All Publications

  • Quantifying the Relationship Between the Medial Quadriceps Tendon-Femoral Ligament and Patellar Borders: A Pediatric Cadaveric Study. The American journal of sports medicine Baskar, D., Stavinoha, T. J., Sanchez, M., Gupta, A., Randhawa, S. D., Rohde, M. S., Vuong, B., Tompkins, M. A., Ganley, T. J., Ellis, H. B., Wilson, P. L., Fabricant, P. D., VandenBerg, C., Green, D. W., Segovia, N. A., Shea, K. G. 2022: 3635465221103250


    The medial patellofemoral complex (MPFC) is a structure composed of the medial quadriceps tendon-femoral ligament (MQTFL) superiorly and the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) inferiorly. The pediatric MPFL anatomy has been well described, but the precise anatomy of the MQTFL has only recently been described and studied in skeletally immature patients.To describe the anatomic relationship between the MQTFL and its insertion on the quadriceps tendon and patella in pediatric specimens.Descriptive laboratory study.A total of 22 pediatric cadaveric knee specimens were dissected to analyze attachment of the MQTFL to the quadriceps tendon and patella. Dissection was facilitated using lateral parapatellar arthrotomy followed by eversion of the extensor mechanism to evaluate MQTFL fibers from its undersurface.The mean specimen age was 7.4 years. Specimens were divided based on age into a younger cohort (1-2 years), middle cohort (4-8 years), and older cohort (9-12 years). The quadriceps tendon attachment (QTA) of the MQTFL proximal to the patella extended a median of 5.0 mm in the younger cohort, 11.4 mm in the middle cohort, and 12.0 mm in the older cohort, with significant differences found between the younger and middle cohorts (P < .047) and the younger and older cohorts (P < .001). The QTA as a percentage of patellar articular height averaged 44.4% across all specimens. The vertical height of the patella measured a median of 14.0 mm, 22.3 mm, and 27.3 mm in the younger, middle, and older cohorts, respectively.This study expands on the recently described anatomy of the pediatric MPFC to quantify the anatomic relationship between the MQTFL attachment to the quadriceps tendon and patella in a more clinically relevant cohort of donor specimens.As access to pediatric cadaveric tissue is extremely limited, a better understanding of MPFC and MQTFL anatomy will support surgeons in preoperative planning and intraoperative considerations for their approach to MQTFL and MPFL reconstruction. This may facilitate improved anatomic surgical stabilization of the patellofemoral joint in pediatric patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/03635465221103250

    View details for PubMedID 35763589

  • Characterization of Trapezial Pommel in Relation to Radiographic and Wear Patterns in Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis. Hand (New York, N.Y.) Bourdillon, A. T., Shapiro, L., Kerkhof, F. D., Segovia, N. A., Weiss, A. P., Ladd, A. L. 2022: 15589447221093670


    Trapezial pommel, or ulnar osteophyte positioned at the vertex of the saddle-shaped facet, is a consistent structural appearance in osteoarthritis (OA) of the first carpometacarpal. This study investigates its relation to radiographic measures (modified Eaton staging and thumb OA [ThOA] index) and wear patterns (trapezial surface morphology and cartilaginous eburnation).In all, 137 whole trapezia were explanted from 116 patients and evaluated for Eaton staging, morphology (saddle, cirque, or dish), and eburnation (degree of cartilaginous effacement) of the articular surface of the trapezium. In total, 131 Robert's views and 126 stress views were reviewed by 2 blinded senior surgeons for ThOA index and pommel size. Statistical analyses included Spearman correlation and linear regression.Standardized pommel size achieved good intrarater reliability (correlation coefficient: 0.80-0.98) and moderate interrater reliability (correlation coefficient: 0.60-0.67). The ThOA index and pommel size were significantly correlated across Robert's (rs = 0.51) and stress views (rs = 0.64). The ThOA index better distinguished between stages compared with pommel size. All the radiographic measures inversely correlated with preserved cartilage and varied across morphologies. Pommel size differed significantly between dish and saddle, and the ThOA index was significantly different between all morphologies when using stress views.We reliably quantified the pommel feature and demonstrated significant correlations with other radiographic and topologic measures of arthritic disease. If future studies can demonstrate that the pommel is a pathogenic process in ThOA and its correction can curb disease progression, the identification of the pommel feature may help guide targeted intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/15589447221093670

    View details for PubMedID 35642728

  • Does healthcare system device volume correlate with price paid for spinal implants: a cross-sectional analysis of a national purchasing database. BMJ open Cahan, E., McFarlane, K., Segovia, N., Chawla, A., Wall, J., Shea, K. 2022; 12 (4): e057547


    OBJECTIVES: Amid continuously rising US healthcare costs, particularly for inpatient and surgical services, strategies to more effectively manage supply chain expenses are urgently necessary. Across industries, the 'economy of scale' principle indicates that larger purchasing volumes should correspond to lower prices due to 'bulk discounts'. Even as such advantages of scale have driven health system mergers in the USA, it is not clear whether they are being achieved, including for specialised products like surgical implants which may be more vulnerable to cost inefficiency. The objective of this observational cross-sectional study was to investigate whether purchasing volumes for spinal implants was correlated with price paid.SETTING: USA.PARTICIPANTS: Market data based on pricing levels for spine implants were reviewed from industry implant price databases. Filters were applied to narrow the sample to include comparable institutions based on procedural volume, patient characteristics and geographical considerations. Information on the attributes of 619 health systems representing 12471 provider locations was derived from national databases and analytics platforms.PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Institution-specific price index paid for spinal implants, normalised to the national average price point achieved.RESULTS: A Spearman's correlation test indicated a weak relationship between purchasing volume and price index paid (rho=-0.35, p<0.001). Multivariable linear regression adjusting for institutional characteristics including type of hospital, accountable care organisation status, payer-mix, geography, number of staffed beds, number of affiliated physicians and volume of patient throughput also did not exhibit a statistically significant relationship between purchasing volume and price index performance (p=0.085).CONCLUSIONS: National supply chain data revealed that there was no significant relationship between purchasing volume and price paid by health systems for spinal implants. These findings suggest that factors other than purchasing or patient volume are responsible for setting prices paid by health systems to surgical vendors and/or larger healthcare systems are not negotiating in a way to consistently achieve optimal pricing.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-057547

    View details for PubMedID 35473724

  • Metastatic Pattern of Truncal and Extremity Leiomyosarcoma: Retrospective Analysis of Predictors, Outcomes, and Detection. Journal of personalized medicine Tigchelaar, S. S., Frey, C., Sivaraj, D., Segovia, N. A., Mohler, D. G., Steffner, R. J., Avedian, R. S. 2022; 12 (3)


    Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are a heterogenous group of malignant mesenchymal neoplasms with smooth muscle origin and are classified as either non-uterine (NULMS) or uterine (ULMS). Metastatic pattern, prognostic factors, and ideal staging/surveillance studies for truncal and extremity LMS have not been defined. A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with histopathology-confirmed truncal or extremity LMS between 2009 and 2019 was conducted. Data collected included demographics, tumor characteristics, staging, surveillance, and survival endpoints. The primary site was defined as: (1) extremity, (2) flank/Pelvis, or (3) chest wall/Spine. We identified 73 patients, 23.3% of which had metastatic LMS at primary diagnosis, while 68.5% developed metastatic disease at any point. The mean metastatic-free survival from primary diagnosis of localized LMS was 3.0 ± 2.8 years. Analysis of prognostic factors revealed that greater age (≥50 years) at initial diagnosis (OR = 3.74, p = 0.0003), higher tumor differentiation scores (OR = 12.09, p = 0.002), and higher tumor necrosis scores (OR = 3.65, p = 0.026) were significantly associated with metastases. Older patients (≥50 years, OR = 4.76, p = 0.017), patients with larger tumors (≥5 cm or ≥10 cm, OR = 2.12, p = 0.02, OR = 1.92, p = 0.029, respectively), higher differentiation scores (OR = 15.92, p = 0.013), and higher necrosis scores (OR = 4.68, p = 0.044) show worse survival outcomes. Analysis of imaging modality during initial staging and during surveillance showed greater tumor detection frequency when PET imaging was employed, compared to CT imaging (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, truncal and peripheral extremity LMS is an aggressive tumor with high metastatic potential and mortality. While there is a significant risk of metastases to lungs, extra-pulmonary tumors are relatively frequent, and broad surveillance may be warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jpm12030345

    View details for PubMedID 35330345

  • Femoral acetabular impingement labral pathology on MRI is correlated with greater hip flexion and decreased abduction in collegiate water polo players: A pilot study. Journal of ISAKOS : joint disorders & orthopaedic sports medicine Hall, K. E., Langner, J., Segovia, N., Schultz, B., Andriacchi, T., Gold, G., Safran, M. R. 2022; 7 (1): 7-12


    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) morphology is associated with hip pain and disability. Water polo players utilise the egg beater motion (method of treading water with legs rotating like an "egg beater"), and it is currently unclear what the relationship is between an egg beater and FAI morphology. Our objective was to associate hip range of motion during egg beater motion to MRI findings.Eight National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 varsity water polo athletes (5 females and 3 males) were filmed at orthogonal views performing the egg beater motion using two waterproof cameras in synchrony. A model-based image-matching technique was used to determine hip joint angles which were recorded from the software. These athletes also underwent noncontrast MRI scans of both hips using a 3T MRI scanner and completed an 33-item International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) hip pain outcomes questionnaire. Descriptive statistics are reported as counts and percentages for categorical variables and as means, standard deviations, and a five-number summary for continuous variables. Relationships between the range of motion measures with MRI measures and with iHOT33 scores were analysed using linear regression models. All statistical analyses were completes using a two-sided level of significance of 0.05.The average alpha angles for the right and left hips were 71.80 ±7.50 and 74.10 ±8.40, respectively. There was no statistically significant correlation between hip range of motion in any plane and alpha angle or lateral centre edge angle (CEA) on MRI. The average iHOT33 was 85.9 ± 18.9. Participants who had a labral tear had significantly smaller hip abduction ranges than participants who did not have a labral tear (29° ± 4.1 vs. 35.3° ± 0.6, p = 0.02), and those who had a labral tear had significantly increased hip flexion during egg beater kicking as compared with participants who did not have a labral tear (28.2° ± 6.1 vs. 16.3° ± 4, p = 0.02). There were no differences between right and left alpha angles or between right and left CEA.There were no significant correlations between hip range of motion and alpha angle or CEA, but hips with labral pathology had greater hip flexion and more limited hip abduction ranges.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jisako.2021.10.003

    View details for PubMedID 35543660

  • Clubfoot Activity and Recurrence Exercise Study (CARES). Journal of pediatric orthopedics El-Banna, G., Baskar, D., Segovia, N., Frick, S. 2022; 42 (1): e91-e96


    BACKGROUND: Approximately half of treated clubfoot patients initially corrected with the Ponseti method experience relapse that requires additional treatment. The consequences of relapse on childhood activity levels have not been well studied. Ponseti noted lower functional ratings at 18-year follow-up in clubfoot patients who had undergone tibialis anterior tendon transfer for relapse.METHODS: Clubfoot Activity and Recurrence Exercise study (CARES) is an observational, prospective cohort study that compares physical activity in 30 clubfoot patients without and with relapse. Eligible participants were 5 to 10 years old, diagnosed with idiopathic clubfoot at birth, and had not received any clubfoot treatment for at least 6 months before study. Recruitment for this study occurred in-person and through Facebook clubfoot groups. Consented participants wore Fitbits secured to their wrists for at least 14 days, and completed a demographic survey, Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), and the clubfoot disease-specific instrument (CDSI). Participants' daily activity was monitored through Fitabase.RESULTS: Participants without and with clubfoot relapse had similar daily step counts, distance walked, and step intensities, except for moderately active step intensity, which was higher in the clubfoot relapse group. Total steps, total distance, distances (very active, moderately active), minutes (very active, fairly active), and lightly active intensity of steps were significantly higher for participants whose families earn more than $100,000 per year. Various physical activities and sports were reported by both groups in daily activity sheets. Neither demographics nor the CDSI or the CHQ scores significantly differed between the 2 groups. Step counts of children with clubfoot with or without relapse were similar to published levels for healthy children.CONCLUSION: Children with clubfoot initially treated with the Ponseti method who undergo treatment for relapse have comparable physical activity to those who have not relapsed. They also have comparable step counts to that of the general pediatric population. These reassuring findings can guide conversations with parents when addressing concerns regarding their children's physical activity after treatment for relapse of clubfoot deformity.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II-therapeutic studies-investigating the results of treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BPO.0000000000001973

    View details for PubMedID 34889836

  • Factors Associated With a Prolonged Time to Return to Play After a Concussion. The American journal of sports medicine Wang, E. X., Hwang, C. E., Nguyen, J. N., Segovia, N. A., Abrams, G. D., Kussman, A. 2022: 3635465221083646


