Honors & Awards
STAT Wunderkind, STAT News (2020)
The NCI Predoctoral to Postdoctoral Fellow Transition Award (F99/K00), NIH (2018-Present)
Robert R. Wagner Fellowship, UVA (2017)
Graduate Research Fellowship (GRFP), NSF (2016)
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Virginia, Biomedical Engineering (2020)
Bachelor of Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Biomedical Engineering (2015)
ImmunoPET-informed sequence for focused ultrasound-targeted mCD47 blockade controls glioma.
Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
2021; 331: 19–29
Phagocytic immunotherapies such as CD47 blockade have emerged as promising strategies for glioblastoma (GB) therapy, but the blood brain/tumor barriers (BBB/BTB) pose a persistent challenge for mCD47 delivery that can be overcome by focused ultrasound (FUS)-mediated BBB/BTB disruption. We here leverage immuno-PET imaging to determine how timing of [89Zr]-mCD47 injection relative to FUS impacts antibody penetrance into orthotopic murine gliomas. We then design and implement a rational paradigm for combining FUS and mCD47 for glioma therapy. We demonstrate that timing of antibody injection relative to FUS BBB/BTB disruption is a critical determinant of mCD47 access, with post-FUS injection conferring superlative antibody delivery to gliomas. We also show that mCD47 delivery across the BBB/BTB with repeat sessions of FUS can significantly constrain tumor outgrowth and extend survival in glioma-bearing mice. This study generates provocative insights for ongoing pre-clinical and clinical evaluations of FUS-mediated antibody delivery to brain tumors. Moreover, our results confirm that mCD47 delivery with FUS is a promising therapeutic strategy for GB therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.01.023
View details for PubMedID 33476735
Combination of thermally ablative focused ultrasound with gemcitabine controls breast cancer via adaptive immunity
JOURNAL FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER
2020; 8 (2)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains recalcitrant to most targeted therapy approaches. However, recent clinical studies suggest that inducing tumor damage can render TNBC responsive to immunotherapy. We therefore tested a strategy for immune sensitization of murine TNBC (4T1 tumors) through combination of focused ultrasound (FUS) thermal ablation and a chemotherapy, gemcitabine (GEM), known to attenuate myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs).We applied a sparse-scan thermally ablative FUS regimen at the tumor site in combination with systemically administered GEM. We used flow cytometry analysis to investigate the roles of monotherapy and combinatorial therapy in mediating local and systemic immunity. We also tested this combination in Rag1-/- mice or T cell-depleted wild-type mice to determine the essentiality of adaptive immunity. Further, we layered Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade onto this combination to evaluate its impact on tumor outgrowth and survival.The immune-modulatory effect of FUS monotherapy was insufficient to promote a robust T cell response against 4T1, consistent with the dominant MDSC-driven immunosuppression evident in this model. The combination of FUS+GEM significantly constrained primary TNBC tumor outgrowth and extended overall survival of mice. Tumor control correlated with increased circulating antigen-experienced T cells and was entirely dependent on T cell-mediated immunity. The ability of FUS+GEM to control primary tumor outgrowth was moderately enhanced by either neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with anti-PD-1.Thermally ablative FUS in combination with GEM restricts primary tumor outgrowth, improves survival and enhances immunogenicity in a murine metastatic TNBC model. This treatment strategy promises a novel option for potentiating the role of FUS in immunotherapy of metastatic TNBC and is worthy of future clinical evaluation.NCT03237572 and NCT04116320.
