All Publications

  • Leveraging the Apple Ecosystem: Easy Viewing and Sharing of Three-dimensional Perforator Visualizations via iPad/iPhone-based Augmented Reality. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Necker, F. N., Cholok, D. J., Shaheen, M. S., Fischer, M. J., Gifford, K., El Chemaly, T., Leuze, C. W., Scholz, M., Daniel, B. L., Momeni, A. 2024; 12 (7): e5940


    We introduce a novel technique using augmented reality (AR) on smartphones and tablets, making it possible for surgeons to review perforator anatomy in three dimensions on the go. Autologous breast reconstruction with abdominal flaps remains challenging due to the highly variable anatomy of the deep inferior epigastric artery. Computed tomography angiography has mitigated some but not all challenges. Previously, volume rendering and different headsets were used to enable better three-dimensional (3D) review for surgeons. However, surgeons have been dependent on others to provide 3D imaging data. Leveraging the ubiquity of Apple devices, our approach permits surgeons to review 3D models of deep inferior epigastric artery anatomy segmented from abdominal computed tomography angiography directly on their iPhone/iPad. Segmentation can be performed in common radiology software. The models are converted to the universal scene description zipped format, which allows immediate use on Apple devices without third-party software. They can be easily shared using secure, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant sharing services already provided by most hospitals. Surgeons can simply open the file on their mobile device to explore the images in 3D using "object mode" natively without additional applications or can switch to AR mode to pin the model in their real-world surroundings for intuitive exploration. We believe patient-specific 3D anatomy models are a powerful tool for intuitive understanding and communication of complex perforator anatomy and would be a valuable addition in routine clinical practice and education. Using this one-click solution on existing devices that is simple to implement, we hope to streamline the adoption of AR models by plastic surgeons.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000005940

    View details for PubMedID 38957720

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC11216661

  • Beyond the Signature: Informed Consent from a Legal Perspective and its Implications for Plastic Surgery. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Shaheen, M. S., Lane, M., Chung, K. C. 2024


    SUMMARY: Informed consent is the principal tool that bridges the gap between clinical practice and our society's ethical ideals. The intricacies of informed consent, however, are frequently misunderstood and its effective implementation can be challenging in practice. The continuous stream of innovations, wide array of procedures, and other characteristics inherent to the practice of plastic surgery compound the challenges of implementing informed consent. Unfortunately, there remains a dearth of literature to provide a comprehensive overview of informed consent as it relates to plastic surgery. In this article, we highlight the history, legal components, and challenges of informed consent within plastic surgery and offer recommendations on how to approach them. A deeper understanding of informed consent helps enhance patient care, mitigates unnecessary malpractice risk, and leads to better physician-patient relationships.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000011602

    View details for PubMedID 38923883

  • The Reconstructive Metaverse - Collaboration in Real-Time Shared Mixed Reality Environments for Microsurgical Reconstruction. Surgical innovation Necker, F. N., Cholok, D. J., Shaheen, M. S., Fischer, M. J., Gifford, K., El Chemaly, T., Leuze, C. W., Scholz, M., Daniel, B. L., Momeni, A. 2024: 15533506241262946


    Plastic surgeons routinely use 3D-models in their clinical practice, from 3D-photography and surface imaging to 3D-segmentations from radiological scans. However, these models continue to be viewed on flattened 2D screens that do not enable an intuitive understanding of 3D-relationships and cause challenges regarding collaboration with colleagues. The Metaverse has been proposed as a new age of applications building on modern Mixed Reality headset technology that allows remote collaboration on virtual 3D-models in a shared physical-virtual space in real-time. We demonstrate the first use of the Metaverse in the context of reconstructive surgery, focusing on preoperative planning discussions and trainee education. Using a HoloLens headset with the Microsoft Mesh application, we performed planning sessions for 4 DIEP-flaps in our reconstructive metaverse on virtual patient-models segmented from routine CT angiography. In these sessions, surgeons discuss perforator anatomy and perforator selection strategies whilst comprehensively assessing the respective models. We demonstrate the workflow for a one-on-one interaction between an attending surgeon and a trainee in a video featuring both viewpoints as seen through the headset. We believe the Metaverse will provide novel opportunities to use the 3D-models that are already created in everyday plastic surgery practice in a more collaborative, immersive, accessible, and educational manner.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/15533506241262946

