RFX6 maintains gene expression and function of adult human islet α cells.
Mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor RFX6 are associated with human diabetes mellitus. Within pancreatic islets, RFX6 expression is most abundant in islet α cells, and α cell RFX6 expression is altered in diabetes. However, the roles of RFX6 in regulating gene expression, glucagon output and other crucial human adult α cell functions are not yet understood. We developed a method for selective genetic targeting of human α cells and assessed RFX6-dependent α cell function. RFX6 suppression with RNA interference led to impaired α cell exocytosis and dysregulated glucagon secretion in vitro and in vivo. By contrast, these phenotypes were not observed with RFX6 suppression across all islet cells. Transcriptomics in α cells revealed RFX6-dependent expression of genes governing nutrient sensing, hormone processing, and secretion, with some of these exclusively expressed in human α cells. Mapping of RFX6 DNA-binding sites in primary human islet cells identified a subset of direct RFX6 target genes. Together, these data unveil RFX6-dependent genetic targets and mechanisms crucial for regulating adult human α cell function.
View details for DOI 10.2337/db23-0483
View details for PubMedID 38064570
HNF1α maintains pancreatic α and β cell functions in primary human islets.
HNF1A haploinsufficiency underlies the most common form of human monogenic diabetes (HNF1A-MODY) and hypomorphic HNF1A variants confer type 2 diabetes risk, but a lack of experimental systems for interrogating mature human islets has limited our understanding of how the transcription factor HNF1α regulates adult islet function. Here, we combined conditional genetic targeting in human islet cells, RNA sequencing, chromatin mapping with Cleavage Under Targets & Release Using Nuclease (CUT&RUN), and transplantation-based assays to determine HNF1α-regulated mechanisms in adult human pancreatic α and β cells. Short hairpin RNA-mediated (shRNA) suppression of HNF1A in primary human pseudoislets led to blunted insulin output and dysregulated glucagon secretion after transplantation in mice, recapitulating phenotypes observed in diabetic patients. These deficits corresponded with altered expression of genes encoding factors critical for hormone secretion, including calcium channel subunits, ATPase transporters and extracellular matrix constituents. Additionally, HNF1A loss led to upregulation of transcriptional repressors, providing evidence for a mechanism of transcriptional de-repression through HNF1α. CUT&RUN mapping of HNF1α DNA-binding sites in primary human islets imputed a subset of HNF1α-regulated genes as direct targets. These data elucidate mechanistic links between HNF1A loss and diabetic phenotypes in mature human α and β cells.
View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.170884
View details for PubMedID 37943614
- Prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis following patch testing in patients with atopic dermatitis: a retrospective United States claims-based study. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2023
Assessment of Hormonal Contraceptive Utilization and Associated Odds of Hypercoagulopathy in Patients with Venous Malformations Using a National Claims Database.
Clinical drug investigation
BACKGROUND: Vascular anomalies that exhibit a slow velocity of blood flow, specifically venous malformations (VM), are associated with hypercoagulability. There is limited literature on the utilization of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and the development of clotting events in female individuals diagnosed with VM.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize HC utilization and associated odds of hypercoagulopathy in patients with VM of child-bearing age.METHODS: Using a national administrative claims database, we identified female patients with VM aged 15-49 years and a control population, matched for age and length of insurance enrollment, from 2016 to 2021. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of hypercoagulation events associated with HC use.RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven (47.2%) patients with VM and 1284 (45.4%) control patients utilized HCs during the study period. Oral contraceptives were the most common HC for patients with and without VM (73.8% and 76.9% of those taking HCs, respectively), and estrogen-containing combination HCs (70.4% in patients with VM and 75.9% in controls) were more prevalent than progestin-only HCs in both populations. Despite a heightened baseline odds of hypercoagulopathy in patients with VM relative to patients without VM (odds ratio = 12.54; 95% confidence interval 7.73-20.3), HC use was not associated with an increased odds of hypercoagulation in the VM subpopulation (odds ratio = 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.46-1.46). In contrast, tobacco use (odds ratio = 2.12; 95% confidence interval 1.09-4.12) and a history of coagulopathy (odds ratio = 3.92; 95% confidence interval 1.48-10.36) were predictive of thromboembolic events in the VM cohort.CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that patients with VM may safely use HCs with careful consideration of other risk factors for thromboses.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s40261-022-01228-5
View details for PubMedID 36626046
- Sociodemographic disparities in patch testing for commercially insured patients with dermatitis: A retrospective analysis of administrative claims data JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY 2022; 87 (6): 1411-1413
Health Care Utilization and Costs in Systemic Therapies for Metastatic Melanoma from 2016 to 2020.