View details for DOI 10.1136/jitc-2020-001008
View details for Web of Science ID 000564352500008
View details for PubMedID 32819975
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7443308
Focused Ultrasound Hyperthermia Augments Release of Glioma-derived Extracellular Vesicles with Differential Immunomodulatory Capacity
2020; 10 (16): 7436–47
Background: Increasing evidence points to the critical role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as molecular parcels that carry a diverse array of bioactive payloads for coordination of complex intracellular signaling. Focused ultrasound (FUS) hyperthermia is a technique for non-invasive, non-ionizing sublethal heating of cells in a near-instantaneous manner; while it has been shown to improve drug delivery and immunological recognition of tumors, its impact on EVs has not been explored to date. The goal of this study was to determine whether FUS impacts the release, proteomic profile, and immune-activating properties of tumor-derived EVs. Methods: Monolayered murine glioma cells were seeded within acoustically transparent cell culture chambers, and FUS hyperthermia was applied to achieve complete coverage of the chamber. Glioma-derived EVs (GEVs) were isolated for characterization by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, cryo-electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. An in vitro experimental setup was designed to further dissect the impact of GEVs on innate inflammation; immortalized murine dendritic cells (DCs) were pulsed with GEVs (either naïve or FUS hyperthermia-exposed) and assayed for production of IL-12p70, an important regulator of DC maturation and T helper cell polarization toward the interferon-γ-producing type 1 phenotype. Results: We confirmed that FUS hyperthermia significantly augments GEV release (by ~46%) as well as shifts the proteomic profile of these GEVs. Such shifts included enrichment of common EV-associated markers, downregulation of markers associated with cancer progression and resistance and modulation of inflammation-associated markers. When DCs were pulsed with GEVs, we noted that naïve GEVs suppressed IL-12p70 production by DCs in a GEV dose-dependent manner. In contrast, GEVs from cells exposed to FUS hyperthermia promoted a significant upregulation in IL-12p70 production by DCs, consistent with a pro-inflammatory stimulus. Conclusion: FUS hyperthermia triggers release of proteomically distinct GEVs that are capable of facilitating an important component of innate immune activation, lending both to a potential mechanism by which FUS interfaces with the tumor-immune landscape and to a role for GEV-associated biomarkers in monitoring response to FUS.
View details for DOI 10.7150/thno.46534
View details for Web of Science ID 000545975000003
View details for PubMedID 32642004
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7330848
Quantitative analysis of in-vivo microbubble distribution in the human brain.
2021; 11 (1): 11797
Microbubbles (MB) are widely used as contrast agents to perform contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and as acoustic amplifiers of mechanical bioeffects incited by therapeutic-level ultrasound. The distribution of MBs in the brain is not yet fully understood, thereby limiting intra-operative CEUS guidance or MB-based FUS treatments. In this paper we describe a robust platform for quantification of MB distribution in the human brain, allowing to quantitatively discriminate between tumoral and normal brain tissues and we provide new information regarding real-time cerebral MBs distribution. Intraoperative CEUS imaging was performed during surgical tumor resection using an ultrasound machine (MyLab Twice, Esaote, Italy) equipped with a multifrequency (3-11MHz) linear array probe (LA332) and a specific low mechanical index (MI<0.4) CEUS algorithm (CnTi, Esaote, Italy; section thickness, 0.245cm) for non-destructive continuous MBs imaging. CEUS acquisition is started by enabling the CnTI PEN-M algorithm automatically setting the MI at 0.4 with a center frequency of 2.94MHz-10Hz frame rate at 80mm-allowing for continuous non-destructive MBs imaging. 19 ultrasound image sets of adequate length were selected and retrospectively analyzed using a custom image processing software for quantitative analysis of echo power. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on key structures (artery-tumor-white matter) by a blinded neurosurgeon, following which peak enhancement and time intensity curves (TICs) were quantified. CEUS images revealed clear qualitative differences in MB distribution: arteries showed the earliest and highest enhancement among all structures, followed by tumor and white matter regions, respectively. The custom software built for quantitative analysis effectively captured these differences. Quantified peak intensities showed regions containing artery, tumor or white matter structures having an average MB intensity of 0.584, 0.436 and 0.175 units, respectively. Moreover, the normalized area under TICs revealed the time of flight for MB to be significantly lower in brain tissue as compared with tumor tissue. Significant heterogeneities in TICs were also observed within different regions of the same brain lesion. In this study, we provide the most comprehensive strategy for accurate quantitative analysis of MBs distribution in the human brain by means of CEUS intraoperative imaging. Furthermore our results demonstrate that CEUS imaging quantitative analysis enables discernment between different types of brain tumors as well as regions and structures within the brain. Similar considerations will be important for the planning and implementation of MB-based imaging or treatments in the future.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-021-91252-w
View details for PubMedID 34083642
Transcriptomic response of brain tissue to focused ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption depends strongly on anesthesia.
