Education & Certifications

  • B.S., University of Evansville, Exercise Science (2009)
  • M.S., California State University, Fullerton, Exercise Physiology (2012)

Lab Affiliations

All Publications

  • Mussels' acclimatization to high, variable temperatures is lost slowly upon transfer to benign conditions. The Journal of experimental biology Moyen, N. E., Somero, G. N., Denny, M. W. 2020


    Climate change is increasing the temperature variability animals face, and thermal acclimatization allows animals to adjust adaptively to this variability. While the rate of heat-acclimatization has received some study, little is known about how long these adaptive changes remain without continuing exposure to heat stress. This study explored the rate at which field-acclimatization states are lost when temperature variability is minimized during constant submersion. California mussels (Mytilus californianus) with different acclimatization states were collected from high- and low-zone sites (12°C vs. 5°C daily temperature ranges, respectively) and then kept submerged at 15°C for eight weeks. Each week, mussels' cardiac thermal performance was measured as a metric of acclimatization state; critical (T crit) and flatline (FLT) temperatures were recorded. Across eight weeks of constant submersion high-zone mussels' mean T crit decreased by 1.07°C from baseline, but low-zone mussels' mean T crit was unchanged. High- and low-zone mussels' mean maximum heart rate (HR) and resting HR decreased 12% and 35%, respectively. FLT was unchanged in both groups. These data suggest that T crit and HR are more physiologically plastic in response to the narrowing of an animal's daily temperature range than is FLT, and that an animal's prior acclimatization state (high vs. low) influences the acclimatory capacity of T crit Approximately two months were required for the high-zone mussels' cardiac thermal performance to reach that of the low-zone mussels, suggesting that acclimatization to high and variable temperatures may persist long enough to enable these animals to cope with intermittent bouts of heat stress.

    View details for DOI 10.1242/jeb.222893

    View details for PubMedID 32457061

  • Establishing typical values for hemocyte mortality in individual California mussels, Mytilus californianus. Fish & shellfish immunology Moyen, N. E., Bump, P. A., Somero, G. N., Denny, M. W. 2020


    Hemocytes are immune cells in the hemolymph of invertebrates that play multiple roles in response to stressors; hemocyte mortality can thus serve as an indicator of overall animal health. However, previous research has often analyzed hemolymph samples pooled from several individuals, which precludes tracking individual responses to stressors over time. The ability to track individuals is important, however, because large inter-individual variation in response to stressors can confound the interpretation of pooled samples. Here, we describe protocols for analysis of inter- and intra-individual variability in hemocyte mortality across repeated hemolymph samples of California mussels, Mytilus californianus, free from typical abiotic stressors. To assess individual variability in hemocyte mortality with serial sampling, we created four groups of 15 mussels each that were repeatedly sampled four times: at baseline (time zero) and three subsequent times separated by either 24, 48, 72, or 168 h. Hemocyte mortality was assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of cells stained with propidium iodide. Our study demonstrates that hemolymph can be repeatedly sampled from individual mussels without mortality; however, there is substantial inter- and intra-individual variability in hemocyte mortality through time that is partially dependent on the sampling interval. Across repeated samples, individual mussels' hemocyte mortality had, on average, a range of ∼6% and a standard deviation of ∼3%, which was minimized with sampling periods ≥72 h apart. Due to this intra-individual variability, obtaining ≥2 samples from a specimen will more accurately establish an individual's baseline. Pooled-sample means were similar to individual-sample means; however, pooled samples masked the individual variation in each group. Overall, these data lay the foundation for future work exploring individual mussels' temporal responses to various stressors on a cellular level.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fsi.2020.02.069

    View details for PubMedID 32135339

  • Impact of heating rate on cardiac thermal tolerance in the California mussel, Mytilus californianus. The Journal of experimental biology Moyen, N. E., Somero, G. N., Denny, M. W. 2019


    Intertidal communities of wave-swept rocky shores have served as a powerful model system for experiments in ecology, and mussels (the dominant competitor for space in the mid-intertidal zone) play a central role in determining community structure in this physically stressful habitat. Consequently, our ability to account for mussels' physiological responses to thermal stress affects ecologists' abilities to predict the impacts of a warming climate on this ecosystem. Here, we examine the effect of heating rate on cardiac thermal tolerance in the ribbed mussel, Mytilus californianus, comparing populations from high and low sites in the intertidal zone where emersion duration leads to different mean daily heating rates. Two temperature-related cardiac variables were examined: 1) the critical temperature (Hcrit) at which heart rate (HR) precipitously declines, and 2) flatline temperature (FLT) where HR reaches zero. Mussels were heated in air at slow, moderate, and fast rates, and heart rate was measured via an infrared sensor affixed to the shell. Faster heating rates significantly increased Hcrit in high-, but not low-zone mussels, and Hcrit was higher in high vs. - mussels, especially at the fastest heating rate. By contrast, FLT did not differ between zones, and was minimally affected by heating rate. Since heating rate significantly impacted high- but not low-zone mussels' cardiac thermal tolerance, realistic zone-specific heating rates must be used in laboratory tests if those tests are to provide accurate information for ecological models attempting to predict the effects of increasing temperature on intertidal communities.

