Christopher Garcia, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Structural basis of Janus kinase trans-activation.
2023; 42 (3): 112201
Janus kinases (JAKs) mediate signal transduction downstream of cytokine receptors. Cytokine-dependent dimerization is conveyed across the cell membrane to drive JAK dimerization, trans-phosphorylation, and activation. Activated JAKs in turn phosphorylate receptor intracellular domains (ICDs), resulting in the recruitment, phosphorylation, and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-family transcription factors. The structural arrangement of a JAK1 dimer complex with IFNlambdaR1 ICD was recently elucidated while bound by stabilizing nanobodies. While this revealed insights into the dimerization-dependent activation of JAKs and the role of oncogenic mutations in this process, the tyrosine kinase (TK) domains were separated by a distance not compatible with the trans-phosphorylation events between the TK domains. Here, we report the cryoelectron microscopy structure of a mouse JAK1 complex in a putative trans-activation state and expand these insights to other physiologically relevant JAK complexes, providing mechanistic insight into the crucial trans-activation step of JAK signaling and allosteric mechanisms of JAK inhibition.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.112201
View details for PubMedID 36867534
Organizing Structural Principles of the Interleukin-17 Ligand-Receptor Axis.
The interleukin-17 (IL-17) family of cytokines and receptors play central roles in host defense against infection, and development of inflammatory diseases1. The compositions and structures of functional IL-17 family ligand-receptor signaling assemblies remain unclear. Interleukin-17E (IL-17E or IL-25) is a key regulator of Th2 immune responses and driver of inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma and requires both IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and IL-17RB to elicit functional responses2. Here, we studied IL-25-IL-17RB binary and IL-25-IL-17RB-IL-17RA ternary complexes using a combination of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), single-molecule imaging, and cell-based signaling approaches. The IL-25-IL-17RB-IL-17RA ternary signaling assembly is a c2-symmetric complex in which the IL-25-IL-17RB homodimer is flanked by two "wing-like" IL-17RA co-receptors through a "tip-to-tip" geometry that is the key receptor-receptor interaction required for initiation of signal transduction. IL-25 interacts solely with IL-17RB to allosterically promote the formation of the IL-17RB-IL-17RA tip-to-tip interface. The resulting large separation between the receptors at the membrane-proximal level may reflect proximity constraints by the intracellular domains for signaling. Cryo-EM structures of IL-17A-IL-17RA and IL-17A-IL-17RA-IL-17RC complexes reveal that this tip-to-tip architecture is a key organizing principle of the IL-17 receptor family, Furthermore, these studies reveal dual actions for IL-17RA sharing amongst IL-17 cytokine complexes, by either directly engaging IL-17 cytokines, or alternatively functioning as a co-receptor.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-05116-y
View details for PubMedID 35863378
Structure of the IL-27 quaternary receptor signaling complex.
Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a heterodimeric cytokine that functions to constrain T cell-mediated inflammation and plays an important role in immune homeostasis. Binding of IL-27 to cell surface receptors IL-27Ralpha and gp130 results in activation of receptor-associated Janus Kinases and nuclear translocation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT3 transcription factors. Despite the emerging therapeutic importance of this cytokine axis in cancer and autoimmunity, a molecular blueprint of the IL-27 receptor signaling complex, and its relation to other gp130/IL-12 family cytokines, is currently unclear. We used cryogenic-electron microscopy to determine the quaternary structure of IL-27, composed of p28 and Ebi3 subunits, bound to receptors, IL-27Ralpha and gp130. The resulting 3.47 A resolution structure revealed a three-site assembly mechanism nucleated by the central p28 subunit of the cytokine. The overall topology and molecular details of this binding are reminiscent of IL-6 but distinct from related heterodimeric cytokines IL-12 and IL-23. These results indicate distinct receptor assembly mechanisms used by heterodimeric cytokines with important consequences for targeted agonism and antagonism of IL-27 signaling.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.78463
View details for PubMedID 35579417