    Prognosticating recovery times for individual athletes with a concussion remains a challenge for health care providers. Several preinjury and postinjury factors have been proposed to be predictive of prolonged return-to-play (RTP) times, but the data in this area are still sparse.This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with prolonged recovery times and determine which are most predictive of prolonged recovery times in a head-to-head comparison.Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.All concussions occurring between September 2017 and August 2020 at a single National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution were reviewed and included in this study. Preinjury modifiers including age, sex, sport, concussion history, and past medical problems were collected from the electronic medical records. Postinjury modifiers analyzed included initial and follow-up Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition scores, vestibular evaluation findings, and eye tracking results.A total of 159 athletes and 187 concussion cases were included. Preinjury factors that were correlated with prolonged RTP times included a history of concussions (P = .015), a history of migraines (P = .013), and whether an athlete participated in an individual sport (P = .009). Postinjury factors correlated with prolonged RTP times included the total number (P = .020) and severity (P = .023) of symptoms as well as abnormal Vestibular Ocular Motor Screening findings (P = .002). Overall, 6 different symptoms (balance problems, difficulty concentrating, light sensitivity, drowsiness, fatigue/low energy, and difficulty remembering) were significantly correlated with prolonged RTP times. The study also found that the number and severity of symptoms were additive in a dose-dependent fashion. On multivariable analysis of all these factors, a history of concussions was found to be the most predictive of prolonged RTP times, while participation in an individual sport had the largest effect on recovery times.Several preinjury and postinjury risk factors were identified as being correlated with prolonged recovery times. Many of these risk factors were also found to be additive in nature. This information provides clinicians with a valuable tool in prognosticating and estimating recovery times for athletes. The study also revealed that athletes participating in individual sports had longer RTP times compared with athletes in team sports, which is a novel finding that requires further research.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/03635465221083646

    View details for PubMedID 35316113

  • Female gender, decreased lateral center edge angle and a positive hyperextension-external rotation test are associated with ease of hip distractability at time of hip arthroscopy. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA Curtis, D. M., Pullen, W. M., Murray, I. R., Money, A. J., Segovia, N., Safran, M. R. 2022


    To identify factors associated with ease of hip distraction at the time of hip arthroscopy.A retrospective review of patients 17-50 years old undergoing hip arthroscopy with a single high-volume hip arthroscopist was performed from 2014 to 2020. Demographics, clinical history, examination, and imaging findings were collected. Distractibility was quantified using turns of fine traction (1 turn = 4 mm axial distraction) with the patient paralyzed on a fracture table with a well-padded perineal post Fine axial traction was applied after the patient's perineum contacted the post. Demographic and clinical predictors of ease of distractibility were analyzed with simple linear regression models. Significant predictors were subsequently added to a multivariable linear regression model, estimating the effect of each variable.In total, 453 patients were included, with an average age of 31.6 years (± 9.2) and 45.9% females. In univariate analysis, gender, race, BMI, range of motion, hyperextension-external rotation (HEER) test, the abduction-extension-external rotation test, and lateral center edge angle (LCEA) were associated with the number of fine traction turns required to distract the hip. On multivariable analysis, lower LCEA (p = 0.002), female gender (p < 0.001), and a positive HEER test (p = 0.045) were associated with decreased turns required for adequate hip distraction.Female gender, decreased LCEA, and a positive HEER test are associated with decreased axial traction required for adequate hip distraction at the time of hip arthroscopy. As ease of distractibility has been associated with hip microinstability, these findings may allow pre-operative identification of hip instability patients and aid in pre-operative counseling, risk stratification and capsular management planning.IV.Preoperative identification of risk factors for ease of hip distraction may raise pre-surgical suspicion and, when coupled with other intraoperative findings, may aid in the diagnosis and management of hip microinstability.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00167-022-06925-4

    View details for PubMedID 35316369

  • Epidemiological Study of the Discoid Meniscus: Investigating Demographic-Based Predictors in Large-Scale Claims Database CUREUS Randhawa, S. S., Tran, E. P., Segovia, N. A., Ganley, T. J., Tompkins, M., Ellis, H., Shea, K. G. 2021; 13 (11)
  • Use of Bedside Entertainment and Relaxation Theater (BERT) to Reduce Fear and Anxiety Associated With Outpatient Procedures in Pediatric Orthopaedics. Journal of pediatric orthopedics Richey, A. E., Khoury, M., Segovia, N. A., Hastings, K. G., Caruso, T. J., Frick, S., Rodriguez, S. 2021


    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Bedside Entertainment and Relaxation Theater (BERT) on fear, anxiety, and pain outcomes in pediatric orthopaedic patients associated with cast removal and/or pin removal in the outpatient clinic setting.METHODS: A total of 66 pediatric patients between the ages of 2 and 6 undergoing clinic procedures were recruited for this study and randomized into the control group or the intervention (BERT) group. Patients in the control group received standard of care during the cast room procedure; patients in the BERT group were given headphones and watched a movie on a projector during the procedure. Fear, anxiety, and pain were measured before and after the procedure. Procedures included cast removal, pin removal, or a combination of the 2.RESULTS: Patients in the BERT group reported less fear and anxiety overall after the procedure than patients in the control group (P=0.009, 0.015). Adjusting for procedure type (ie, pin removal), patients in the BERT group reported a 0.67 point decrease (95% confidence interval: 0.04, 1.30) on the fear scale after the procedure (P=0.039) and a 1.81 point decrease (95% confidence interval: 0.04, 3.59) on the anxiety scale associated with the procedure (P=0.045), compared with the control group. Patients and caregivers reported high satisfaction with BERT.CONCLUSION: This randomized, controlled trial demonstrates an evidence-based distraction tool that can be implemented across medical centers for pediatric patients undergoing office based orthopaedic procedures. BERT can be used to reduce fear and anxiety associated with these procedures, and increased patient and parent satisfaction.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BPO.0000000000002005

    View details for PubMedID 34739431

  • Epidemiological Study of the Discoid Meniscus: Investigating Demographic-Based Predictors in Large-Scale Claims Database. Cureus Randhawa, S., Tran, E., Segovia, N. A., Ganley, T., Tompkins, M., Ellis, H., Shea, K. G. 2021; 13 (11): e20050