    View details for DOI 10.1242/jeb.203166

    View details for PubMedID 31395674

  • The effect of passive heat stress on distress andself-control in male smokers and non-smokers. The Journal of general psychology Veilleux, J. C., Zielinski, M. J., Moyen, N. E., Tucker, M. A., Dougherty, E. K., Ganio, M. S. 2018: 1–20


    In the current study, we tested the effects of core body temperature increases (e.g. heat stress) on affect, self-reported physical discomfort, and subsequent self-control in male smokers and nonsmokers using a novel passive heat stress paradigm, within a distress tolerance framework. Twenty-eight men (14 smokers), completed both heat stress and control sessions in randomized order. Results revealed that increases in core body temperature were associated with increased anxiety, irritability, and body discomfort as well as decreased happiness, with stronger effects for smokers. Smokers and nonsmokers both evidenced less self-control during the heat session and did not differ on this measure, nor on a measure of interoceptive sensitivity. The current study indicates that heat stress is a viable method for studying distress tolerance in men, and suggests the value in examining dynamic changes in self-control as a function of distress. Implications will be discussed for distress tolerance in general and smokers in specific.

    View details for PubMedID 30358519

  • Effect of a Cooling Kit on Physiology and Performance Following Exercise in the Heat JOURNAL OF SPORT REHABILITATION Smith, C. R., Butts, C. L., Adams, J. D., Tucker, M. A., Moyen, N. E., Ganio, M. S., McDermott, B. P. 2018; 27 (5): 413–18


    Exercising in the heat leads to an increase in body temperature that can increase the risk of heat illness or cause detriments in exercise performance.To examine a phase change heat emergency kit (HEK) on thermoregulatory and perceptual responses and subsequent exercise performance following exercise in the heat.Two randomized crossover trials that consisted of 30 minutes of exercise, 15 minutes of treatment (T1), performance testing (5-10-5 pro-agility test and 1500-m run), and another 15 minutes of treatment (T2) identical to T1.Outdoors in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature: 31.5°C [1.8°C] and relative humidity: 59.0% [5.6%]).Twenty-six (13 men and 13 women) individuals (aged 20-27 y).Treatment was performed with HEK and without HEK (control, CON) modality.Gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, thirst sensation, and muscle pain.Maximum gastrointestinal temperature following exercise and performance was not different between trials (P > .05). Cooling rate was faster during T1 CON (0.053°C/min [0.049°C/min]) compared with HEK (0.043°C/min [0.032°C/min]; P = .01). Mean skin temperature was lower in HEK during T1 (P < .001) and T2 (P = .05). T2 thirst was lower in CON (P = .02). Muscle pain was lower in HEK in T2 (P = .03). Performance was not altered (P > .05).HEK improved perception but did not enhance cooling or performance following exercise in the heat. HEK is therefore not recommended to facilitate recovery, treat hyperthermia, or improve performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1123/jsr.2016-0116

    View details for Web of Science ID 000444414600005

    View details for PubMedID 28605224

  • Obesity, but not hypohydration, mediates changes in mental task load during passive heating in females PEERJ Caldwell, A. R., Burchfield, J., Moyen, N. E., Tucker, M. A., Butts, C. L., Elbin, R. J., Ganio, M. S. 2018; 6: e5394


    The independent effects of hypohydration and hyperthermia on cognition and mood is unclear since the two stresses often confound each other. Further, it is unknown if obese individuals have the same impairments during hyperthermia and hypohydration that is often observed in non-obese individuals.The current study was designed to assess the independent and combined effects of mild hypohydration and hyperthermia on cognition, mood, and mental task load in obese and non-obese females. Twenty-one healthy females participated in two passive heating trials, wherein they were either euhydrated or hypohydrated prior to and throughout passive heating. Cognition (ImPACT), mental task load (NASA-TLX), and mood (Brunel Mood Scale; BRUMS) were measured before and after a 1.0 °C increase in core temperature (TC).After a 1.0 °C TC elevation, hypohydration resulted in greater (p < 0.05) body mass loss (-1.14 ± 0.48 vs -0.58 ± 0.48 kg; hypohydrated and euhydrated, respectively) and elevation in serum osmolality (292 ± 4 vs 282 ± 3 mOsm; p < 0.05) versus euhydration. Hypohydration, independent of hyperthermia, did not affect mental task load or mood (p > 0.05). Hyperthermia, regardless of hydration status, impaired (∼5 A.U) measures of memory-based cognition (verbal and visual memory), and increased mental task load, while worsening mood (p < 0.05). Interestingly, obese individuals had increased mental task load while hyperthermic compared to the non-obese individuals (p < 0.05) even while euhydrated. Hypohydration did not exacerbate any heat-related effects on cognition between obese and non-obese females (p > 0.05).These data indicate that hyperthermia independently impairs memory-based aspects of cognitive performance, mental task load, and leads to a negative mood state. Mild hypohydration did not exacerbate the effects of hyperthermia. However, obese individuals had increased mental task load during hyperthermia.