    View details for PubMedID 38905568

  • Suture Packaging as a Marker for Intraoperative Image Alignment in Augmented Reality on Mobile Devices. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Necker, F. N., Cholok, D. J., Shaheen, M. S., Fischer, M. J., Gifford, K., Le Castillo, C., Scholz, M., Leuze, C. W., Daniel, B. L., Momeni, A. 2024; 12 (6): e5933


    Preoperative vascular imaging has become standard practice in the planning of microsurgical breast reconstruction. Currently, translating perforator locations from radiological findings to a patient's abdomen is often not easy or intuitive. Techniques using three-dimensional printing or patient-specific guides have been introduced to superimpose anatomy onto the abdomen for reference. Augmented and mixed reality is currently actively investigated for perforator mapping by superimposing virtual models directly onto the patient. Most techniques have found only limited adoption due to complexity and price. Additionally, a critical step is aligning virtual models to patients. We propose repurposing suture packaging as an image tracking marker. Tracking markers allow quick and easy alignment of virtual models to the individual patient's anatomy. Current techniques are often complicated or expensive and limit intraoperative use of augmented reality models. Suture packs are sterile, readily available, and can be used to align abdominal models on the patients. Using an iPad, the augmented reality models automatically align in the correct position by using a suture pack as a tracking marker. Given the ubiquity of iPads, the combination of these devices with readily available suture packs will predictably lower the barrier to entry and utilization of this technology. Here, our workflow is presented along with its intraoperative utilization. Additionally, we investigated the accuracy of this technology.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000005933

    View details for PubMedID 38919516

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC11199004

  • Increasing DIEA Perforator Detail in 3D Photorealistic Volume Rendering Visualizations with Skin-masking and Cinematic Anatomy. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Necker, F. N., Cholok, D. J., Shaheen, M. S., Fischer, M. J., Gifford, K., El Chemaly, T., Leuze, C. W., Scholz, M., Daniel, B. L., Momeni, A. 2024


    Preoperative CT angiography (CTA) is increasingly performed prior to perforator flap-based reconstruction. However, radiological 2D thin-slices do not allow for intuitive interpretation and translation to intraoperative findings. 3D volume rendering has been used to alleviate the need for mental 2D-to-3D abstraction. Even though volume rendering allows for a much easier understanding of anatomy, it currently has limited utility as the skin obstructs the view of critical structures. Using free, open-source software, we introduce a new skin-masking technique that allows surgeons to easily create a segmentation mask of the skin that can later be used to toggle the skin on and off. Additionally, the mask can be used in other rendering applications. We use Cinematic Anatomy for photorealistic volume rendering and interactive exploration of the CTA with and without skin. We present results from using this technique to investigate perforator anatomy in deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps and demonstrate that the skin-masking workflow is performed in less than 5 minutes. In Cinematic Anatomy, the view onto the abdominal wall and especially onto perforators becomes significantly sharper and more detailed when no longer obstructed by the skin. We perform a virtual, partial muscle dissection to show the intramuscular and submuscular course of the perforators. The skin-masking workflow allows surgeons to improve arterial and perforator detail in volume renderings easily and quickly by removing skin and could alternatively also be performed solely using open-source and free software. The workflow can be easily expanded to other perforator flaps without the need for modification.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000011359

    View details for PubMedID 38351515

  • Complication Rates in Therapeutic Versus Prophylactic Bilateral Mastectomies: Insights From a National Database. Annals of plastic surgery Shaheen, M. S., Wan, D., Momeni, A. 2023


    The "Jolie effect" and other media focus on prophylactic treatments have resulted in unilateral breast cancer patients increasingly undergoing contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Little is known, however, regarding outcomes following therapeutic versus prophylactic mastectomy. In this study, we compared complication rates of unilateral breast cancer patients undergoing contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (BM-TP) to patients undergoing bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BM-P).The BM-TP and BM-P patients from 2015 to 2019 were identified in Optum Clinformatics DataMart. Six-month outcomes were assessed and included wound complications, infection, hematoma/seroma, breast pain, fat necrosis, flap failure, implant failure/removal, other flap/implant complications, and other complications. Multivariable regression models adjusted for age, residence, insurance, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score.Of 9319 women, 7114 (76.3%) underwent BM-TP, and 2205 (23.7%) underwent BM-P. In multivariable analysis, BM-TP had higher odds of overall complications (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.35; P < 0.0001), but no difference was observed among patients who had autologous (P = 0.1448) or no breast reconstruction (P = 0.1530). Higher odds of overall complications persisted even after controlling for radiation therapy (aOR, 1.25; P = 0.0048) and chemotherapy (aOR, 1.28; P = 0.0047), but not after controlling for lymph node surgery (P = 0.7765).The BM-TP (vs BM-P) patients face higher odds of overall complications but without any difference in certain reconstructive modalities or after controlling for lymph node surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000003648

