Instructor, Medicine - Oncology
Ole Audun Haabeth. "United States Patent S16-157 41423-521001WO PCT Immolative Cell-Penetrating Complexes for Nucleic Acid Delivery", Leland Stanford Junior University, Jul 27, 2019
Autologous tumor cell vaccine induces antitumor T cell immune responses in patients with mantle cell lymphoma: A phase I/II trial.
The Journal of experimental medicine
2020; 217 (9)
Here, we report on the results of a phase I/II trial (NCT00490529) for patients with mantle cell lymphoma who, having achieved remission after immunochemotherapy, were vaccinated with irradiated, CpG-activated tumor cells. Subsequently, vaccine-primed lymphocytes were collected and reinfused after a standard autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The primary endpoint was detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) within 1 yr after ASCT at the previously validated threshold of ≥1 malignant cell per 10,000 leukocyte equivalents. Of 45 evaluable patients, 40 (89%) were found to be MRD negative, and the MRD-positive patients experienced early subsequent relapse. The vaccination induced antitumor CD8 T cell immune responses in 40% of patients, and these were associated with favorable clinical outcomes. Patients with high tumor PD-L1 expression after in vitro exposure to CpG had inferior outcomes. Vaccination with CpG-stimulated autologous tumor cells followed by the adoptive transfer of vaccine-primed lymphocytes after ASCT is feasible and safe.
View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20191712
View details for PubMedID 32558897
CD4+ T-cell killing of multiple myeloma cells is mediated by resident bone marrow macrophages.
2020; 4 (12): 2595–2605
CD4+ T cells may induce potent antitumor immune responses through interaction with antigen-presenting cells within the tumor microenvironment. Using a murine model of multiple myeloma, we demonstrated that adoptive transfer of idiotype-specific CD4+ T cells may elicit curative responses against established multifocal myeloma in bone marrow. This finding indicates that the myeloma bone marrow niche contains antigen-presenting cells that may be rendered tumoricidal. Given the complexity of the bone marrow microenvironment, the mechanistic basis of such immunotherapeutic responses is not known. Through a functional characterization of antitumor CD4+ T-cell responses within the bone marrow microenvironment, we found that killing of myeloma cells is orchestrated by a population of bone marrow-resident CD11b+F4/80+MHC-IIHigh macrophages that have taken up and present secreted myeloma protein. The present results demonstrate the potential of resident macrophages as powerful mediators of tumor killing within the bone marrow and provide a basis for novel therapeutic strategies against multiple myeloma and other malignancies that affect the bone marrow.
View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001434
View details for PubMedID 32544236
Local delivery of OX40L, CD80, and CD86 mRNA kindles global anti-cancer immunity.
Localized expression of effector molecules can initiate anti-tumor responses through engagement of specific receptors on target cells in the tumor microenvironment. These locally induced responses may also have a systemic effect, clearing additional tumors throughout the body. In this study, to evoke systemic anti-tumor responses, we utilized charge-altering releasable transporters (CART) for local intratumoral delivery of mRNA coding for co-stimulatory and immune-modulating factors. Intratumoral injection of the CART-mRNA complexes resulted in mRNA expression at the site of administration, transfecting a substantial proportion of tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells in addition to the tumor cells, resulting in a local anti-tumor effect. Using a two-tumor model, we further show that mRNA therapy locally administered to one tumor stimulated a systemic anti-tumor response, curing both tumors. The combination of OX40L-, CD80-, and CD86-encoding mRNA resulted in the local upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, robust local T cell activation, and migration of immune cells to local draining lymph node or to an anatomically distant tumor. This approach delayed tumor growth, facilitated tumor regression, and cured tumors in both A20 and CT26 tumor models. These results highlight mRNA-CART therapy as a viable approach to induce systemic anti-tumor immunity from a single localized injection.
View details for PubMedID 30692215
CD4+ T cells indirectly kill tumor cells via induction of cytotoxic macrophages in mouse models.
Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
2019; 68 (11): 1865–73
It is well recognized that CD4+ T cells may play an important role in immunosurveillance and immunotherapy against cancer. However, the details of how these cells recognize and eliminate the tumor cells remain incompletely understood. For the past 25 years, we have focused on how CD4+ T cells reject multiple myeloma cells in a murine model (MOPC315). In our experimental system, the secreted tumor-specific antigen is taken up by tumor-infiltrating macrophages that process it and present a neoepitope [a V region-derived idiotypic (Id) peptide] on MHC class II molecules to Th1 cells. Stimulated Th1 cells produce IFNγ, which activates macrophages in a manner that elicits an M1-like, tumoricidal phenotype. Through an inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS)-dependent mechanism, the M1 macrophages secrete nitric oxide (NO) that diffuses into neighboring tumor cells. Inside the tumor cells, NO-derived reactive nitrogen species, including peroxynitrite, causes nitrosylation of proteins and triggers apoptosis by the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. This mode of indirect tumor recognition by CD4+ T cells operates independently of MHC class II expression on cancer cells. However, secretion of the tumor-specific antigen, and uptake and MHCII presentation on macrophages, is required for rejection. Similar mechanisms can also be observed in a B-lymphoma model and in the unrelated B16 melanoma model. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which CD4+ T cells kill tumor cells indirectly via induction of intratumoral cytotoxic macrophages. The data suggest that induction of M1 polarization of tumor-infiltrating macrophages, by CD4+ T cells or through other means, could serve as an immunotherapeutic strategy.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00262-019-02374-0
View details for PubMedID 31448380
B cell receptor ligation induces display of V-region peptides on MHC class II molecules to T cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The B cell receptors (BCRs) for antigen express variable (V) regions that are enormously diverse, thus serving as markers on individual B cells. V region-derived idiotypic (Id) peptides can be displayed as pId:MHCII complexes on B cells for recognition by CD4+ T cells. It is not known if naive B cells spontaneously display pId:MHCII in vivo or if BCR ligation is required for expression, thereby enabling collaboration between Id+ B cells and Id-specific T cells. Here, using a mouse model, we show that naive B cells do not express readily detectable levels of pId:MHCII. However, BCR ligation by Ag dramatically increases physical display of pId:MHCII, leading to activation of Id-specific CD4+ T cells, extrafollicular T-B cell collaboration and some germinal center formation, and production of Id+ IgG. Besides having implications for immune regulation, the results may explain how persistent activation of self-reactive B cells induces the development of autoimmune diseases and B cell lymphomas.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1902836116
View details for PubMedID 31796587
Oligo(serine ester) Charge-Altering Releasable Transporters: Organocatalytic Ring-Opening Polymerization and their Use for in Vitro and in Vivo mRNA Delivery.
Journal of the American Chemical Society
RNA technology is transforming life science research and medicine, but many applications are limited by the accessibility, cost, efficacy, and tolerability of delivery systems. Here we report the first members of a new class of dynamic RNA delivery vectors, oligo(serine ester)-based charge-altering releasable transporters (Ser-CARTs). Composed of lipid-containing oligocarbonates and cationic oligo(serine esters), Ser-CARTs are readily prepared (one flask) by a mild ring-opening polymerization using thiourea anions and, upon simple mixing with mRNA, readily form complexes that degrade to neutral serine-based products, efficiently releasing their mRNA cargo. mRNA/Ser-CART transfection efficiencies of >95% are achieved in vitro. Intramuscular or intravenous (iv) injections of mRNA/Ser-CARTs into living mice result in in vivo expression of a luciferase reporter protein, with spleen localization observed after iv injection.
View details for PubMedID 31083999
mRNA vaccination with charge-altering releasable transporters elicits human T cell responses and cures established tumors in mice.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
In vivo delivery of antigen-encoding mRNA is a promising approach to personalized cancer treatment. The therapeutic efficacy of mRNA vaccines is contingent on safe and efficient gene delivery, biological stability of the mRNA, and the immunological properties of the vaccine. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a versatile and highly efficient mRNA vaccine-delivery system that employs charge-altering releasable transporters (CARTs) to deliver antigen-coding mRNA to antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We demonstrate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that CART vaccines can activate a robust antigen-specific immune response against mRNA-encoded viral epitopes. In an established mouse model, we demonstrate that CARTs preferentially target professional APCs in secondary lymphoid organs upon i.v. injections and target local APCs upon s.c. injection. Finally, we show that CARTs coformulated with mRNA and a Toll-like receptor ligand simultaneously transfect and activate target cells to generate an immune response that can treat and cure mice with large, established tumors.