    View details for DOI 10.7717/peerj.5394

    View details for Web of Science ID 000441995700001

    View details for PubMedID 30128190

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6098944

  • Hydration status influences the measurement of arterial stiffness CLINICAL PHYSIOLOGY AND FUNCTIONAL IMAGING Caldwell, A. R., Tucker, M. A., Burchfield, J., Moyen, N. E., Satterfield, A. Z., Six, A., McDermott, B. P., Mulvenon, S. W., Ganio, M. S. 2018; 38 (3): 447–54


    Consensus guidelines have attempted to standardize the measurement and interpretation of pulse wave velocity (PWV); however, guidelines have not addressed whether hydration status affects PWV. Moreover, multiple studies have utilized heat stress to reduce arterial stiffness which may lead to dehydration. This study utilized two experiments to investigate the effects of dehydration on PWV at rest and during passive heat stress. In experiment 1, subjects (n = 19) completed two trials, one in which they arrived euhydrated and one dehydrated (1·2[1·0]% body mass loss). In experiment 2, subjects (n = 11) began two trials euhydrated and in one trial did not receive water during heat stress, thus becoming dehydrated (1·6[0·6]% body mass loss); the other trial subjects remained euhydrated. Using Doppler ultrasound, carotid-to-femoral (central) and carotid-to-radial (peripheral) PWVs were measured. PWV was obtained at a normothermic baseline, and at a 0·5°C and 1°C elevation in rectal temperature (via passive heating). In experiment 1, baseline central PWV was significantly higher when euhydrated compared to dehydrated (628[95] versus 572[91] cm s-1 , respectively; P<0·05), but peripheral PWV was unaffected (861[117] versus 825[149] cm s-1 ; P>0·05). However, starting euhydrated and becoming dehydrated during heating in experiment 2 did not affect PWV measures (P>0·05), and independent of hydration status peripheral PWV was reduced when rectal temperature was elevated 0·5°C (-74[45] cm s-1 ; P<0·05) and 1·0°C (-70[48] cm s-1 ; P<0·05). Overall, these data suggest that hydration status affects measurements of central PWV in normothermic, resting conditions. Therefore, future guidelines should suggest that investigators ensure adequate hydration status prior to measures of PWV.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cpf.12436

    View details for Web of Science ID 000430103100016

    View details for PubMedID 28444935

  • The effect of passive heat stress on distress andself-control in male smokers and non-smokers JOURNAL OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY Veilleux, J. C., Zielinski, M. J., Moyen, N. E., Tucker, M. A., Dougherty, E. K., Ganio, M. S. 2018; 145 (4): 342–61
  • Effect of hypohydration on postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in healthy men AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY Tucker, M. A., Six, A., Moyen, N. E., Satterfield, A. Z., Ganio, M. S. 2017; 312 (5): R637–R642


    Hypohydration decreases cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during heat stress, but it is unknown if these decrements are from postsynaptic (i.e., sweat gland/blood vessel) alterations. The purpose of this study was to determine if hypohydration affects postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses. Twelve healthy men participated in euhydrated (EU) and hypohydrated (HY) trials, with hypohydration induced via fluid restriction and passive heat stress. Changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; %max) in response to incremental intradermal infusion of the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methacholine chloride (MCh) were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. Local sweat rate (LSR) was simultaneously assessed at the MCh site via ventilated capsule. At the end of the last dose, maximal CVC was elicited by delivering a maximal dose of SNP (5 × 10-2 M) for 30 min to both sites with simultaneous local heating (~44°C) at the SNP site. The concentration of drug needed to elicit 50% of the maximal response (log EC50) was compared between hydration conditions. The percent body mass loss was greater with HY vs. EU (-2.2 ± 0.7 vs. -0.1 ± 0.7%, P < 0.001). Log EC50 of endothelium-dependent CVC was lower with EU (-3.62 ± 0.22) vs. HY (-2.93 ± 0.08; P = 0.044). Hypohydration did not significantly alter endothelium-independent CVC or LSR (both P > 0.05). In conclusion, hypohydration attenuated endothelium-dependent CVC but did not affect endothelium-independent CVC or LSR responses. These data suggest that reductions in skin blood flow accompanying hypohydration can be partially attributed to altered postsynaptic function.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpregu.00525.2016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000402406100001