    Purpose To better define the epidemiology of discoid meniscus by analyzing a large, national database for incidence rates and associations with demographic variables. Methods From Optum's Clinformatics® Data Mart Database, incidence rates and proportions of reported racial categories - Asian, Black, Hispanic, and Caucasian - of diagnosed discoid meniscus cases (n = 198) in the study population of patients receiving arthroscopic meniscectomy or repair procedures (n = 60,042) were calculated and compared via chi-square tests to the total population. To control for age, sex, and socioeconomic factors such as income, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results Proportions of discoid meniscus patients who were Asian, Black, Hispanic, or Caucasian were <6%, <7%, 15.7%, and 73.7%, respectively; proportions of each racial category in the study population were 2.2%, 7.4%, 9.9%, and 80.5%, respectively. Incidence rates per 1000 for these were 5.95, 2.92, 5.19, and 3.01, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and income, race was not a statistically significant predictor. Odds of a discoid meniscus diagnosis decreased by 6% for each increment in age (p <0.001) and by 40% if male (p <0.001) in our total study population. In patients <=20 years old, sex was not a significant risk factor. Conclusions Younger age and female sex were identified as significant predictors for symptomatic discoid meniscus in the total study population. Unlike prior studies, this investigation did not show a significant association between this condition and race in the US, potentially increasing the diagnostic accuracy and estimated pretest probabilities for this condition based on patient demographics. What this study adds to existing knowledge This study provides new data on the role racial category plays in estimating the risk of having a symptomatic discoid meniscus requiring arthroscopic management, finding that it is unlikely to be a significant factor when controlling for other demographic variables. Furthermore, we report incidence statistics for this pathology in Black and Latinx populations, which so far have had little representation in peer-reviewed published literature on discoid meniscus epidemiology. In addition, this study suggests that age and sex possess statistically significant associations with a diagnosis of discoid meniscus requiring arthroscopic management, with the risk of diagnosis decreasing with age and increasing if female.

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.20050

    View details for PubMedID 34993027

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8720039

  • Predicting Return To Play In NCAA Division 1 Athletes With Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Dyrek, P., Olson, E., Fereydooni, A., Harris, T., Kussman, A., Roh, E., Lee, J. T., Segovia, N. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021: 390
  • Opiate prescribing patterns in the adolescent population following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Journal of opioid management Karius, A., Cahan, E. M., Segovia, N. A., Fan, A., Chan, C. M. 2021; 17 (4): 321-325


    OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine prescribing patterns for opioid analgesia following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction among age- and gender-stratified adolescents in a nationally representative database.DESIGN: A retrospective study.SETTING: PearlDiver Patient Records.PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Outpatient opioid claims within 30 days of surgery were extracted. The patients were defined into age groups 10-14 ("younger") and 15-19 ("older"). A total of 1,139 patients were included in this study (536 female and 603 males) with 108 patients in the 10-14 age category and 1,034 patients in the 15-19 category.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary study outcome measures the average number of opioid pills administered, average total morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) prescribed, and the average prescription strength (MMEs/pill).RESULTS: No difference was found in the average number of pills (p = 0.26) or normalized total MMEs (p = 0.312) prescribed by age group. Normalized total morphine equivalents per prescription was significantly lower in females than males (p = 0.005). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that increasing patient age was predictive of fewer total pills (p = 0.017), after accounting for gender.CONCLUSIONS: There are age- and gender-based disparities in prescription patterns for adolescent ACL reconstruction. Our findings indicate that patients in the older age group on average received fewer pills than the younger age group, which consequently trended toward receiving higher total MMEs prescribed. This suggests that surgeons may be inadvertently overprescribing in the younger cohort. Additional studies that account for concurrent factors should be conducted to observe potentially similar trends.

    View details for DOI 10.5055/jom.2021.0664

    View details for PubMedID 34533826

  • Influence of team composition on turnover and efficiency of total hip and knee arthroplasty. The bone & joint journal Cahan, E. M., Cousins, H. C., Steere, J. T., Segovia, N. A., Miller, M. D., Amanatullah, D. F. 2021; 103-B (2): 347–52


    AIMS: Surgical costs are a major component of healthcare expenditures in the USA. Intraoperative communication is a key factor contributing to patient outcomes. However, the effectiveness of communication is only partially determined by the surgeon, and understanding how non-surgeon personnel affect intraoperative communication is critical for the development of safe and cost-effective staffing guidelines. Operative efficiency is also dependent on high-functioning teams and can offer a proxy for effective communication in highly standardized procedures like primary total hip and knee arthroplasty. We aimed to evaluate how the composition and dynamics of surgical teams impact operative efficiency during arthroplasty.METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of staff characteristics and operating times for 112 surgeries (70 primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and 42 primary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs)) conducted by a single surgeon over a one-year period. Each surgery was evaluated in terms of operative duration, presence of surgeon-preferred staff, and turnover of trainees, nurses, and other non-surgical personnel, controlling cases for body mass index, presence of osteoarthritis, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score.RESULTS: Turnover among specific types of operating room staff, including the anaesthesiologist (p = 0.011), circulating nurse (p = 0.027), and scrub nurse (p = 0.006), was significantly associated with increased operative duration. Furthermore, the presence of medical students and nursing students were associated with improved intraoperative efficiency in TKA (p = 0.048) and THA (p = 0.015), respectively. The presence of surgical fellows (p > 0.05), vendor representatives (p > 0.05), and physician assistants (p > 0.05) had no effect on intraoperative efficiency. Finally, the presence of the surgeon's 'preferred' staff did not significantly shorten operative duration, except in the case of residents (p = 0.043).CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that active management of surgical team turnover and composition may provide a means of improving intraoperative efficiency during THA and TKA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(2):347-352.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/0301-620X.103B2.BJJ-2020-0170.R2

    View details for PubMedID 33517742

  • Rod-Screw Constructs Composed of Dissimilar Metals Do Not Affect Complication Rates in Posterior Fusion Surgery Performed for Adult Spinal Deformity. Clinical spine surgery Denduluri, S. K., Koltsov, J. C., Ziino, C. n., Segovia, N. n., McMains, C. n., Falakassa, J. n., Ratliff, J. n., Wood, K. B., Alamin, T. n., Cheng, I. n., Hu, S. S. 2021; 34 (2): E121–E125