BACKGROUND: Widespread implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and targeted therapies for metastatic melanoma has led to a decline in melanoma-related mortality but increased healthcare costs. We aimed to determine how healthcare utilization varied by systemic, non-adjuvant melanoma treatment from 2016 to 2020.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adults with presumed stage IV metastatic melanoma receiving systemic therapy from 2016 to 2020 were identified in Optum, a nationwide commercial claims database. Treatment groups were nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab+nivolumab (combination-ICI), or BRAF+MEK inhibitor (BRAFi+MEKi) therapy. Outcomes included hospitalizations, days hospitalized, emergency room (ER) visits, outpatient visits, and healthcare costs per patient per month (pppm). Multivariable regression models were used to analyze whether cost and utilization outcomes varied by treatment group, with nivolumab as reference.RESULTS: Among 2018 adult patients with metastatic melanoma identified, mean (SD) age was 67 (15) years. From 2016 to 2020, nivolumab surpassed pembrolizumab as the most prescribed systemic melanoma therapy while combination-ICI and BRAFi+MEKi therapies remained stable. Relative to nivolumab, all other therapies were associated with increased total healthcare costs (combination-ICI: beta = $47 600 pppm, 95%CI $42 200-$53 100; BRAFi+MEKi: beta = $3810, 95%CI $365-$7260; pembrolizumab: beta = $6450, 95%CI $4420-$8480). Combination-ICI and BRAFi+MEKi therapies were associated with more inpatient hospital days.CONCLUSIONS: Amid the evolving landscape of systemic therapy for advanced melanoma, nivolumab monotherapy emerged as the most used and least costly systemic treatment from 2016 to 2020. Its sharp increase in use in 2018 and lower costs relative to pembrolizumab may in part be due to earlier adoption of less frequent dosing intervals.
View details for DOI 10.1093/oncolo/oyac219
View details for PubMedID 36302223
Assessment of Comorbidities Associated With Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the United States: A Retrospective Claims-Based Study.
Dermatitis : contact, atopic, occupational, drug
BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common dermatologic disease. Patch testing remains the criterion standard for diagnosis. In clinical practice, avoidance may be limited by patient occupation or noncompliance, the pervasive nature of the culprit agent, or barriers to expert care because of socioeconomic, cultural, or geographic factors. Thus, ACD is frequently chronic and/or recurrent; however, the comorbidities associated with ACD are not well characterized.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to identify associations between ACD and psychiatric, sleep health, cardiovascular, and infectious conditions.METHODS: In this study, we used a large US claims database to identify comorbidities associated with ACD diagnosed after patch testing, including psychiatric, sleep health, cardiovascular, and infectious conditions. We also stratified these associations by chronicity of disease.RESULTS: We identified associations between ACD and psychiatric, sleep-related, cardiovascular, and infectious comorbidities. We also found that more chronic ACD was associated with more infectious comorbidities. All of these associations remained significant on further subanalysis when patients with AD and venous stasis were excluded.CONCLUSIONS: Allergic contact dermatitis is associated with multiple comorbidities. Further study is required to corroborate these findings, determine causality, and to explore the impact of possible interventions in the workup and management of this common and often debilitating disease.