    View details for PubMedID 37553890

  • Comparing the Outcomes and Complication Rates of Biologic vs Synthetic Meshes in Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review. Annals of plastic surgery Makarewicz, N., Perrault, D., Sharma, A., Shaheen, M., Kim, J., Calderon, C., Sweeney, B., Nazerali, R. 2023; 90 (5): 516-527


    This systematic review evaluates all published studies comparing biologic and synthetic meshes in implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR), to determine which category of mesh produces the most favorable outcomes.Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally. Implant-based breast reconstruction is currently the most popular method of postmastectomy reconstruction, and recently, the use of surgical mesh in IBBR has become commonplace. Although there is a long-standing belief among surgeons that biologic mesh is superior to synthetic mesh in terms of surgical complications and patient outcomes, few studies exist to support this claim.A systematic search of the EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases was performed in January 2022. Primary literature studies comparing biologic and synthetic meshes within the same experimental framework were included. Study quality and bias were assessed using the validated Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies criteria.After duplicate removal, 109 publications were reviewed, with 12 meeting the predetermined inclusion criteria. Outcomes included common surgical complications, histological analysis, interactions with oncologic therapies, quality of life measures, and esthetic outcomes. Across all 12 studies, synthetic meshes were rated as at least equivalent to biologic meshes for every reported outcome. On average, the studies in this review tended to have moderate Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies scores.This systematic review offers the first comprehensive evaluation of all publications comparing biologic and synthetic meshes in IBBR. The consistent finding that synthetic meshes are at least equivalent to biologic meshes across a range of clinical outcomes offers a compelling argument in favor of prioritizing the use of synthetic meshes in IBBR.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000003512

    View details for PubMedID 37146317

  • Use of Local Antibiotic Delivery Systems in Tissue Expander and Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Eplasty Makarewicz, N., Lipman, K., Johnstone, T., Shaheen, M., Shah, J. K., Nazerali, R. 2023; 23: e24


    Periprosthetic infections are a debilitating complication of alloplastic breast reconstruction. Local antibiotic delivery for prophylaxis and infection clearance has been used by other surgical specialties but rarely in breast reconstruction. Because local delivery can maintain high antibiotic concentrations with lower toxicity risk, it may be valuable for infection prophylaxis or salvage in breast reconstruction.A systematic search of the Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases was performed in January 2022. Primary literature studies examining local antibiotic delivery systems for either prophylaxis or salvage of periprosthetic infections were included. Study quality and bias were assessed using the validated MINORS criteria.Of 355 publications reviewed, 8 met the predetermined inclusion criteria; 5 papers investigated local antibiotic delivery for salvage, and 3 investigated infection prophylaxis. Implantable antibiotic delivery devices included polymethylmethacrylate, calcium sulfate, and collagen sponges impregnated with antibiotics. Non-implantable antibiotic delivery methods used irrigation with antibiotic solution into the breast pocket. All studies indicated that local antibiotic delivery was either comparable or superior to conventional methods in both the salvage and prophylaxis settings.Despite varied sample sizes and methodologies, all papers endorsed local antibiotic delivery as a safe, effective method of preventing or treating periprosthetic infections in breast reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/bjs5.50324

    View details for PubMedID 37187864

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10176462

  • Complication risks and costs associated with Ponte osteotomies in surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: insights from a national database. Spine deformity Shaheen, M., Koltsov, J. C., Cohen, S. A., Langner, J. L., Kaur, J., Segovia, N. A., Vorhies, J. S. 2022