Bioengineering & translational medicine
2021; 6 (2): e10198
Focused ultrasound (FUS) mediated blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) targets the delivery of systemically-administered therapeutics to the central nervous system. Preclinical investigations of BBBD have been performed on different anesthetic backgrounds; however, the influence of the choice of anesthetic on the molecular response to BBBD is unknown, despite its potential to critically affect interpretation of experimental therapeutic outcomes. Here, using bulk RNA sequencing, we comprehensively examined the transcriptomic response of both normal brain tissue and brain tissue exposed to FUS-induced BBBD in mice anesthetized with either isoflurane with medical air (Iso) or ketamine/dexmedetomidine (KD). In normal murine brain tissue, Iso alone elicited minimal differential gene expression (DGE) and repressed pathways associated with neuronal signaling. KD alone, however, led to massive DGE and enrichment of pathways associated with protein synthesis. In brain tissue exposed to BBBD (1 MHz, 0.5 Hz pulse repetition frequency, 0.4 MPa peak-negative pressure), we systematically evaluated the relative effects of anesthesia, microbubbles, and FUS on the transcriptome. Of particular interest, we observed that gene sets associated with sterile inflammatory responses and cell-cell junctional activity were induced by BBBD, regardless of the choice of anesthesia. Meanwhile, gene sets associated with metabolism, platelet activity, tissue repair, and signaling pathways, were differentially affected by BBBD, with a strong dependence on the anesthetic. We conclude that the underlying transcriptomic response to FUS-mediated BBBD may be powerfully influenced by anesthesia. These findings raise considerations for the translation of FUS-BBBD delivery approaches that impact, in particular, metabolism, tissue repair, and intracellular signaling.
View details for DOI 10.1002/btm2.10198
View details for PubMedID 34027087
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8126816
- Transcriptomic response of brain tissue to focused ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption depends strongly on anesthesia BIOENGINEERING & TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2020
- IMMUNOPET-INFORMED SEQUENCE FOR FOCUSED ULTRASOUND-TARGETED MCD47 BLOCKADE CONTROLS GLIOMA BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. 2020: A288–A289
Pericyte Bridges in Homeostasis and Hyperglycemia
2020; 69 (7): 1503–17
Diabetic retinopathy is a potentially blinding eye disease that threatens the vision of one-ninth of patients with diabetes. Progression of the disease has long been attributed to an initial dropout of pericytes that enwrap the retinal microvasculature. Revealed through retinal vascular digests, a subsequent increase in basement membrane bridges was also observed. Using cell-specific markers, we demonstrate that pericytes rather than endothelial cells colocalize with these bridges. We show that the density of bridges transiently increases with elevation of Ang-2, PDGF-BB, and blood glucose; is rapidly reversed on a timescale of days; and is often associated with a pericyte cell body located off vessel. Cell-specific knockout of KLF4 in pericytes fully replicates this phenotype. In vivo imaging of limbal vessels demonstrates pericyte migration off vessel, with rapid pericyte filopodial-like process formation between adjacent vessels. Accounting for off-vessel and on-vessel pericytes, we observed no pericyte loss relative to nondiabetic control retina. These findings reveal the possibility that pericyte perturbations in location and process formation may play a role in the development of pathological vascular remodeling in diabetic retinopathy.