    View details for PubMedID 28202441

  • Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION Glenn, J. M., Gray, M., Wethington, L. N., Stone, M. S., Stewart, R. W., Moyen, N. E. 2017; 56 (2): 775–84


    Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females.Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded.Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point.Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00394-015-1124-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396039300030

    View details for PubMedID 26658899

  • Effects of obesity and mild hypohydration on local sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during passive heat stress in females APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY NUTRITION AND METABOLISM Moyen, N. E., Burchfield, J. M., Butts, C. L., Glenn, J. M., Tucker, M. A., Treece, K., Smith, A. J., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S. 2016; 41 (8): 879–87


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity and mild hypohydration on local sweating (LSR) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) responses during passive heat stress in females. Thirteen obese (age, 24 ± 4 years; 45.4% ± 5.2% body fat) and 12 nonobese (age, 22 ± 2 years; 25.1% ± 3.9% body fat) females were passively heated (1.0 °C rectal temperature increase) while either euhydrated (EUHY) or mildly hypohydrated (HYPO; via fluid restriction). Chest and forearm LSR (ventilated capsule) and CVC (Laser Doppler flowmetry) onset, sensitivity, and plateau/steady state were recorded as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb). Participants began trials EUHY (urine specific gravity, Usg = 1.009 ± 0.006) or HYPO (Usg = 1.025 ± 0.004; p < 0.05), and remained EUHY or HYPO. Independent of obesity, HYPO decreased sweat sensitivity at the chest (HYPO = 0.79 ± 0.35, EUHY = 0.95 ± 0.39 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb) and forearm (HYPO = 0.82 ± 0.39, EUHY = 1.06 ± 0.34 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb); forearm LSR plateau was also decreased (HYPO = 0.66 ± 0.19, EUHY = 0.78 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2); all p < 0.05). Overall, obese females had lower chest-sweat sensitivity (0.72 ± 0.35 vs. 1.01 ± 0.33 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb) and plateau (0.55 ± 0.27 vs. 0.80 ± 0.25 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2); p < 0.05). While hypohydrated, obese females had a lower chest LSR (p < 0.05) versus nonobese females midway (0.45 ± 0.26 vs. 0.73 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2)) and at the end (0.53 ± 0.27 vs. 0.81 ± 0.24 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2)) of heating. Furthermore, HYPO (relative to the EUHY trials) led to a greater decrease in CVC sensitivity in obese (-28 ± 27 Δ% maximal CVC/°C ΔTb) versus nonobese females (+9.2 ± 33 Δ% maximal CVC/°C ΔTb; p < 0.05). In conclusion, mild hypohydration impairs females' sweating responses during passive heat stress, and this effect is exacerbated when obese.

    View details for DOI 10.1139/apnm-2016-0142

    View details for Web of Science ID 000380905700011

    View details for PubMedID 27455036

  • Effect of Fluid Intake on Changing Blood Volume in Healthy Males Tucker, M. A., Butts, C. L., Moyen, N. E., Johnson, E. C., Adams, J. D., Satterfield, A. Z., Six, A., Ganio, M. S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2016: 745
  • No Change in 24-Hour Hydration Status Following a Moderate Increase in Fluid Consumption JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRITION Tucker, M. A., Adams, J. D., Brown, L. A., Ridings, C. B., Burchfield, J. M., Robinson, F. B., McDermott, J. L., Schreiber, B. A., Moyen, N. E., Washington, T. A., Bermudez, A. C., Bennett, M. P., Buyckx, M. E., Ganio, M. S. 2016; 35 (4): 308–16


    To investigate changes in 24-hour hydration status when increasing fluid intake.Thirty-five healthy males (age 23.8 ± 4.7 years; mass 74.0 ± 9.4 kg) were divided into 4 treatment groups for 2 weeks of testing. Volumes of 24-hour fluid ingestion (including water from food) for weeks 1 and 2 was 35 and 40 ml/kg body mass, respectively. Each treatment group was given the same proportion of beverages in each week of testing: water only (n = 10), water + caloric cola (n = 7), water + noncaloric cola (n = 10), or water + caloric cola + noncaloric cola + orange juice (n = 8). Serum osmolality (Sosm), total body water (TBW) via bioelectrical impedance, 24-hour urine osmolality (Uosm), and volume (Uvol) were analyzed at the end of each 24-hour intervention.Independent of treatment, total beverage consumption increased 22% from week 1 to 2 (1685 ± 320 to 2054 ± 363 ml; p < 0.001). Independent of beverage assignment, the increase in fluid consumption between weeks 1 and 2 did not change TBW (43.4 ± 5.2 vs 43.0 ± 4.8 kg), Sosm (292 ± 5 vs 292 ± 5 mOsm/kg), 24-hour Uosm (600 ± 224 vs 571 ± 212 mOsm/kg), or 24-hour Uvol (1569 ± 607 vs 1580 ± 554 ml; all p > 0.05).Regardless of fluid volume or beverage type consumed, measures of 24-hour hydration status did not differ, suggesting that standard measures of hydration status are not sensitive enough to detect a 22% increase in beverage consumption.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/07315724.2015.1046196

