted to understanding the communication restrictions encountered by facial paralysis patients. We aim to explore the relationship between patient-reported restrictions in communicative participation and objective facial paralysis severity using validated scales of facial movement.We performed a pilot retrospective study using a consecutive series of adult patients with a diagnosis of unilateral facial paralysis. In addition to baseline demographics, subjects were evaluated using the Communicative Item Participation Bank Short Form (CPIB), Electronic Facial Assessment by Computer Evaluation (eFACE), and Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (SFGS).Twenty patients were included, 10 (50%) of whom were female with a mean age of 61 ± 13 years and mean duration of facial paralysis of 53 ± 82 months. The mean CPIB score was 14.6 ± 10.0 (range 0-29) and was comparable to scores of patients with conditions known to cause significant communicative disability. The mean eFACE scores were 67.4 ± 29.2, 44.2 ± 30.1, and 73.8 ± 30.0 for the static, dynamic, and synkinesis domains, respectively, with a composite smile score of 58.5 ± 16.9. After adjusting for age, gender, and duration of facial paralysis, significant moderate correlations were observed between the CPIB and the static eFACE domain (r = -0.51, P = .03) and smile composite score (r = 0.48, P = 0.0049), in addition to between the CPIB and SFGS synkinesis domain (r = 0.48, P = 0.04).Patients with unilateral facial paralysis experience significant limitations in communicative participation. These restrictions demonstrate moderate to strong correlations with objective assessments of facial paralysis and quality of life measures. Communicative participation may be a helpful means of tracking response to treatment.IV.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0003489420912446
View details for PubMedID 32192355
The miniature lateral crural strut graft: Efficacy of a novel technique in tip plasty.
To describe a novel technique for tip plasty and determine its efficacy using validated patient-reported outcome measures and objective measures.Retrospective cohort study.This study was carried out at a tertiary center. Patients undergoing tip plasty using the miniature lateral crural strut grafts (mini-LCSG) in cosmetic/combined rhinoplasty between January 2016 and August 2019 with available outcome measures were included. We used the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey (SCHNOS), Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores, visual analog scale: functional and cosmetic, and lateral wall insufficiency (LWI) grades.Among 52 patients, 33 were included; 26 had cosmetic whereas seven had combined functional and cosmetic rhinoplasty, with a follow-up up to 3 years. Both cosmetic and combined subjects showed significant improvement in SCHNOS-Cosmesis (C) scores (-57.31 ± 1.79, P < .001 and - 53.57 ± 8.39, P < .001, respectively) and zone 1 LWI (P < .05, both sides). SCHNOS-Obstruction (O) and NOSE scores showed significant decrease among subjects undergoing combined rhinoplasty only (-55.36 ± 18.58, P < .004, and - 53.93 ± 15.99, P < .003, respectively). With specific regard to tip cosmesis, the mean SCHNOS-6 (item 6 of the SCHNOS questionnaire for tip cosmesis) showed significant improvement (-2.61, P < .001).The mini-LCSG is a novel modification for tip plasty that improves tip cosmesis and symmetry, both subjectively and objectively without compromising nasal function.4 Laryngoscope, 2020.
View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.28530
View details for PubMedID 32031694
Biportal transparotid dissection in the retromandibular approach for condylar fracture osteosynthesis: Efficacy of a novel technique.
Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
OBJECTIVE: Facial nerve injury is a primary complication of open surgical management of condylar fractures. A new modification of the retromandibular transparotid approach, the "biportal transparotid dissection" (BTD), was developed to reduce these injuries in accidental nerve exposure.DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.SETTING: Tertiary referral center.METHODS: Patients managed by retromandibular transparotid approach for condylar fractures at Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Mansoura University were included between November 2015 and August 2019 with exclusion of cases managed endoscopically or by a closed approach. Three groups were identified: Group A included patients undergoing the BTD technique, which entails transparotid dissection above and below exposed nerve branches and minimal nerve retraction; Group B included patients undergoing traditional dissection and nerve retraction away from the surgical field; and Group C included patients with unidentified facial nerve branches. The function of facial nerve branches was documented postoperatively.RESULTS: Fifty-seven fractures were included in the study. Facial nerve branches' injury occurred in 13 cases (22.8%): two (of ten) in Group A (20%), seven (of ten) in Group B (70%) and four (of 37) in Group C (10.81%). Compared to patients with non-exposed branches, Groups A and B were found to have 2.06 (p = 0.447) and 19.25 (p = 0.001) greater odds of nerve injury, respectively. The results showed significant faster nerve recovery in the BTD group compared to traditional dissection (mean 5 versus 9 weeks) (p = 0.015).CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Although avoiding facial nerve exposure minimizes injury the most, BTD approach reduces exposed nerve injury compared to the traditional method.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2019.11.044
View details for PubMedID 31959498
- Minimal Clinically Important Difference of the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey AESTHETIC SURGERY JOURNAL 2019; 39 (8): 837–40
- Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Staging with a Novel Nominal Basis: An 18-Year Study in a Tertiary Center OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY 2019; 161 (2): 352–61
- Impact of Distraction Osteogenesis Maxillary Expansion on the Internal Nasal Valve in Obstructive Sleep Apnea OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY 2019; 161 (2): 362–67
- Neovascularization Perfusion of Melolabial Flaps Using Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Angiography JAMA FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY 2019; 21 (3): 230–36
- Association of Periosteal Sweeping vs Periosteal Preservation With Early Periorbital Sequelae Among Patients Undergoing External Perforating Osteotomy During Rhinoplasty JAMA FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY 2019; 21 (3): 185–90
- Utility of Indocyanine Green Angiography to Identify Clinical Factors Associated With Perfusion of Paramedian Forehead Flaps During Nasal Reconstruction Surgery JAMA FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY 2019; 21 (3): 206–12
- Arabic Validation of the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcome Survey for Arabic-Speaking Rhinoplasty Patients PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY 2019; 143 (3): 673E–675E
Association of Periosteal Sweeping vs Periosteal Preservation With Early Periorbital Sequelae Among Patients Undergoing External Perforating Osteotomy During Rhinoplasty.
JAMA facial plastic surgery
Importance: Periorbital sequelae are a significant source of early postoperative morbidity after rhinoplasty, particularly after an osteotomy is performed.Objective: To compare postoperative periorbital sequelae after external perforating lateral osteotomy in rhinoplasty using a periosteal sweeping vs a periosteal preserving approach.Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary referral center located in Mansoura, Egypt, included 28 patients who underwent external perforating lateral osteotomy in open rhinoplasty between January and May 2017.Exposures: Periosteal sweeping was performed on one side of the nose and periosteal preservation was performed on the other side during external perforating lateral osteotomy.Main Outcomes and Measures: Periorbital sequelae, including eyelid edema, periorbital ecchymosis, and subconjunctival hemorrhage, were assessed on both sides of the face on postoperative days 1, 7, and 21 by 2 independent surgeons using the scale first proposed by Kara and Gokalan in 1999. The scales for eyelid edema ranged from 0 to 4, for ecchymosis from 0 to 4, and for subconjunctival hemorrhage from 0 to 2, with higher values indicating greater edema, ecchymosis, and hemorrhage, respectively. Differences in the 3 time points and differences between the 2 osteotomy methods were analyzed.Results: In total, 19 men and 9 women with a mean (SD) age of 23.7 (3.9) years were enrolled. All patients showed significant decreases in eyelid edema on postoperative days 7 and 21 compared with day 1 (1.71 and 1.39 vs 2.89 for the swept side, and 1.86 and 1.46 vs 2.68 for the preserved side; both P<.05) and in periorbital ecchymosis (2.02 and 1.13 vs 2.86 for swept side, and 2.05 and 1.13 vs 2.82 for the preserved side; both P<.05). A significant decrease in subconjunctival hemorrhage was observed on day 21 compared with days 1 and 7 (1.79 vs 2.11 and 2.11 for the swept side, and 1.71 vs 2.14 and 2.14 for the preserved side; both P<.05). The mean rank score for eyelid edema on day 1 for the swept side was significantly higher than that for the preserved side (33.18 vs 23.82, P=.02), and the mean rank score for periorbital ecchymosis on the swept side was significantly higher than that for the preserved side (33.59 vs 23.41, P=.01). Although both eyelid edema and periorbital ecchymosis appeared to remain greater on the swept side on postoperative days 7 and 21, the differences no longer reached statistical significance. Periosteal preservation was not associated with minimizing subconjunctival hemorrhage postoperatively.Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that lateral nasal osteotomy is associated with varying degrees of eyelid edema, periorbital ecchymosis, and subconjunctival hemorrhage. Compared with sweeping the periosteum, preserving the periosteum in an external perforating lateral osteotomy was associated with less eyelid edema and periorbital ecchymosis in the early postoperative period.Level of Evidence: 2.
View details for PubMedID 30789649
- Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY 2019; 143 (2): 454E–456E
Psychometric Properties of the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey: Item Response Theory Analysis
JAMA FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY
2018; 20 (6): 519–21
View details for PubMedID 30027293