View details for DOI 10.2337/db19-0471
View details for Web of Science ID 000542843100019
View details for PubMedID 32321760
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7306121
Fluorescein-mediated sonodynamic therapy in a rat glioma model
JOURNAL OF NEURO-ONCOLOGY
2020; 148 (3): 445–54
Malignant gliomas have a dismal prognosis and significant efforts are being made to develop more effective treatments. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is an emerging modality for cancer treatment which combines ultrasound with sonosensitizers to produce a localized cytotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of SDT with fluorescein (FL) and low-intensity focused ultrasound in inhibiting the growth of ectopic gliomas implanted in the rat's subcutaneous tissue.In vivo cytotoxicity of FL-SDT was evaluated in C6 rat glioma cells which were inoculated subcutaneously. Tumor specific extracellular FL extravasation and accumulation was assessed with IVIS imaging in rats receiving systemic FL. Effects of FL-SDT with focused low-intensity ultrasound on tumor growth, and histological features of the rat's tumors were investigated. Treatment related apoptosis and necrosis were analyzed using hematoxylin & eosin, and apoptosis-specific staining.IVIS imaging revealed a high degree of FL accumulation within the tumor, with a nearly threefold increase in tumoral epifluorescence signal over background. SDT significantly inhibited outgrowth of ectopic C6 gliomas across all three FUS exposure conditions. TUNEL and active caspase-3 staining did not reveal conclusive trends across control and SDT condition for apoptosis.Our results suggest that SDT with FL and low-intensity FUS is effective in inhibiting the growth of ectopic malignant gliomas in rats. The selective FL extravasation and accumulation in the tumor areas where the blood-brain barrier is damaged suggests the tumor-specificity of the treatment. The possibility to use this treatment in intracranial models and in human gliomas will have to be explored in further studies.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11060-020-03536-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000538478600001
View details for PubMedID 32500440
Immunomodulation of intracranial melanoma in response to blood-tumor barrier opening with focused ultrasound
2020; 10 (19): 8821–33
Background: Focused ultrasound (FUS) activation of microbubbles (MBs) for blood-brain (BBB) and blood-tumor barrier (BTB) opening permits targeted therapeutic delivery. While the effects of FUS+MBs mediated BBB opening have been investigated for normal brain tissue, no such studies exist for intracranial tumors. As this technology advances into clinical immunotherapy trials, it will be crucial to understand how FUS+MBs modulates the tumor immune microenvironment. Methods and Results: Bulk RNA sequencing revealed that FUS+MBs BTB/BBB opening (1 MHz, 0.5 MPa peak-negative pressure) of intracranial B16F1cOVA tumors increases the expression of genes related to proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine signaling, pattern recognition receptor signaling, and antigen processing and presentation. Flow cytometry revealed increased maturation (i.e. CD86) of dendritic cells (DCs) in the meninges and altered antigen loading of DCs in both the tumor and meninges. For DCs in tumor draining lymph nodes, FUS+MBs had no effect on maturation and elicited only a trend towards increased presentation of tumor-derived peptide by MHC. Neither tumor endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression nor homing of activated T cells was affected by FUS+MBs. Conclusion: FUS+MBs-mediated BTB/BBB opening elicits signatures of inflammation; however, the response is mild, transient, and unlikely to elicit a systemic response independent of administration of immune adjuvants.
View details for DOI 10.7150/thno.47983
View details for Web of Science ID 000548566600013
View details for PubMedID 32754281
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7392000
Deconvolution of the immunological contexture of mouse tumors with multiplexed immunohistochemistry
TUMOR IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOTHERAPY - INTEGRATED METHODS, PT A
2020; 635: 81–93
In a variety of solid tumors, the presence of higher densities of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are correlated with prolonged patient survival. Murine studies are usually required to define mechanisms that govern immunologic infiltrate in tumors. However, few methods have been described that could enable a more comprehensive understanding of the functionality of intratumoral immune infiltrate and TLS in solid murine cancers. In this chapter, we describe multiplex immunohistochemistry and microscopy approaches for identifying, characterizing, and quantifying intratumoral immune infiltrate and TLS in murine tumor models.