View details for PubMedID 30201728
Enhanced mRNA delivery into lymphocytes enabled by lipid-varied libraries of charge-altering releasable transporters.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
2018; 115 (26): E5859–E5866
We report a strategy for generating a combinatorial library of oligonucleotide transporters with varied lipid domains and their use in the efficient transfection of lymphocytes with mRNA in vitro and in vivo. This library is based on amphiphilic charge-altering releasable transporters (CARTs) that contain a lipophilic block functionalized with various side-chain lipids and a polycationic alpha-amino ester mRNA-binding block that undergoes rearrangement to neutral small molecules, resulting in mRNA release. We show that certain binary mixtures of these lipid-varied CARTs provide up to a ninefold enhancement in mRNA translation in lymphocytes in vitro relative to either a single-lipid CART component alone or the commercial reagent Lipofectamine 2000, corresponding to a striking increase in percent transfection from 9-12% to 80%. Informed by the results with binary mixtures, we further show that CARTs consisting of optimized ratios of the two lead lipids incorporated into a single hybrid-lipid transporter molecule maintain the same delivery efficacy as the noncovalent mixture of two CARTs. The lead lipid CART mixtures and hybrid-lipid CARTs show enhanced lymphocyte transfection in primary T cells and in vivo in mice. This combinatorial approach for rapidly screening mRNA delivery vectors has provided lipid-varied CART mixtures and hybrid-lipid CARTs that exhibit significant improvement in mRNA delivery to lymphocytes, a finding of potentially broad value in research and clinical applications.
View details for PubMedID 29891683
CD4+ T cell-mediated rejection of MHC class II-positive tumor cells is dependent on antigen secretion and indirect presentation on host APCs.
Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells have been shown to mediate efficient anti-tumor immune responses against cancer. Such responses can occur through direct binding to MHC class II (MHC II)-expressing tumor cells or indirectly via activation of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) that take up and present the tumor antigen. We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells reactive against an epitope within the Ig light chain variable region of a murine B cell lymphoma can reject established tumors. Given the presence of MHC II molecules at the surface of lymphoma cells, we investigated whether MHC II-restricted antigen presentation on tumor cells alone was required for rejection. Variants of the A20 B lymphoma cell line that either secreted or intracellularly retained different versions of the tumor-specific antigen revealed that antigen secretion by the MHC II-expressing tumor cells was essential both for the priming and effector phase of CD4+ T cell-driven anti-tumor immune responses. Consistent with this, genetic ablation of MHC II in tumor cells, both in the case of B lymphoma and B16 melanoma, did not preclude rejection of tumors by tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo. These findings demonstrate that MHC class II expression on tumor cells themselves is not required for CD4+ T cell-mediated rejection, and that indirect display on host APC is sufficient for effective tumor elimination. These results support the importance of tumor-infiltrating APC as mediators of tumor cell killing by CD4+ T cells.
View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-17-2426
View details for PubMedID 29752262
iNOS- and NOX1-dependent ROS production maintains bacterial homeostasis in the ileum of mice.
2018; 11 (3): 774–84
The intestinal epithelial cells constitute the first line of defense against gut microbes, which includes secretion of various antimicrobial substances. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well characterized as part of the innate phagocytic immunity; however, a role in controlling microorganisms in the gut lumen is less clear. Here, we show a role for nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)- and NOX1-produced ROS in maintaining homeostasis of the gut microbiota. In vivo imaging revealed distinctly high levels of ROS in the ileum of normal healthy mice, regulated in accordance with the amount of gut bacteria. The ROS level was dependent on the nitric oxide and superoxide producers iNOS and NOX1, respectively, suggesting peroxynitrite as the effector molecule. In the ileum of iNOS- and NOX1-deficient mice, the bacterial load is increased and the composition is more cecum like. Our data suggest a unique role of ileum in maintaining homeostasis of gut microbes through production of ROS with potential importance for preventing reflux from the large intestine, bacterial overgrowth, and translocation.
View details for DOI 10.1038/mi.2017.106
View details for PubMedID 29210363
Tumor Killing by CD4+ T Cells Is Mediated via Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase-Dependent Macrophage Cytotoxicity.
Frontiers in immunology
2018; 9: 1684
CD4+ T cells can induce potent anti-tumor immune responses. Due to the lack of MHC class II expression in most cancer cells, antigen recognition occurs indirectly via uptake and presentation on tumor-infiltrating antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Activation of the APCs can induce tumor rejection, but the mechanisms underlying tumor killing by such cells have not been established. To elucidate the molecular basis of CD4+ T-cell-mediated tumor rejection, we utilized a murine model of multiple myeloma, in which the T cells recognize a secreted tumor neoantigen. Our findings demonstrate that T cell recognition triggers inducible nitric oxide synthase activity within tumor-infiltrating macrophages. Diffusion of nitric oxide into surrounding tumor cells results in intracellular accumulation of toxic secondary oxidants, notably peroxynitrite. This results in tumor cell apoptosis through activation of the mitochondrial pathway. We find that this mode of cytotoxicity has strict spatial limitations, and is restricted to the immediate surroundings of the activated macrophage, thus limiting bystander killing. These findings provide a molecular basis for macrophage-mediated anti-tumor immune responses orchestrated by CD4+ T cells. Since macrophages are abundant in most solid tumors, evoking the secretion of nitric oxide by such cells may represent a potent therapeutic strategy.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01684
View details for PubMedID 30083157
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6064871
Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens
2017; 543 (7647): 723-?