    This was a retrospective cohort study.The objective of this study was to compare implant-related complications between mixed-metal and same-metal rod-screw constructs in patients who underwent posterior fusion for adult spinal deformity.Contact between dissimilar metals is discouraged due to potential for galvanic corrosion, increasing the risk for metal toxicity, infection, and implant failure. In spine surgery, titanium (Ti) screws are most commonly used, but Ti rods are notch sensitive and likely more susceptible to fracture after contouring for deformity constructs. Cobalt chrome (CC) and stainless steel (SS) rods may be suitable alternatives. No studies have yet evaluated implant-related complications among mixed-metal constructs (SS or CC rods with Ti screws).Adults with spinal deformity who underwent at least 5-level thoracic and/or lumbar posterior fusion or 3-column osteotomy between January 2013 and May 2015 were reviewed, excluding neuromuscular deformity, tumor, acute trauma or infection. Implant-related complications included pseudarthrosis, proximal junctional kyphosis, hardware failure (rod fracture, screw pullout or haloing), symptomatic hardware, and infection.A total of 61 cases met inclusion criteria: 24 patients received Ti rods with Ti screws (Ti-Ti, 39%), 31 SS rods (SS-Ti, 51%), and 6 CC rods (CC-Ti, 9.8%). Median follow-up was 37-42 months for all groups. Because of the limited number of cases, the CC-Ti group was not included in statistical analyses. There were no differences between Ti-Ti and SS-Ti groups with regard to age, body mass index, or smokers. Implant-related complications did not differ between the Ti-Ti and SS-Ti groups (P=0.080). Among the Ti-Ti group, there were 15 implant-related complications (63%). In the SS-Ti group, there were 12 implant-related complications (39%). There were 3 implant-related complications in the CC-Ti group (50%).We found no evidence that combining Ti screws with SS rods increases the risk for implant-related complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BSD.0000000000001058

    View details for PubMedID 33633069

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Length in Pediatric Populations: An MRI Study. Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine Tran, E. P., Dingel, A. B., Terhune, E. B., Segovia, N. A., Vuong, B., Ganley, T. J., Fabricant, P. D., Green, D. W., Stavinoha, T. J., Shea, K. G. 2021; 9 (4): 23259671211002286


    As regards anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR), graft diameter has been identified as a major predictor of failure in skeletally mature patients; however, this topic has not been well-studied in the higher risk pediatric population. Hamstring tendon autograft configuration can be adjusted to increase graft diameter, but tendon length must be adequate for ACLR. Historical parameters of expected tendon length have been variable, and no study has quantified pediatric ACL morphology with other osseous parameters.To develop magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived predictors of native ACL graft length in pediatric patients so as to enhance preoperative planning for graft preparation in this skeletally immature patient population.Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.MRI scans of 110 patients were included (64 girls, 46 boys; median age, 10 years; range, 1-13 years). Patients with musculoskeletal diseases or prior knee injuries were excluded. The following measurements were taken on MRI: ACL length; sagittal and coronal ACL inclination; intercondylar notch width and inclination; and femoral condyle depth and width. Associations between these measurements and patient sex and age were investigated. Univariate linear regression and multivariable regression models were created for each radiographic ACL measure to compare R 2.Female ACL length was most strongly associated with the depth of the lateral femoral condyle as viewed in the sagittal plane (R 2 = 0.65; P < .001). Other statistically significant covariates of interest included distal femoral condylar width, age, and coronal notch width (P < .05). For males, the ACL length was most strongly associated with the distal femoral condyle width as viewed in the coronal plane (R 2 = 0.70; P < .001). Other statistically significant covariates of interest for male ACL lengths were lateral femoral condyle depth, age, and coronal notch width (P < .05).In pediatric populations, femoral condylar depth/width and patient age may be valuable in assessing ACL size and determining appropriate graft dimensions and configuration for ACLRs. The use of this information to optimize graft diameter may lower the rates of ACL graft failure in this high-risk group.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/23259671211002286

    View details for PubMedID 35146026

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8822022

  • Mindset correlates with health-related quality of life assessment in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine deformity Joseph, G. P., Segovia, N. A., Wright, R. C., Mueller, C., Tileston, K. R. 2020


    PURPOSE: Mindset theory describes two different belief systems regarding ability: "fixed", in which a particular personal characteristic is seen as unchangeable, and "growth", in which the characteristic is viewed as malleable and subject to improvement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how that mindset toward one's health correlates with health-related quality of life assessments (HRQoL) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).METHODS: Patients undergoing brace treatment for AIS were prospectively recruited for this study and completed both an SRS-30 andHealth Mindset Scale questionnaire. Inclusion criteria for patients are based on Scoliosis Research Society standardized criteria for bracing studies: diagnosis of AIS, a prescribed TLSO brace for full-time wear, skeletal immaturity at brace initiation (Risser 0-2), Cobb angles 25-50 degrees, no prior treatment, and, if female, no more than 1year post-menarchal at the time of brace initiation. Statistical analysis was performed utilizing Mann-Whitney U tests for skewed data and two-sample t tests for normally distributed data.Multivariable models were also used to evaluate the relationships of SRS-30 subscores with health mindset, adjusting for age, gender, and pre-treatment curve magnitudes.RESULTS: Among the 110 enrolled patients, a stronger growth mindset was associated with significantly higher SRS-30 scores overall (p=0.001), as well as in the appearance (p=0.003), and mental (p=0.001) subscores.CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that health mindset affects an AIS patients' HRQoL. Prior studies have demonstrated that mindset is malleable and can be altered. Further studies are required to determine whether changing health mindset from a fixed to a growth mindset can also improve HRQoL in patients with scoliosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s43390-020-00243-w

    View details for PubMedID 33201496

  • Rod-Screw Constructs Composed of Dissimilar Metals Do Not Affect Complication Rates in Posterior Fusion Surgery Performed for Adult Spinal Deformity. Clinical spine surgery Denduluri, S. K., Koltsov, J. C., Ziino, C., Segovia, N., McMains, C., Falakassa, J., Ratliff, J., Wood, K. B., Alamin, T., Cheng, I., Hu, S. S. 2020


    STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare implant-related complications between mixed-metal and same-metal rod-screw constructs in patients who underwent posterior fusion for adult spinal deformity.SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Contact between dissimilar metals is discouraged due to potential for galvanic corrosion, increasing the risk for metal toxicity, infection, and implant failure. In spine surgery, titanium (Ti) screws are most commonly used, but Ti rods are notch sensitive and likely more susceptible to fracture after contouring for deformity constructs. Cobalt chrome (CC) and stainless steel (SS) rods may be suitable alternatives. No studies have yet evaluated implant-related complications among mixed-metal constructs (SS or CC rods with Ti screws).METHODS: Adults with spinal deformity who underwent at least 5-level thoracic and/or lumbar posterior fusion or 3-column osteotomy between January 2013 and May 2015 were reviewed, excluding neuromuscular deformity, tumor, acute trauma or infection. Implant-related complications included pseudarthrosis, proximal junctional kyphosis, hardware failure (rod fracture, screw pullout or haloing), symptomatic hardware, and infection.RESULTS: A total of 61 cases met inclusion criteria: 24 patients received Ti rods with Ti screws (Ti-Ti, 39%), 31 SS rods (SS-Ti, 51%), and 6 CC rods (CC-Ti, 9.8%). Median follow-up was 37-42 months for all groups. Because of the limited number of cases, the CC-Ti group was not included in statistical analyses. There were no differences between Ti-Ti and SS-Ti groups with regard to age, body mass index, or smokers. Implant-related complications did not differ between the Ti-Ti and SS-Ti groups (P=0.080). Among the Ti-Ti group, there were 15 implant-related complications (63%). In the SS-Ti group, there were 12 implant-related complications (39%). There were 3 implant-related complications in the CC-Ti group (50%).CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that combining Ti screws with SS rods increases the risk for implant-related complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BSD.0000000000001058