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375605600004

    View details for PubMedID 26595723

  • Effects of mild hypohydration on cooling during cold-water immersion following exertional hyperthermia EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY Butts, C. L., Luhring, K. E., Smith, C. R., Tucker, M. A., Moyen, N. E., Ganio, M. S., McDermott, B. P. 2016; 116 (4): 687–95


    We investigated the effects of mild hypohydration compared to euhydration on the cooling efficacy of cold-water immersion (CWI).Fourteen participants (eight male, six female; age 26 ± 5 years; ht 1.77 ± 0.08 m; wt 72.2 ± 8.8 kg; 20.6 ± 7.4 % body fat) completed one euhydrated (EU) trial followed by one hypohydrated trial (HY; via 24 h fluid restriction) in an environmental chamber (33.6 ± 0.9 °C, 55.8 ± 1.7 % RH). Volitional exercise was performed in a manner that matched end-exercise rectal temperature (T re) through repeating exercise mode and intensity. Participants were then immersed in ice water (2.0 ± 0.8 °C) until T re reached 38.1 °C or for a maximum of 15 min. T re, heart rate (HR), skin blood flux (SBF) and mean skin temperature (T sk) were monitored continuously during cooling.Pre-cooling body mass was decreased in the HY trial (-2.66 ± 1.23 % body mass) and maintained in the EU trial (-0.66 ± 0.44 %) compared to baseline mass (P < 0.001). Cooling rates were faster when EU (0.14 ± 0.05 °C/min) compared to HY (0.11 ± 0.05 °C/min, P = 0.046). HR, SBF, and T sk were not different between EU and HY trials (P > 0.05), however, all variables significantly decreased with immersion independent of hydration status (P < 0.001).The primary finding was that hypohydration modestly attenuates the rate of cooling in exertionally hyperthermic individuals. Regardless of hydration status, the cooling efficacy of CWI was preserved and should continue to be utilized in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00421-016-3329-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373306700003

    View details for PubMedID 26781710



    Beta-alanine (BA) supplementation increases exercise performance due to increases in the intramuscular lactate buffer, carnosine. Females are more sensitive to these increases and results are further pronounced in trained individuals. Baseline intramuscular carnosine levels also naturally decrease with age; therefore, trained older females may experience augmented benefits from BA supplementation. However, the ability of BA to increase lower-body isokinetic strength (ISO) in female masters athletes (MA) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of BA supplementation on ISO, handgrip strength (HG), and body composition in female MA cyclists. Twenty-two subjects participated in this double-blind randomized study. Subjects were randomized into 2 groups (placebo [PLA] = 8 g dextrose; BA = 800 mg + 8 g dextrose) and supplemented 4 times per day for 28 days. ISO, HG, and body composition were evaluated at baseline and at the same day/time each week over the 28-day intervention. No differences existed between groups at baseline or at the 7, 14, and 21 days time points for any variables (p > 0.05). When evaluating ISO (isokinetic) after 28 days, total work performed during the final third of the assessment (24.0 vs. -16.8% change) in flexion and average peak torque (5.4 vs. 2.9% change) in extension were significantly increased from baseline in BA compared with PLA (p ≤ 0.05). No differences existed for HG or body composition after supplementation. Twenty-eight days of BA supplementation increased peak torque and work completed, indicating BA improves lower-body exercise performance in female MA.

    View details for DOI 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001077

    View details for Web of Science ID 000367792600023

    View details for PubMedID 26110349

  • Hydration status affects mood state and pain sensation during ultra-endurance cycling JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES Moyen, N. E., Ganio, M. S., Wiersma, L. D., Kavouras, S. A., Gray, M., McDermott, B. P., Adams, J. D., Binns, A. P., Judelson, D. A., McKenzie, A. L., Johnson, E. C., Munoz, C. X., Kunces, L. J., Armstrong, L. E. 2015; 33 (18): 1962–69