    PURPOSE: Risks of Ponte osteotomies (POs) used for posterior spinal fusion (PSF) for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) are challenging to assess because of the rarity of complications. Using a national administrative claims database, we evaluated trends, costs and complications associated with PO used in PSF for AIS patients.METHODS: Using ICD-9/CPT codes, we identified patients (ages 10-18) with AIS who underwent PSF (±PO) between 2007 and 2015 in the IBM MarketScan Commercial Databases. Costs and trends of POs were evaluated. Odds of neurological complications and readmissions within 90days and reoperations within 90days and 2years were assessed.RESULTS: We identified 8881 AIS patients who had undergone PSF, of which 8193 had 90-day follow-up and 4248 had 2-year follow-up. Overall, 28.8% had PO. Annual rate of POs increased from 17.3 to 35.2% from 2007 to 2015 (p<0.001). Risk-adjusted multivariable logistic regression demonstrated no relationship between POs and neurologic complications (p=0.543). POs were associated with higher odds for readmission (1.52 [1.21-1.91]; p<0.001) and reoperation (2.03 [1.13-3.59]; p=0.015) within 90days, but there were no differences in the odds of reoperation within 2years (p=0.836). Median hospital costs were $15,854 (17.4%) higher for patients with POs (p<0.001) and multivariable modeling demonstrated POs to be an independent predictor of increased costs (p<0.001).CONCLUSION: Annual rate of POs increased steadily from 2007 to 2015. POs were not associated with increased odds of neurological complications but had higher costs and higher rates of readmissions and reoperations within 90days. By 2years, differences in reoperation rate were not significant.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s43390-022-00534-4

    View details for PubMedID 35810408

  • Nationwide Trends in Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomies: An Analysis of 55,060 Unilateral Breast Cancer Patients PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY-GLOBAL OPEN Shaheen, M. S., Momeni, A. 2022; 10 (5)
  • Nationwide Trends in Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomies: An Analysis of 55,060 Unilateral Breast Cancer Patients. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Shaheen, M. S., Momeni, A. 2022; 10 (5): e4344


    The effects of recent initiatives to better educate unilateral breast cancer (UBC) patients about contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to update and examine recent annual CPM trends by evaluating 2015-2020 data from a large administrative claims database. We also sought to determine if there were any variations in trends among different age groups and reconstructive modalities.Patients diagnosed with UBC between 2015 and 2019 were identified in Optum Clinformatics DataMart. Patients were then categorized by age group, whether they underwent CPM, whether they underwent breast reconstruction (BR), timing of any BR (immediate or delayed), and type of BR (implant-based or autologous).Of 55,060 patients who were diagnosed with UBC, 2625 (4.8%) underwent CPM. After a slight decline from 2015 to 2016, the CPM rate among UBC patients increased significantly from 3.4% in 2016 to 6.8% in 2019. Although this upward trend remained consistent across all age groups examined, younger UBC patients represented a significantly higher and faster growing percentage of those undergoing CPM. BR rates among those who underwent CPM also increased between 2015 and 2019, with implant-based and immediate BR becoming more heavily favored over autologous and delayed BR.CPM rates continued to rise between 2016 and 2019 and younger women represented a substantially higher and faster growing percentage of UBC patients undergoing CPM than older women. In addition, implant-based and immediate BR are becoming more heavily favored over autologous and delayed BR.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000004344

    View details for PubMedID 35646492

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9132527

  • Aesthetic Eyelid Measurements of "Beautiful People": Gender Differences and Application for Thyroid Eye Disease Patients PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY-GLOBAL OPEN Evans, J. A., Shaheen, M. S., Clark, T. E., Shriver, E. M. 2021; 9 (7)
  • Aesthetic Eyelid Measurements of "Beautiful People": Gender Differences and Application for Thyroid Eye Disease Patients. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Evans, J. A., Shaheen, M. S., Clark, T. J., Shriver, E. M. 2021; 9 (7): e3666