Cancer somatic mutations can generate neoantigens that distinguish malignant from normal cells. However, the personalized identification and validation of neoantigens remains a major challenge. Here we discover neoantigens in human mantle-cell lymphomas by using an integrated genomic and proteomic strategy that interrogates tumour antigen peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules. We applied this approach to systematically characterize MHC ligands from 17 patients. Remarkably, all discovered neoantigenic peptides were exclusively derived from the lymphoma immunoglobulin heavy- or light-chain variable regions. Although we identified MHC presentation of private polymorphic germline alleles, no mutated peptides were recovered from non-immunoglobulin somatically mutated genes. Somatic mutations within the immunoglobulin variable region were almost exclusively presented by MHC class II. We isolated circulating CD4(+) T cells specific for immunoglobulin-derived neoantigens and found these cells could mediate killing of autologous lymphoma cells. These results demonstrate that an integrative approach combining MHC isolation, peptide identification, and exome sequencing is an effective platform to uncover tumour neoantigens. Application of this strategy to human lymphoma implicates immunoglobulin neoantigens as targets for lymphoma immunotherapy.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature21433
View details for PubMedID 28329770
- Idiotype-specific CD4(+) T cells eradicate disseminated myeloma. Leukemia 2016; 30 (5): 1216–20
Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Specific Th2 Cells Eradicates Tumors by Triggering an In Situ Inflammatory Immune Response.
2016; 76 (23): 6864–76
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) trials to date have focused on transfer of autologous tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells; however, the potential of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells for ACT is gaining interest. While encouraging results have been reported with IFNγ-producing Th1 cells, tumor-specific Th2 cells have been largely neglected for ACT due to their reported tumor-promoting properties. In this study, we tested the efficacy of idiotype-specific Th2 cells for the treatment of mice with MHC class II-negative myeloma. Th2 ACT efficiently eradicated subcutaneous myeloma in an antigen-specific fashion. Transferred Th2 cells persisted in vivo and conferred long-lasting immunity. Cancer eradication mediated by tumor-specific Th2 cells did not require B cells, natural killer T cells, CD8+ T cells, or IFNγ. Th2 ACT was also curative against B-cell lymphoma. Upon transfer, Th2 cells induced a type II inflammation at the tumor site with massive infiltration of M2-type macrophages producing arginase. In vivo blockade of arginase strongly inhibited Th2 ACT, consistent with a key role of arginase and M2 macrophages in myeloma elimination by Th2 cells. These results illustrate that cancer eradication may be achieved by induction of a tumor-specific Th2 inflammatory immune response at the tumor site. Thus, ACT with tumor-specific Th2 cells may represent a highly efficient immunotherapy protocol against cancer. Cancer Res; 76(23); 6864-76. ©2016 AACR.
View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-1219
View details for PubMedID 27634753
Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells eradicate myeloma cells genetically deficient in MHC class II display.
2016; 7 (41): 67175–82
CD4+ T cells have been shown to reject tumor cells with no detectable expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II). However, under certain circumstances, induction of ectopic MHC II expression on tumor cells has been reported.To confirm that CD4+ T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity can be successful in the complete absence of antigen display on the tumor cells themselves, we eliminated MHC II on tumor cells using CRISPR/Cas9. Our results demonstrate that ablation of the relevant MHC II (I-Ed) in multiple myeloma cells (MOPC315) does not hinder rejection by tumor-specific CD4+ T cells. These findings provide conclusive evidence that CD4+ T cells specific for tumor antigens can eliminate malignant cells in the absence of endogenous MHC class II expression on the tumor cells. This occurs through antigen uptake and indirect presentation on tumor-infiltrating macrophages.
View details for DOI 10.18632/oncotarget.11946
View details for PubMedID 27626487
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5341866
Tumors Escape CD4+ T-cell-Mediated Immunosurveillance by Impairing the Ability of Infiltrating Macrophages to Indirectly Present Tumor Antigens.