    Laboratory-based studies indicate mild dehydration adversely affects mood. Although ultra-endurance events often result in mild to moderate dehydration, little research has evaluated whether the relationship between hydration status and mood state also exists in these arduous events. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how hydration status affected mood state and perceptual measures during a 161 km ultra-endurance cycling event. One hundred and nineteen cyclists (103 males, 16 females; age = 46 ± 9 years; height = 175.4 ± 17.9 cm; mass = 82.8 ± 16.3 kg) from the 2011 and 2013 Hotter'N Hell events participated. Perceived exertion, Thermal, Thirst, and Pain sensations, Brunel Profile of Mood States, and urine specific gravity (USG) were measured pre- (~1 h before), mid- (~97 km), and post-ride. Participants were classified at each time point as dehydrated (USG ≥ 1.022) or euhydrated (USG ≤ 1.018). Independent of time point, dehydrated participants (USG = 1.027 ± 0.004) had decreased Vigour and increased Fatigue, Pain, Thirst, and Thermal sensations compared to euhydrated participants (USG = 1.012 ± 0.004; all P < 0.01). USG significantly correlated with Fatigue (r = 0.36), Vigour (r = -0.27), Thirst (r = 0.15), and Pain (r = 0.22; all P < 0.05). In conclusion, dehydrated participants had greater Fatigue and Pain than euhydrated participants. These findings indicate dehydration may adversely affect mood state and perceptual ratings during ultra-endurance cycling.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/02640414.2015.1021275

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359868700012

    View details for PubMedID 25793570

  • Hydration Status over 24-H Is Not Affected by Ingested Beverage Composition JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRITION Tucker, M. A., Ganio, M. S., Adams, J. D., Brown, L. A., Ridings, C. B., Burchfield, J. M., Robinson, F. B., McDermott, J. L., Schreiber, B. A., Moyen, N. E., Washington, T. A., Bermudez, A. C., Bennett, M. P., Buyckx, M. E. 2015; 34 (4): 318–27


    To investigate the 24-h hydration status of healthy, free-living, adult males when given various combinations of different beverage types.Thirty-four healthy adult males participated in a randomized, repeated-measures design in which they consumed: water only (treatment A), water+cola (treatment B), water+diet cola (treatment C), or water+cola+diet cola+orange juice (treatment D) over a sedentary 24-h period across four weeks of testing. Volumes of fluid were split evenly between beverages within each treatment, and when accounting for food moisture content and metabolic water production, total fluid intake from all sources was equal to 35 ± 1 ml/kg body mass. Urine was collected over the 24-h intervention period and analyzed for osmolality (Uosm), volume (Uvol) and specific gravity (USG). Serum osmolality (Sosm) and total body water (TBW) via bioelectrical impedance were measured after the 24-h intervention.24-h hydration status was not different between treatments A, B, C, and D when assessed via Uosm (590 ± 179; 616 ± 242; 559 ± 196; 633 ± 222 mOsm/kg, respectively) and Uvol (1549 ± 594; 1443 ± 576; 1690 ± 668; 1440 ± 566 ml) (all p > 0.05). A -difference in 24-h USG was observed between treatments A vs. D (1.016 ± 0.005 vs. 1.018 ± 0.007; p = 0.049). There were no differences between treatments at the end of the 24-h with regard to Sosm (291 ± 4; 293 ± 5; 292 ± 5; 293 ± 5 mOsm/kg, respectively) and TBW (43.9 ± 5.9; 43.8 ± 6.0; 43.7 ± 6.1; 43.8 ± 6.0 kg) (all p > 0.05).Regardless of the beverage combination consumed, there were no differences in providing adequate hydration over a 24-h period in free-living, healthy adult males. This confirms that beverages of varying composition are equally effective in hydrating the body.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/07315724.2014.933684

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359735800006

    View details for PubMedID 25789444

  • Forearm cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses to whole body passive heat stress in young smokers AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY Moyen, N. E., Anderson, H. M., Burchfield, J. M., Tucker, M. A., Gonzalez, M. A., Robinson, F. B., Ganio, M. S. 2015; 309 (1): R36–R42


    The purpose of this study was to compare smokers and nonsmokers' sudomotor and cutaneous vascular responses to whole body passive heat stress. Nine regularly smoking (SMK: 29 ± 9 yr; 10 ± 6 cigarettes/day) and 13 nonsmoking (N-SMK: 27 ± 8 yr) males were passively heated until core temperature (TC) increased 1.5°C from baseline. Forearm local sweat rate (LSR) via ventilated capsule, sweat gland activation (SGA), sweat gland output (SGO), and cutaneous vasomotor activity via laser-Doppler flowmetry (CVC) were measured as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb) during passive heating using a water-perfused suit. Compared with N-SMK, SMK had a smaller ΔTb at the onset of sweating (0.52 ± 0.19 vs. 0.35 ± 0.14°C, respectively; P = 0.03) and cutaneous vasodilation (0.61 ± 0.21 vs. 0.31 ± 0.12°C, respectively; P < 0.01). Increases in LSR and CVC per °C ΔTb (i.e., sensitivity) were similar in N-SMK and SMK (LSR: 0.63 ± 0.21 vs. 0.60 ± 0.40 Δmg/cm(2)/min/°C ΔTb, respectively, P = 0.81; CVC: 82.5 ± 46.2 vs. 58.9 ± 23.3 Δ%max/°C ΔTb, respectively; P = 0.19). However, the plateau in LSR during whole body heating was higher in N-SMK vs. SMK (1.00 ± 0.13 vs. 0.79 ± 0.26 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.03), which was likely a result of higher SGO (8.94 ± 3.99 vs. 5.94 ± 3.49 μg·gland(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P = 0.08) and not number of SGA (104 ± 7 vs. 121 ± 9 glands/cm(2), respectively; P = 0.58). During whole body passive heat stress, smokers had an earlier onset for forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilation, but a lower local sweat rate that was likely due to lower sweat output per gland. These data provide insight into local (i.e., forearm) thermoregulatory responses of young smokers during uncompensatory whole body passive heat stress.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpregu.00079.2015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357505300004