View details for DOI 10.1097/DER.0000000000000964
View details for PubMedID 36255394
Gorlin Syndrome: Assessing Genotype-Phenotype Correlations and Analysis of Early Clinical Characteristics as Risk Factors for Disease Severity.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE: Gorlin syndrome (GS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by lifetime risk of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), skeletal anomalies (SAs), and other extracutaneous neoplasms. There is great variation in disease severity, and a genotype-phenotype correlation has not been well established. Here, we investigate whether patients' clinical characteristics predict disease severity to inform clinical decision making.METHODS: Data of 248 patients with GS were collected between 2014 and 2021 from three institutions. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to investigate whether clinical characteristics predicted disease burden. Genotype-phenotype correlations were investigated in 40 patients.RESULTS: Patients with SAs had a mean increase of 120 lifetime BCCs (95% CI, 27.1 to 213) relative to patients without SAs. Those with ≥ 2 SAs had 2.45 increased odds (95% CI, 1.01 to 5.91) of advanced or metastatic BCCs. Moreover, the presence of multiple SAs was associated with 5.00 increased odds of having a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (95% CI, 2.22 to 11.3) and 2.79 increased odds of an ovarian fibroma (95% CI, 1.05 to 7.40). Genotype-phenotype analyses showed that missense/in-frame mutations were more likely to be hereditary compared with severe deleterious mutation types (100% v 27%; P = .004). In addition, heat map visualization illustrated that those with more deleterious variants, like large deletions, trended toward increased burden of SAs and BCCs per year.CONCLUSION: GS patients with SAs may be at greater risk for developing more numerous and severe BCCs and other neoplastic growths including keratocystic odontogenic tumors and ovarian fibromas. Current clinical guidelines suggest yearly follow-up in individuals with GS. Since SAs are usually recognized at the time of diagnosis, our results suggest that more vigilant lifetime multidisciplinary surveillance should be considered for these patients starting in childhood.
View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.21.02385
View details for PubMedID 35333541
Pancreatic Pseudoislets: An Organoid Archetype for Metabolism Research.
Pancreatic islets are vital endocrine regulators of systemic metabolism, and recent investigations have increasingly focused on understanding human islet biology. Studies of isolated human islets have advanced understanding of the development, function, and regulation of cells comprising islets, especially pancreatic alpha- and beta-cells. However, the multicellularity of the intact islet has stymied specific experimental approaches-particularly in genetics and cell signaling interrogation. This barrier has been circumvented by the observation that islet cells can survive dispersion and reaggregate to form "pseudoislets," organoids that retain crucial physiological functions, including regulated insulin and glucagon secretion. Recently, exciting advances in the use of pseudoislets for genetics, genomics, islet cell transplantation, and studies of intraislet signaling and islet cell interactions have been reported by investigators worldwide. Here we review molecular and cellular mechanisms thought to promote islet cell reaggregation, summarize methods that optimize pseudoislet development, and detail recent insights about human islet biology from genetic and transplantation-based pseudoislet experiments. Owing to robust, international programs for procuring primary human pancreata, pseudoislets should serve as both a durable paradigm for primary organoid studies and as an engine of discovery for islet biology, diabetes, and metabolism research.
View details for DOI 10.2337/db20-1115
View details for PubMedID 33947722
CRISPR-based genome editing in primary human pancreatic islet cells.
2021; 12 (1): 2397
Gene targeting studies in primary human islets could advance our understanding of mechanisms driving diabetes pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate successful genome editing in primary human islets using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9). CRISPR-based targeting efficiently mutated protein-coding exons, resulting in acute loss of islet beta-cell regulators, like the transcription factor PDX1 and the KATP channel subunit KIR6.2, accompanied by impaired beta-cell regulation and function. CRISPR targeting of non-coding DNA harboring type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk variants revealed changes in ABCC8, SIX2 and SIX3 expression, and impaired beta-cell function, thereby linking regulatory elements in these target genes to T2D genetic susceptibility. Advances here establish a paradigm for genetic studies in human islet cells, and reveal regulatory and genetic mechanisms linking non-coding variants to human diabetes risk.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-22651-w
View details for PubMedID 33893274
SIX2 and SIX3 coordinately regulate functional maturity and fate of human pancreatic β cells.