View details for DOI 10.1016/bs.mie.2019.05.038
View details for Web of Science ID 000539032800007
View details for PubMedID 32122555
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7424935
Perspectives on Recent Progress in Focused Ultrasound Immunotherapy
2019; 9 (25): 7749–58
Immunotherapy holds tremendous promise as a strategy for eradicating solid tumors. However, poor T cell infiltration and persistence within most solid tumor microenvironments, as well as mechanisms of adaptive resistance, continue to severely limit the accessibility of most immunotherapies to a broad patient population. This limitation perpetuates the demand for allied therapeutic strategies. Among such strategies is focused ultrasound (FUS), a non-invasive, non-ionizing technique for precisely targeted acoustic energy deposition into tissues. FUS has gained remarkable attention over recent years as a modality for elicitation of immune mechanisms in cancer and other pathologies. In 2017, we published a comprehensive review paper detailing existing evidence for immune modulation and therapy with FUS, as well as impending challenges and opportunities of consideration for the field. Over the last two years, a multitude of clinical trials have come online to explore safety, feasibility, and efficacy of FUS for cancers of the brain and periphery - including the first clinical trial to combine FUS with immunotherapy. Moreover, the last two years have seen a surge in FUS immunotherapy presentations at therapeutic ultrasound scientific meetings. Given the burst of activity in this field, we submit that an update on FUS immunotherapy progress is timely. In this review, we offer an updated overview and perspectives on scientific and clinical development in the FUS immunotherapy domain.
View details for DOI 10.7150/thno.37131
View details for Web of Science ID 000489762700018
View details for PubMedID 31695798
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6831458
- Meeting report: 2017 Winter School on Therapeutic Ultrasound JOURNAL OF THERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND 2018; 6
Focused ultrasound ablation as an immunomodulatory strategy for metastatic breast cancer therapy
AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. 2018
View details for Web of Science ID 000459977703232
MR image-guided focused ultrasound immune modulation for glioma therapy
AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. 2018
View details for Web of Science ID 000459977703220
Listening in on the Microbubble Crowd: Advanced Acoustic Monitoring for Improved Control of Blood-Brain Barrier Opening with Focused Ultrasound
2018; 8 (11): 2988–91
Non-invasive drug and gene delivery to the brain to treat central nervous system pathologies has long been inhibited by the blood-brain barrier. The activation of microbubbles with focused ultrasound has emerged as a promising non-invasive approach to circumvent this obstacle, by transiently disrupting the blood-brain barrier and permitting passage of systemically administered therapeutics into the tissue. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate the safety of this technique; however, concerns remain regarding the potential for the treatment to induce sterile inflammation or petechiae. In this issue of Theranostics, Jones et al. address these concerns through the development of an advanced three-dimensional imaging system for monitoring acoustic emissions from oscillating microbubbles. When subharmonic emissions are detected with this system, focused ultrasound pressure is reduced by 50% for the remainder of the treatment. This serves to transiently open the blood-brain barrier without generating adverse effects. While the ideal configuration of the transducer array for treatment and monitoring still presents an area for further optimization, the approach indicates that the acoustic signature of microbubble behavior within the skull can be used to ensure safe and effective blood-brain barrier opening using focused ultrasound.