    View details for PubMedID 25924880

  • Effects Of Beta-alanine On High-intensity Cycling Performance, Lactate, And Grip-strength Measures In Female Masters Athletes Glenn, J. M., Stewart, R., Moyen, N. E., Arnold, C., Lavene, L., Davis, M., Martinez, A., Wethington, L., Gray, M. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2015: CP541
  • Effects Of Mild Dehydration And Passive Heat-stress On Sudomotor Function In Obese And Non-bese Females Moyen, N. E., Burchfield, J. M., Butts, C. L., Glenn, J. M., Tucker, M. A., Treece, K., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2015: 499–500
  • Effects of Hypohydration on Cooling During Cold Water Immersion after Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia Butts, C. L., Luhring, K. E., Smith, C. R., Burchfield, J. M., Moyen, N. E., Tucker, M. A., Bonacci, J. A., Ganio, M. S., McDermott, B. P. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2015: 459
  • Effect Of A Cooling Vest On Perceptual, Physiological, And Performance Measures Following Exercise In The Heat Smith, C. R., Butts, C. L., Ganio, M. S., Tucker, M. A., Moyen, N. E., Adams, J. D., Bonacci, J. A., McDermott, B. P. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2015: 460
  • Effects of Mild Dehydration and Hyperthermia on Cognition and Mental Task Load in Females Burchfield, J. M., Elbin, R. J., McDermott, B. P., Moyen, N. E., Butts, C. L., Treece, K., Tucker, M. A., Ganio, M. S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2015: 133
  • Effects of Acute Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Anaerobic Performance in Trained Female Cyclists JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY Glenn, J. M., Smith, K., Moyen, N. E., Binns, A., Gray, M. 2015; 61 (2): 161–66


    Longitudinal beta-alanine (BA) supplementation can improve exercise performance in males through increases in carnosine; however, females experience greater relative increases in carnosine compared to males. This potentially allows females to benefit from acute BA doses; however, effects of an acute BA dose on performance in females remain unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate how an acute dose of 1.6 g BA affects anaerobic performance in female cyclists. Twelve females (age=26.6±1.3 y) volunteered to participate in this randomized, double-blind study. All participants completed two supplement trials: 1) Placebo=34 g dextrose and 2) BA=1.6 g BA + 34 g dextrose. Thirty-minutes after supplementation, participants performed three repeated Wingate cycling tests with 2 min of active rest after each. Fatigue index, mean power, and peak power were measured during each Wingate. Lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, immediately after each Wingate, and after each active rest period. RPE significantly decreased (p<0.001) immediately following Wingates 1 and 2 and after each 2-min rest period for the BA trials; however, no differences were observed immediately after Wingate 3 (p>0.05). No significant supplementation effect was observed for any performance or physiological variable (p>0.05 for all variables). Findings suggest that an acute dose of BA (1.6 g) decreases RPE during anaerobic power activities in trained female cyclists.

    View details for DOI 10.3177/jnsv.61.161

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355020000008

    View details for PubMedID 26052147

  • Drinking to Thirst Versus Drinking Ad Libitum During Road Cycling JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING Armstrong, L. E., Johnson, E. C., Kunces, L. J., Ganio, M. S., Judelson, D. A., Kupchak, B. R., Vingren, J. L., Munoz, C. X., Huggins, R. A., Hydren, J. R., Moyen, N. E., Williamson, K. H. 2014; 49 (5): 624–31