Genes & development
The physiological functions of many vital tissues and organs continue to mature after birth, but the genetic mechanisms governing this postnatal maturation remain an unsolved mystery. Human pancreatic β cells produce and secrete insulin in response to physiological cues like glucose, and these hallmark functions improve in the years after birth. This coincides with expression of the transcription factors SIX2 and SIX3, whose functions in native human β cells remain unknown. Here, we show that shRNA-mediated SIX2 or SIX3 suppression in human pancreatic adult islets impairs insulin secretion. However, transcriptome studies revealed that SIX2 and SIX3 regulate distinct targets. Loss of SIX2 markedly impaired expression of genes governing β-cell insulin processing and output, glucose sensing, and electrophysiology, while SIX3 loss led to inappropriate expression of genes normally expressed in fetal β cells, adult α cells, and other non-β cells. Chromatin accessibility studies identified genes directly regulated by SIX2. Moreover, β cells from diabetic humans with impaired insulin secretion also had reduced SIX2 transcript levels. Revealing how SIX2 and SIX3 govern functional maturation and maintain developmental fate in native human β cells should advance β-cell replacement and other therapeutic strategies for diabetes.
View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.342378.120
View details for PubMedID 33446570
Aquagenic pruritus in an adolescent effectively managed with beta-alanine supplementation.
Aquagenic pruritus is a rare debilitating condition, which can be idiopathic, iatrogenic, or associated with systemic disease. In idiopathic cases, treatment can be challenging as options are limited and of variable efficacy. Here, we report the case of a teenage boy with refractory idiopathic aquagenic pruritus effectively managed with administration of beta-alanine supplementation, a treatment gaining traction in lay media but not yet reported in the medical literature. This report adds to the limited options published for treatment of idiopathic aquagenic pruritus in pediatric patients.
View details for DOI 10.1111/pde.14440
View details for PubMedID 33170524
The long dystrophin gene product Dp427 modulates retinal function and vascular morphology in response to age and retinal ischemia.
2019; 129: 104489
Mutations in dystrophin are the major cause of muscular dystrophies. Continuous muscular degeneration and late stage complications, including cardiomyopathy and respiratory insufficiency, dominate the clinical phenotype. Gene expression and regulation of the dystrophin gene outside of muscular tissue is far more complex. Multiple tissue-specific dystrophin gene products are widely expressed throughout the body, including the central nervous system and eye, predisposing affected patients to secondary complications in non-muscular tissues. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the full-length dystrophin gene product, Dp427, on retinal homeostasis and angiogenesis. Based on the clinical case of a Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patient who developed severe fibrovascular changes in the retina in response to hypoxic stress, we hypothesized that defects in Dp427 make the retina more susceptible to stresses such as ageing and ischemia. To further study this, a mouse strain lacking Dp427 expression (Mdx) was studied during retinal development, ageing and in the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. While retinal vascular morphology was normal during development and ageing, retinal function measured by electroretinography (ERG) was slightly reduced in young adult Mdx mice and deteriorated with age. Mdx mice also had increased retinal neovascularization in response to OIR and more pronounced long-term deterioration in retinal function following OIR. Based on these results, we suggest that DMD patients with a mutation in Dp427 may experience disturbed retinal homeostasis with increasing age and therefore be prone to develop excessive retinal neovascular changes in response to hypoxic stress. DMD patients in late disease stages should, thus, be regularly examined to detect asymptomatic retinal abnormalities and prevent visual impairment.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuint.2019.104489
View details for PubMedID 31199961