    View details for PubMedID 32925188

  • Does the location of short-arm cast univalve effect pressure of the three-point mould? Journal of children's orthopaedics Montgomery, B. K., Perrone, K. H., Yang, S., Segovia, N. A., Rinsky, L., Pugh, C. M., Frick, S. L. 2020; 14 (3): 236–40


    Purpose: Forearm and distal radius fractures are among the most common fractures in children. Many fractures are definitively treated with closed reduction and casting, however, the risk for re-displacement is high (7% to 39%). Proper cast application and the three-point moulding technique are modifiable factors that improve the ability of a cast to maintain the fracture reduction. Many providers univalve the cast to accommodate swelling. This study describes how the location of the univalve cut impacts the pressure at three-point mould sites for a typical dorsally displaced distal radius fracture.Methods: We placed nine force-sensing resistors on an arm model to collect pressure data at the three-point mould sites. Sensory inputs were sampled at 15 Hz. Cast padding and a three-point moulded short arm fibreglass cast was applied. The cast was then univalved on the dorsal, volar, radial or ulnar aspect. Pressure recordings were obtained throughout the procedure.Results: A total of 24 casts were analyzed. Casts univalved in the sagittal plane (dorsal or volar surface) retained up to 16% more pressure across the three moulding sites compared with casts univalved in the coronal plane (radial or ulnar border).Conclusion: Maintaining pressure at the three-point mould prevents loss of reduction at the fracture site. This study shows that univalving the cast dorsally or volarly results in less pressure loss at moulding sites. This should improve the chances of maintaining fracture reductions when compared with radial or ulnar cuts in the cast. Sagittal plane univalving of forearm casts is recommended.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/1863-2548.14.200034

    View details for PubMedID 32582392

  • Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) in Hand Surgery: Does a One-Question Outcome Instrument Compare Favorably? The Journal of hand surgery Gire, J. D., Koltsov, J. C., Segovia, N. A., Kenney, D. E., Yao, J., Ladd, A. L. 2020


    PURPOSE: Patient-reported outcome measures are increasingly used to measure patient status, impairments, and disability, but often require lengthy surveys and place a considerable burden on patients. We hypothesized that the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), composed of a single question, would be a valid and responsive instrument to provide a global assessment of hand function.METHODS: The SANE, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Upper Extremity (PROMIS-UE), and Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) data are routinely collected electronically in our hand and upper-extremity center. To identify our cohort, we used Current Procedural Terminology codes to query our electronic medical record research data repository for the 7 most common hand surgery procedures performed over 2 years from December 2016 to 2018. These procedures included carpal tunnel release, trigger finger release, thumb carpometacarpal arthroplasty, wrist arthroscopy, distal radius fracture fixation, first dorsal compartment release, and cubital tunnel release. Patients undergoing a single isolated procedure with questionnaires obtained in the preoperative and/or postoperative period were included in the analysis. Convergent validity, coverage, and responsiveness for each instrument were assessed.RESULTS: We identified 214 patients for inclusion. The SANE score had a moderate to strong correlation with the QuickDASH and PROMIS-UE. Floor and ceiling effects for the SANE were less than 10% at baseline and follow-up. Overall, the QuickDASH was the most responsive, followed by SANE and PROMIS-UE; all 3 instruments exceeded the acceptable thresholds for responsiveness and demonstrated significant changes before to after surgery. Responsiveness of the SANE varied by procedure and was acceptable for carpal tunnel release, carpometacarpal arthroplasty, wrist arthroscopy, and trigger finger release.CONCLUSIONS: The single-item SANE is a reasonable measure of global function in patients undergoing common hand procedures and demonstrates psychometric properties comparable to those of the PROMIS-UE and QuickDASH outcome scores.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The SANE score is a reasonable outcome measure of global hand function that may have utility in demonstrating response to treatment in a practice setting and may provide a useful adjunct to multiple-item measures in clinical research studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2020.03.024

    View details for PubMedID 32482496

  • Test of Strength: Figure-of-Eight versus Spiral Wrapping Technique for Fiberglass Casts CUREUS Montgomery, B. K., Storaci, H., Segovia, N. A., Young, J. 2020; 12 (4)
  • Test of Strength: Figure-of-Eight versus Spiral Wrapping Technique for Fiberglass Casts. Cureus Montgomery, B. K., Storaci, H. W., Segovia, N. A., Young, J. 2020; 12 (4): e7843


    Pediatric fractures are a common injury, and treatment often includes cast immobilization. For pediatric patients being treated in a cast, cast damage is among the most common reasons patients return to the emergency room. The figure-of-eight wrapping technique interdigitates layers of fiberglass which may create a stronger cast. The aim of this study was to assess the strength of the figure-of-eight wrapping technique in comparison to the spiral wrapping technique. A total of 10 casts were wrapped with a three-inch fiberglass using the spiral technique and 10 casts were wrapped using the figure-of-eight technique. Each cast was then subjected to a three-point bending test and loaded until failure using an Instron machine. The figure-of-eight technique had an average load to failure of 278.2 + 27.6 N/mm which was similar to the spiral technique's load to failure of 281.2 + 25.4 N/mm (p=0.795). Prior to normalizing for thickness, the load to failure of the figure-of-eight technique was 949.8 + 109.5 N, which was significantly higher than the spiral technique of 868.2 + 65.1 N (p=0.038). The figure-of-eight casts were slightly thicker than the spiral casts (average 0.3 mm, p=0.004). This suggests that the thickness of the fiberglass cast may improve the strength. The figure-of-eight wrapping technique had similar biomechanical characteristics to spiral wrapping techniques. Providers should wrap in whichever technique they feel most comfortable performing as there is no difference in strength of the cast. If a stronger cast is desired, then thickness of the cast can be increased.