    The sensation of thirst is different from the complex behavior of drinking ad libitum. Rehydration recommendations to athletes differ, depending on the source, yet no previous researchers have systematically compared drinking to thirst (D(TT)) versus ad libitum drinking behavior (D(AL)).To compare 2 groups of trained cyclists (D(TT) and D(AL)) who had similar physical characteristics and training programs (P > .05). The D(TT) group (n = 12, age = 47 ± 7 years) drank only when thirsty, whereas the D(AL) group (n = 12, age = 44 ± 7 years) consumed fluid ad libitum (ie, whenever and in whatever volume desired).Cohort study.Road cycling (164 km) in the heat (36.1 °C ± 6.5 °C).Ultraendurance cyclists (4 women, 20 men).We recorded measurements 1 day before the event, on event day before the start, at 3 roadside aid stations, at the finish line, and 1 day after the event.Body mass, urinary hydration indices, and food and fluids consumed.No between-groups differences were seen on event day for total exercise time (DTT = 6.69 ± 0.89 hours, DAL = 6.66 ± 0.77 hours), urinary indices (specific gravity, color), body mass change (D(TT) = -2.22% ± 1.73%, DAL = -2.29% ± 1.62%), fluid intake (D(TT) = 5.63 ± 2.59 L/6.7 h, D(AL) = 6.04 ± 2.37 L/6.7 h), dietary energy intake, macronutrient intake, ratings of thirst (D(TT) start = 2 ± 1, D(TT) finish = 6 ± 1, DAL start = 2 ± 1, D(AL) finish = 6 ± 1), pain, perceived exertion, or thermal sensation. Total fluid intake on recovery day +1 was the primary significant difference (D(AL) = 5.13 ± 1.87 L/24 h, D(TT) = 3.13 ± 1.53 L/24 h, t18 = 2.59, P = .02).Observations on event day indicated that drinking to thirst and drinking ad libitum resulted in similar physiologic and perceptual outcomes. This suggests that specific instructions to "drink to thirst" were unnecessary. Indeed, if athletes drink ad libitum, they can focus on training and competition rather than being distracted by ongoing evaluation of thirst sensations.

    View details for DOI 10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.85

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347555600008

    View details for PubMedID 25098657

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4208866

  • Increasing Humidity Affects Thermoregulation During Low-Intensity Exercise in Women AVIATION SPACE AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Moyen, N. E., Muendel, T., Du Bois, A. M., Ciccone, A. B., Morton, R., Judelson, D. A. 2014; 85 (9): 905–11


    Women increasingly occupy manual labor jobs. However, research examining women working under hot-humid conditions is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to assess how increasing relative humidity (RH) affects women's thermoregulation during low-intensity exercise characteristic of 8 h self-paced manual labor.There were 10 women (age: 23 ± 2 yr; body-surface area: 1.68 ± 0.13 m²; Vo2max: 46 ± 6 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹) who walked 90 min at 35% Vo2max in 35°C at 55% RH (55RH), 70% RH (70RH), and 85% RH (85RH). Investigators obtained: 1) rectal temperature (Tre), mean-weighted skin temperature (Tsk), and heart rate every 5 min; and 2) respiratory measures every 30 min.Heat production (H) and required rate of evaporative cooling (Ereq) remained constant among trials; each RH increment significantly decreased evaporative heat loss (E), but increased heart rate and sweat rate. All other calorimetric and thermometric variables were similar between 55RH and 70RH, but significantly greater in 85RH. Tre only exceeded 38°C in 85RH after walking ∼80 min. Combined, dry and respiratory heat losses only compensated for <30% of the decreases in E.Women exercising at low intensities in 35°C experienced most statistically significant physiological changes after 70RH. As H and Ereq remained constant across trials, heat storage increased with each 15% rise in RH because dry and respiratory heat losses minimally offset decreased E. Higher Tre, Tsk, and resultantly higher sweat rates reflected heat storage increases as E decreased in each trial. Overall, at 35°C Ta, we found women exercising for 90 min at low intensities remained at safe rectal temperatures up to 70% RH.

    View details for DOI 10.3357/ASEM.3993.2014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340813400002

    View details for PubMedID 25197888

  • Hydration Status Over a 24-h Period is Not Affected by Ingested Beverage Composition Tucker, M. A., Ganio, M. S., Adams, J. D., Brown, L. A., Ridings, C., Burchfield, J., Robinson, B., McDermott, J., Moyen, N. E., Schreiber, B., Washington, T., Bermudez, A., Bennett, M., Buyckx, M. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2014: 397
  • Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Following 160 km Cycling in the Heat Kavouras, S. A., Adams, J. D., Ganio, M. S., Gray, M., McDermott, B., Moyen, N., Binns, A., Johnson, E., McKenzie, A., Armstrong, L. E. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2014: 183–84
  • Effects Of Increasing Ambient Humidity During Low-intensity Exercise In The Heat On Females Moyen, N. E., Mundel, T., Du Bois, A. M., Ciccone, A. B., Judelson, D. A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2014: 185–86
  • Hydration status when increasing daily fluid intake with various beverages Tucker, M., Ganio, M., Adams, J. D., Brown, L., Ridings, C., Burchfield, J., Robinson, B., McDermott, J., Moyen, N., Schreiber, B., Washington, T., Bermudez, A., Bennett, M., Buyckx, M. FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL. 2014
  • Effect of passive heating on arterial compliance in smokers vs. non-smokers Moyen, N., Ganio, M., Burchfield, J., Tucker, M., Gonzalez, M., Dougherty, E., Robinson, F., Ridings, C., Veilleux, J. FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL. 2014