View details for DOI 10.7150/thno.26025
View details for Web of Science ID 000430559800007
View details for PubMedID 29897053
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5996352
Pediatric ocular nanomedicines: Challenges and opportunities
CHINESE CHEMICAL LETTERS
2017; 28 (9): 1817–21
The eye is a highly complex, yet readily accessible organ within the human body. As such, the eye is an appealing candidate target for a vast array of drug therapies. Despite advances in ocular drug therapy research, the focus on pediatric ocular drug delivery continues to be highly underrepresented due to the limited number of degenerative ocular diseases with childhood onset. In this review, we explore more deeply the reasons underlying the disparity between ocular therapies available for children and for adults by highlighting diseases that most commonly afflict children (with focus on the anterior eye) and existing prognoses, recent developments in ocular drug delivery systems and nanomedicines for children, and barriers to use for pediatric patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cclet.2017.07.022
View details for Web of Science ID 000412376000004
View details for PubMedID 29147075
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5683720
Focused Ultrasound Immunotherapy for Central Nervous System Pathologies: Challenges and Opportunities
2017; 7 (15): 3608–23
Immunotherapy is rapidly emerging as the cornerstone for the treatment of several forms of metastatic cancer, as well as for a host of other pathologies. Meanwhile, several new high-profile studies have uncovered remarkable linkages between the central nervous and immune systems. With these recent developments, harnessing the immune system for the treatment of brain pathologies is a promising strategy. Here, we contend that MR image-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) represents a noninvasive approach that will allow for favorable therapeutic immunomodulation in the setting of the central nervous system. One obstacle to effective immunotherapeutic drug delivery to the brain is the blood brain barrier (BBB), which refers to the specialized structure of brain capillaries that prevents transport of most therapeutics from the blood into brain tissue. When applied in the presence of circulating microbubbles, FUS can safely and transiently open the BBB to facilitate the delivery of immunotherapeutic agents into the brain parenchyma. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that physical perturbations of the tissue microenvironment via FUS can modulate immune response in both normal and diseased tissue. In this review article, we provide an overview of FUS energy regimens and corresponding tissue bioeffects, followed by a review of the literature pertaining to FUS for therapeutic antibody delivery in normal brain and preclinical models of brain disease. We provide an overview of studies that demonstrate FUS-mediated immune modulation in both the brain and peripheral settings. Finally, we provide remarks on challenges facing FUS immunotherapy and opportunities for future expansion in this area.
View details for DOI 10.7150/thno.21225
View details for Web of Science ID 000408444200001
View details for PubMedID 29109764
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5667336
The effect of photoinitiators on intracellular AKT signaling pathway in tissue engineering application
2015; 3 (2): 250–55
Free-radical photopolymerization initiated by photoinitiators is an important method to make tissue engineering scaffolds. To advance understanding of photoinitiator cytocompatibility, we examined three photoinitiators including 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA), Irgacure 2959 (I-2959), and eosin Y photoinitiating system (EY) in terms of their effects on viability of HN4 cells and expression levels of intracellular AKT and its phosphorylated form p-AKT. Our results show that the photoinitiators and their UV-exposed counterparts affect intracellular AKT signaling, which can be used in conjunction with cell viability for cytocompatibility assessment of photoinitiators.
View details for DOI 10.1039/c4bm00245h
View details for Web of Science ID 000348202600004
View details for PubMedID 25709809
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4335638
Semi-Interpenetrating Network (sIPN) Co-Electrospun Gelatin/Insulin Fiber Formulation for Transbuccal Insulin Delivery
2015; 32 (1): 275–85
This work was aimed at developing a semi-interpenetrating network (sIPN) co-electrospun gelatin/insulin fiber scaffold (GIF) formulation for transbuccal insulin delivery.Gelatin was electrospun into fibers and converted into an sIPN following eosin Y-initiated polymerization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA). The cytocompatibility, degradation rate and mechanical properties were examined in the resulting sIPNs with various ratios of PEG-DA to eosin Y to find a suitable formulation for transbuccal drug delivery. Insulin was co-electrospun with gelatin into fibers and converted into an sIPN-GIF using this suitable formulation. The in vitro release kinetics of insulin was evaluated using ELISA. The bioactivity of released insulin was analyzed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using Western blotting and Oil Red O staining. The transbuccal permeability of released insulin was determined using an in vitro porcine oral mucosa model.The sIPN-GF formulation of GF cross-linked by PEG-DA (1% w/v) with eosin Y (5% v/v) possessed no cytotoxic effect, a moderate degradation rate with degradation half-life of 49 min, and a significant enhancement in mechanical properties. This formulation was used to fabricate sIPN-GIF. Insulin release was extended up to 4 h by sIPN-GIF. The released insulin successfully triggered intracellular AKT phosphorylation and induced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The transbuccal permeability of released insulin was determined on the order of 10(-7) cm/s.Insulin can be fabricated into an sIPN-GIF formulation following co-electrospinning and cross-linking without losing bioactivity. It proved the potential of this new formulation for transbuccal insulin delivery.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11095-014-1461-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000347408800020
View details for PubMedID 25030186