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.7843

    View details for PubMedID 32483494

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7253080

  • Outcomes of Arthroscopic All-Inside Repair Versus Observation in Older Patients With Meniscus Root Tears. The American journal of sports medicine Dragoo, J. L., Konopka, J. A., Guzman, R. A., Segovia, N., Kandil, A., Pappas, G. P. 2020: 363546520909828


    BACKGROUND: Meniscus root tears lead to de-tensioning of the meniscus, increased contact forces, and cartilage damage. Management of older patients with root tears is controversial and the efficacy of different treatment options is unclear.PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes of patients with moderate knee osteoarthritis who underwent an all-inside meniscus root repair technique versus nonoperative management for either medial or lateral meniscus root tears.STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.METHODS: Patients with a diagnosed posterior meniscus root tear who underwent arthroscopic repair (AR: 30 knees) or nonoperative treatment with observation (O: 18 knees) were followed for a minimum of 2 years (mean follow-up, 4.4 years). The arthroscopic repair included all-inside sutures to reduce the root back to its remnant (reduction sutures), thereby re-tensioning the meniscus, and 1 mattress suture to strengthen the repair by reapproximating the construct to the posterior capsule. The data collected included the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm, Tegner, and Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA).RESULTS: Medial meniscus root tears comprised 80.0% of the AR group and 77.8% of the O group. The average Kellgren-Lawrence grade was 2 in both groups. The baseline scores for the KOOS Symptoms subscale were lower for AR (50.2 ± 19.3) than for O (66.5 ± 16.1) (P = .003), as were the KOOS Knee-Related Quality of Life scores (AR, 26.7 ± 16.1; O, 39.6 ± 22.1) (P = .046). No differences were found between groups for the absolute values at follow-up except that follow-up Tegner scores were lower in the O group than in the AR group (P = .004). Significant improvements were seen in the AR group from baseline to ultimate follow-up in average KOOS subscale scores (P < .001), Lysholm scores (P < .001), Tegner scores (P = .0002), and VR-12 PCS scores (P < .001), whereas the O group had a significant improvement only in average KOOS Pain (P = .003), KOOS Function in Daily Living (P = .006), and VR-12 PCS (P = .038) scores. Compared with the O group, the AR group had a significantly larger improvement from baseline to follow-up in average KOOS Pain (P = .009), KOOS Symptoms (P = .029), and Lysholm scores (P = .016). During follow-up, 3.3% of the AR group underwent a TKA compared with 33.3% of the O group (P = .008). The hazard ratio of TKA conversion was 93.2% lower for the AR group compared with the O group (P = .013).CONCLUSION: All-inside medial or lateral meniscus root repair showed improved functional outcomes and decreased TKA conversion rates compared with nonoperative treatment and may be considered as a treatment option for the management of meniscus root tears in older patients with moderate osteoarthritis.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0363546520909828

    View details for PubMedID 32182103

  • Deciding Without Data: Clinical Decision Making in Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery. International journal for quality in health care : journal of the International Society for Quality in Health Care Nathan, K. n., Uzosike, M. n., Sanchez, U. n., Karius, A. n., Leyden, J. n., Nicole, S. n., Sara, E. n., Hastings, K. G., Kamal, R. n., Frick, S. n. 2020


    Objective.Identifying when and how often decisions are made based on high-quality evidence can inform the development of evidence-based treatment plans and care pathways, which have been shown to improve quality of care and patient safety. Evidence to guide decision making, national guidelines, and clinical pathways for many conditions in pediatric orthopaedic surgery are limited. This study investigated decision making rationale and quantified the evidence supporting decisions made by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons in an outpatient clinic.Design/Setting/Participants/Intervention(s)/Main Outcome Measure(s).We recorded decisions made by eight pediatric orthopaedic surgeons in an outpatient clinic and the surgeon's reported rationale behind the decisions. Surgeons categorized the rationale for each decision as one or a combination of 12 possibilities (e.g. "Experience/anecdote", "First Principles", "Trained to do it", "Arbitrary/Instinct", "General Study", "Specific Study").Results.Out of 1150 total decisions, the most frequent decisions were follow-up scheduling, followed by bracing prescription/removal. The most common decision rationales were "First principles" (N=310, 27.0%) and "Experience/anecdote" (N=253, 22.0%). Only 17.8% of decisions were attributed to scientific studies, with 7.3% based on studies specific to the decision. 34.6% of surgical intervention decisions were based on scientific studies, while only 10.4% of follow-up scheduling decisions were made with studies in mind. Decision category was significantly associated with a basis in scientific studies: surgical intervention and medication prescription decisions were more likely to be based on scientific studies than all other decisions.Conclusions.With increasing emphasis on high value, evidence-based care, understanding the rationale behind physician decision-making can educate physicians, identify common decisions without supporting evidence, and help create clinical care pathways in pediatric orthopaedic surgery. Decisions based on evidence or consensus between surgeons can inform pathways and national guidelines that minimize unwarranted variation in care and waste. Decision support tools & aids could also be implemented to guide these decisions.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/intqhc/mzaa119

    View details for PubMedID 32986101

  • Day of the Week of Surgery Affects Time to Discharge for Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis ORTHOPEDICS Tileston, K. R., Uzosike, M., Segovia, N., Rinsky, L. A., Imrie, M. N. 2020; 43 (1): 8–12


    Unnecessary delays in discharge are extraordinarily common in the current US health care system. These delays are even more protracted for patients undergoing orthopedic procedures. A traditional hospital staffing model is heavily weighted toward increased resources on weekdays and minimal coverage on the weekend. This study examined the effect of this traditional staffing model on time to discharge for patients undergoing posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Patients undergoing surgery later in the week had a significantly longer hospital stay compared with patients undergoing surgery early in the week (5.5 days vs 4.9 days, respectively; P=.003). This discrepancy resulted in a mean cost increase of $7749.50 for patients undergoing surgery later in the week. A subsequent quality, safety, value initiative (QSVI) was undertaken to balance physical therapy resources alone. Following the QSVI, patients undergoing surgery later in the week had a decreased mean length of stay of 3.78 days (P=.002). Patients undergoing fusion early in the week also had a decreased mean length of stay of 3.66 days (P<.001). There was no longer a significant difference in length of stay between the "early" and the "late" groups (P=.84). This study demonstrates that simply having surgery later in the week in a hospital with a traditional staffing model adversely affects the timing of discharge, resulting in a significantly longer and more costly hospital course. By increasing physical therapy availability on the weekend, the length of stay and the cost of hospitalization decrease precipitously for these patients. [Orthopedics. 2020; 43(1);8-12.].