    There remains a paucity of studies investigating measurements of periocular structures of people popularly seen as "beautiful." Such measurements may be helpful in establishing postoperative goals and measuring aesthetic outcomes. This study (1) identifies aesthetic measurements of the periocular structures in idealized celebrities, (2) determines gender differences in such measurements, and (3) compares these measurements to patients who underwent surgical repair of upper eyelid retraction associated with thyroid eye disease.Digital analysis of 38 celebrity photographs in People's "Most Beautiful People" and "Sexiest Man Alive" was performed to measure image-derived (denoted with an "i") margin reflex distance (iMRD1), tarsal platform show (iTPS), brow fat span (iBFS), and iTPS:iBFS ratio. The same analysis was used for 35 women who underwent surgical repair for thyroid eye disease-related upper eyelid retraction.Significant gender differences (P < 0.05) were observed in celebrity metrics, with women having higher upper eyelids (longer iMRD1) (3.30 mm versus 2.50 mm), longer iTPS measurements (3.90 mm versus 2.50 mm), and larger iTPS:iBFS values (0.31 versus 0.20). Postoperative thyroid eye disease patients had significantly higher upper eyelids (longer iMRD1s) (4.80 mm versus 3.30 mm), longer iTPS (5.10 mm versus 3.90 mm), and larger iTPS:iBFS (0.37 versus 0.31) than celebrities.There are significant gender differences in the periocular metrics of "beautiful people." Optimal aesthetic outcomes may be more effectively obtained by achieving a preferred range of ratios than by relying on independent measurements. Although aesthetic outcomes are multi-factorial, measurements of "beautiful" people provide helpful guidelines to gauge aesthetic outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000003666

    View details for PubMedID 34422512

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8376344

  • Association of inflammatory skin diseases with venous thromboembolism in US adults ARCHIVES OF DERMATOLOGICAL RESEARCH Shaheen, M. S., Silverberg, J. I. 2020


    Patients with certain inflammatory skin diseases have multiple risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The objective of the study was to determine whether atopic dermatitis (AD), psoriasis, pemphigus, pemphigoid and/or hidradenitis is associated with VTE in US adults. Data were analyzed from the 2002-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a representative cohort of US hospitalizations (N = 72,512,581 adults, including 1,389,292 with VTE). In multivariable logistic regression models including age, sex, insurance, household income and race/ethnicity, hospitalization for AD (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence intervals] 1.22 [1.17-1.27]), pemphigus (1.96 [1.68-2.28]) and pemphigoid (1.64 [1.47-1.83]) was associated with VTE. These associations remained significant in virtually all patient subsets, including males and females, different age groups and those with and without long-term corticosteroid use. In particular, AD, pemphigus and pemphigoid were each associated with DVT and PE. VTE was associated with increased inpatient length of stay, cost of care and mortality across all the inflammatory skin diseases. HS and psoriasis were not consistently associated with VTE. AD, pemphigus and pemphigoid and some subsets of patients with HS were associated with higher odds of hospitalization for VTE. Patients with these inflammatory skin diseases may benefit from increased screening and prevention of VTE.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00403-020-02099-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000546500700001

    View details for PubMedID 32642810

  • Association of asthma with osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and fractures ALLERGY AND ASTHMA PROCEEDINGS Shaheen, M. S., Silverberg, J. 2020; 41 (2): 112–19


    Background: Previous studies that examined the relationship between asthma, osteoporosis, and pathologic fractures found conflicting results. Objective: To determine whether asthma is associated with osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and fractures in U.S. adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 198,102,435 children and adults, including 10,129,307 with asthma, from the 2006-2012 National Emergency Department Sample, which includes a representative 20% sample of emergency department (ED) visits throughout the United States. Results: ED visits of patients with versus without asthma were associated with higher odds of osteopenia (7 of 7 years: multivariable logistic regression of all years pooled; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.45 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.41-1.50]), osteoporosis (7 of 7 years: aOR 1.85 [95% CI, 1.82-1.88]), osteomalacia (7 of 7 years: aOR 2.00 [95% CI, 1.61-2.49]), and pathologic fractures (7 of 7 years: OR 1.24 [95% CI, 1.20-1.27]). Patients with asthma and with long-term glucocorticoid use had higher odds of osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia, and fractures compared with patients with asthma and without long-term glucocorticoid use. Patients with asthma and with fractures incurred significantly more inpatient admissions, and higher costs of ED and inpatient care. Conclusion: ED visits with asthma were associated with osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and pathologic fractures.

    View details for DOI 10.2500/aap.2020.41.190035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000518467400009

    View details for PubMedID 32122447

  • Atopic dermatitis is associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia in older adults JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY Shaheen, M. S., Silverberg, J. I. 2019; 80 (2): 550–51

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.05.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000455473200036

    View details for PubMedID 29800580