Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Cardiology
  • Pediatrics

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Residency: Stanford University Pediatric Residency at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2022) CA
  • Medical Education: Creighton University School of Medicine Registrar (2019) NE

All Publications


  • Right Atrial Lines as Primary Access for Postoperative Pediatric Cardiac Patients. Pediatric cardiology Anton-Martin, P., Zook, N., Kochanski, J., Ray, M., Nigro, J. J., Vellore, S. 2022

    Abstract

    To characterize the use of right atrial lines (RALs) as primary access in the postoperative care of neonatal and pediatric patients after cardiothoracic surgery and to identify risk factors associated with RAL complications. Observational retrospective cohort study in pediatric cardiac patients who underwent RAL placement in a tertiary children's hospital from January 2011 through June 2018. A total of 692 children with congenital heart disease underwent 815 RAL placements during the same or subsequent cardiothoracic surgeries during the study period. Median age and weight were 22days (IQR 7-134) and 3.6kg (IQR 3.1-5.3), respectively. Neonates accounted for 53.5% of patients and those with single-ventricle physiology were 35.4%. Palliation surgery (shunts, cavo-pulmonary connections, hybrid procedures, and pulmonary artery bandings) accounted for 38%. Survival to hospital discharge was 95.5%. Median RAL duration was 11days (IQR 7-19) with a median RAL removal to hospital discharge time of 0days (IQR 0-3). Thrombosis and migration were the most prevalent complications (1.7% each), followed by malfunction (1.4%) and infection (0.7%). Adverse events associated with complications were seen in 12 (1.4%) of these RAL placements: decrease in hemoglobin (n=1), tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis (n=3), pleural effusion requiring chest tube (n=2), and need for antimicrobials (n=6). Multivariable logistic regression showed that RAL duration (OR 1.01, p=0.006) and palliation surgery (OR 2.38, p=0.015) were significant and independent factors for complications. The use of RALs as primary access in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients seems to be feasible and safe. Our overall incidence of complications from prolonged use of RALs remained similar or lower to that reported with short-term use of these lines. While RAL duration and palliation surgeries seemed to be associated with complications, severity of illness could be a confounding factor. A prospective assessment of RAL complications may improve outcomes in this medically complex population.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-022-03000-0

    View details for PubMedID 36094531

  • Impact of a clinical pathway on acute kidney injury in patients undergoing heart transplant. Pediatric transplantation Algaze, C. A., Margetson, T. D., Sutherland, S. M., Kwiatkowski, D. M., Maeda, K., Navaratnam, M., Samreth, S. P., Price, E. P., Zook, N. B., Yang, J. K., Hollander, S. A. 2021: e14166

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of a clinical pathway on the incidence and severity of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing heart transplant.METHODS: This was a 2.5-year retrospective evaluation using 3years of historical controls within a cardiac intensive care unit in an academic children's hospital. Patients undergoing heart transplant between May 27, 2014, and April 5, 2017 (pre-pathway) and May 1, 2017, and November 30, 2019 (pathway) were included. The clinical pathway focused on supporting renal perfusion through hemodynamic management, avoiding or delaying nephrotoxic medications, and providing pharmacoprophylaxis against AKI.RESULTS: There were 57 consecutive patients included. There was an unadjusted 20% reduction in incidence of any acute kidney injury (p=.05) and a 17% reduction in Stage 2/3 acute kidney injury (p=.09). In multivariable adjusted analysis, avoidance of Stage 2/3 acute kidney injury was independently associated with the clinical pathway era (AOR -1.3 [95% CI -2.5 to -0.2]; p=.03), achieving a central venous pressure of or less than 12mmHg (AOR -1.3 [95% CI -2.4 to -0.2]; p=.03) and mean arterial pressure above 60mmHg (AOR -1.6 [95% CI -3.1 to -0.01]; p=.05) in the first 48h post-transplant, and older age at transplant (AOR - 0.2 [95% CI -0.2 to -0.06]; p=.002).CONCLUSIONS: This report describes a renal protection clinical pathway associated with a reduction in perioperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing heart transplant and highlights the importance of normalizing perioperative central venous pressure and mean arterial blood pressure to support optimal renal perfusion.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.14166

    View details for PubMedID 34727417

  • Intraoperative and Postoperative Hemodynamic Predictors of Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC INTENSIVE CARE Hollander, S. A., Chung, S., Reddy, S., Zook, N., Yang, J., Vella, T., Navaratnam, M., Price, E., Sutherland, S. M., Algaze, C. A. 2021
  • Identifying an Appropriate Endpoint for Cryoablation in Children with Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry Tachycardia: Is Residual Slow Pathway Conduction Associated with Recurrence? Heart rhythm Zook, N., DeBruler, K., Ceresnak, S., Motonaga, K., Goodyer, W., Trela, A., Dubin, A., Chubb, H. 2021

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Cryoablation is increasingly used to treat atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) due to its safety profile. However, cryoablation may have higher recurrence than radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and the optimal procedural endpoint remains undefined.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the association of cryoablation procedural endpoints with post-procedural AVNRT recurrence.METHODS: We performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of pediatric patients following successful first-time cryoablation for AVNRT between 1/1/2011 and 12/31/2019. Pre-ablation inducibility of AVNRT was recorded. Procedural endpoints, including slow pathway (SP) conduction (presence of jump or echo beats) with and without isoproterenol, were identified. Recurrence established from clinical notes and/or direct patient contact.RESULTS: Of 256 patients, 147(57%) were assessed on isoproterenol pre-cryoablation, and 171(47%) were assessed on isoproterenol post-cryoablation. Mean cryolesion time was 2586±1434 seconds. Following ablation, 104(41%) had some evidence of residual SP conduction. With median follow up time of 1.9[0.7-3.7] years, recurrence occurred in 14(5%) patients. Complete elimination of SP conduction (with and without isoproterenol) had a HR for recurrence of 1.26(95% CI 0.42-3.8, P=.68) on univariate analysis and 1.39(95% CI 0.36-5.4, P=.63) on multivariate analysis (including demographics, ablation time, 8mm cryocatheter and baseline inducibility).CONCLUSION: The observed AVNRT recurrence rate after cryoablation was comparable to RFA. The presence of residual SP conduction was not associated with recurrence. This suggests that jump or single echo beat may be an acceptable endpoint in AVNRT cryoablation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.09.031

    View details for PubMedID 34601128