    View details for DOI 10.3928/01477447-20191001-06

    View details for Web of Science ID 000508434100012

    View details for PubMedID 31587077

  • Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs): Influence of Motor Tasks and Psychosocial Factors on FAAM Scores in Foot and Ankle Trauma Patients. The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons Schultz, B. J., Tanner, N. n., Shapiro, L. M., Segovia, N. A., Kamal, R. N., Bishop, J. A., Gardner, M. J. 2020


    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) are being increasingly used as a quality of care metric. However, the validity and consistency of PROMS remain undefined. The study sought to determine whether Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) scores improve after patients complete motor tasks evaluated on the survey and to examine the relationship between depression and self-efficacy and FAAM scores or change in scores. We conducted a prospective comparison study of adults with isolated foot, ankle, or distal tibia fractures treated operatively at level I trauma center. Twenty-seven patients completed the FAAM survey at the first clinic visit after being made weightbearing as tolerated (mean 3 months). Patients then completed 6 motor tasks queried on FAAM (standing, walking without shoes, squatting, stairs, up to toes), followed by a repeat FAAM and General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) instruments. FAAM scores before and after intervention; GSE and PHQ-2 scores compared with baseline FAAM and change in FAAM scores. Performing motor tasks significantly improved postintervention scores for squatting (P = .044) and coming up to toes (P = .012), the 2 most strenuous tasks. No difference was found for the remaining tasks. Higher depression ratings correlated with worse FAAM scores overall (P < .05). Higher self-efficacy ratings correlated with increase in FAAM Sports subscale postintervention (P = .020). FAAM scores are influenced by performing motor tasks. Self-reported depression influences baseline FAAM scores and self-efficacy may influence change in FAAM scores. Context and patient factors (modifiable and nonmodifiable) affect PROM implementation, with implications for clinical care, reimbursement models, and use of quality measure.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.jfas.2020.01.008

    View details for PubMedID 32173179

  • Prevalence of Female Athlete Triad Risk Factors and Iron Supplementation Among High School Distance Runners: Results From a Triad Risk Screening Tool. Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine Skorseth, P. n., Segovia, N. n., Hastings, K. n., Kraus, E. n. 2020; 8 (10): 2325967120959725


    Investigations of the female athlete triad (Triad) in high school athletes have found that 36% had low energy availability, 54% had menstrual abnormalities, and 16% had low bone mineral density (BMD). Limited data are available showing the prevalence of these risk factors in high school distance runners or regarding best practice on screening for the Triad in the adolescent population.To (1) evaluate the prevalence of Triad risk factors and iron supplementation in high school distance runners and (2) pilot a screening tool for Triad risk score.Descriptive epidemiology study.The study population included female high school athletes who participated in cross-country/track. Participants completed a survey including questions regarding dietary habits, menstrual history, and bone stress injury (BSI) history. They then underwent evaluation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, free triiodothyronine (T3), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to measure body fat and BMD through use of age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched Z scores. Triad scores were calculated. Relationships were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficient.There were 38 study participants (mean age, 16.9 years). Average body mass index was 19.8 kg/m2. Disordered eating or eating disorders were reported in 76.3% of runners; in addition, 23.7% reported delayed menarche, 45.9% had a history of amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea, 42.1% had low BMD (Z score < -1.0), and 15.8% reported prior BSI. Low free T3 was significantly associated with higher Triad risk scores (rS = -0.36; P = .028). More than 42% of athletes were supplementing iron.The prevalence of Triad risk factors in high school distance runners was high. Free T3 was inversely associated with Triad score, which may serve as an indicator of low energy availability. Nearly half of the athletes were using iron supplementation.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2325967120959725

    View details for PubMedID 33195716

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7605010

  • Posterior Sternoclavicular Dislocation: Do We Need "Cardiothoracic Backup"? Insights from a National Sample. Journal of orthopaedic trauma Leonard, D. A., Segovia, N., Kaur, J., Lucas, J., Bishop, J., Vorhies, J. S. 2019


    OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of and risk factors for vascular injury associated with P-SCD.METHODS: We used data from the HCUP-NIS from 2015-2016 and defined a cohort of patients with sternoclavicular dislocation (SCD) using ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. We further isolated a subset with P-SCD. We describe the incidence of thoracic vascular injury, demographics and injury severity score (ISS) in this cohort.RESULTS: Of an estimated 550 patients who had SCD, 140 (25%) were identified as having a P-SCD. No vascular injuries occurred in the P-SCD cohort. Among all patients with SCD, < 2% of patients had a vascular injury, all of whom had an ISS ≥ 15, independent of the vascular injury itself (Figure 1). Among patients with an isolated P-SCD injury (55), overall length of stay was 1.8 days and total charges averaged $29,724.45. There was no mortality among patients with isolated P-SCD.CONCLUSION: Here we report no vascular injuries in the largest known series of P-SCD. Among all patients with SCD, vascular injury was rare, occurring only in severely polytraumatized patients. The recommendation for routine involvement of cardiothoracic surgeons in all cases of P-SCD should be re-examined.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0000000000001685

    View details for PubMedID 31764407

  • Successful Implementation of an Accelerated Recovery and Outpatient Total Joint Arthroplasty Program at a County Hospital. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Global research & reviews Schultz, B. J., Segovia, N., Castillo, T. N. 2019; 3 (9): e110


    Outpatient and accelerated recovery total joint arthroplasty (TJA) programs have become standard for private and academic practices. County hospitals traditionally serve patients with limited access to TJA and psychosocial factors which create challenges for accelerated recovery. The effectiveness of such programs at a county hospital has not been reported.Methods: In 2017, our county hospital implemented an accelerated recovery protocol for all TJA patients. This protocol consisted of standardized, preoperative medical and psychosocial optimization, perioperative spinal anesthesia, tranexamic acid and local infiltration analgesia use, postoperative emphasis on non-narcotic analgesia, and early mobilization. LOS, complications, disposition, and cost were compared between patients treated before and after protocol implementation.Results: In 15 months, 108 primary TJA patients were treated. Compared with the previous 108 TJA patients, LOS dropped from 3.4 to 1.6 days (P < 0.001), more patients discharged home (92% versus 72%, P < 0.001), average hospitalization and procedure-specific costs decreased 24.7% and 22.1%, respectively, and were significantly fewer complications (7% versus 21%, P = 0.007).Conclusions: Implementation of an accelerated recovery TJA program at a County Hospital is novel. This implementation requires careful patient selection and a coordinated multidisciplinary approach and is a safe and cost-effective method of delivering high-quality care to an underserved cohort.

    View details for DOI 10.5435/JAAOSGlobal-D-19-00110

    View details for PubMedID 31773082

  • Iron Supplementation and the Female Athlete Triad in High School Distance Runners Skorseth, P., Dingel, A., Hastings, K., Segovia, N., Kraus, E. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2019: 736