2015; 75 (16): 3268–78
Tumors cells can escape cytotoxic CD8+ T cells by preventing MHC I display of tumor antigens. It is unknown how tumors evade CD4+ T-cell responses, but because many tumor cells lack MHC II expression, novel mechanisms would be required. We have investigated this issue in a model in which MHC II(NEG) myeloma cells secrete a monoclonal Ig containing a V region L chain (VL) epitope recognized by CD4+ T cells. Infiltrating macrophages process and present the secreted tumor antigen to Th1 cells, resulting in induction of macrophage cytotoxicity and apparent rejection of the tumor. Despite long-term tumor protection in VL-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice, we here describe that some myeloma cells persisted in a dormant state and, eventually, formed expanding tumors. Escape tumor cells maintained their secretion of complete (H+L) monoclonal Ig with unchanged sequence, while secretion of surplus free L chain was severely diminished. Although free L chains were efficiently processed and presented by tumor-infiltrating macrophages to CD4+ T cells, complete (H+L) monoclonal Ig was not. Forced overexpression of free L chain secretion reinstated tumor rejection. These results show that tumors can escape CD4+ T-cell-mediated rejection by impairing indirect presentation of tumor antigen by infiltrating macrophages. This occurs through a novel mechanism of immunoediting, in which modulation of the quaternary structure of the secreted tumor-specific antigen reduces its immunogenicity.
View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-3640
View details for PubMedID 26038231
Interleukin-1 is required for cancer eradication mediated by tumor-specific Th1 cells.
2015; 5 (1): e1039763
The role of inflammation in cancer is controversial as both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive aspects of inflammation have been reported. In particular, it has been shown that pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), may either promote or suppress cancer. However, the cellular and molecular basis underlying these opposing outcomes remains enigmatic. Using mouse models for myeloma and lymphoma, we have recently reported that inflammation driven by tumor-specific T helper 1 (Th1) cells conferred protection against B-cell cancer and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was essential for this process. Here, we have investigated the contribution of several inflammatory mediators. Myeloma eradication by Th1 cells was not affected by inhibition of TNF-α, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In contrast, cancer elimination by tumor-specific Th1 cells was severely impaired by the in vivo neutralization of both IL-1α and IL-1β (collectively named IL-1) with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). The antitumor functions of tumor-specific Th1 cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages were both affected by IL-1 neutralization. Secretion of the Th1-derived cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ at the incipient tumor site was severely reduced by IL-1 blockade. Moreover, IL-1 was shown to synergize with IFN-γ for induction of tumoricidal activity in tumor-infiltrating macrophages. This synergy between IL-1 and IFN-γ may explain how inflammation, when driven by tumor-specific Th1 cells, represses rather than promotes cancer. Collectively, the data reveal a central role of inflammation, and more specifically of the canonical pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1, in enhancing Th1-mediated immunity against cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1080/2162402X.2015.1039763
View details for PubMedID 26942052
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4760324
Naive idiotope-specific B and T cells collaborate efficiently in the absence of dendritic cells.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
2014; 192 (9): 4174–83
Anti-idiotope (anti-Id) Abs have a role in therapy against B cell lymphomas, as inhibitors of pathogenic autoantibodies, and as surrogate Ags for immunization. Despite these observations, the mechanism by which Id(+) Ig generates anti-Id Abs is essentially unknown. To address this issue, we generated a double knock-in mouse that expresses V regions of a somatically mutated anti-Id mAb with intermediate affinity (affinity constant [Ka] = 0.77 × 10(7) M(-1)) for the myeloma protein M315. The anti-Id mice have normal peripheral B cell populations, and allelic exclusion is efficient. Anti-Id B cells from BCR knock-in mice, together with Id-specific CD4(+) T cells from previously established TCR-transgenic mice, enabled us to study Id-specific T cell-B cell collaboration by dilution of transferred cells into syngeneic BALB/c recipients. We show that previously unstimulated (naive) Id-specific B and T cells collaborate efficiently in vivo, even at low frequencies and in the presence of low amounts of Id(+) Ig, resulting in germinal center formation, plasma cell development, and secretion of isotype-switched anti-Id Abs. We further demonstrate that Id-specific T cell-B cell collaboration occurs readily in the absence of adjuvant and is not dependent on Id-presentation by dendritic cells. The results underscore the potency of anti-Id B cells in MHC class II-restricted presentation of Id(+) Ig and suggest that Id-specific T cell-B cell collaboration is of physiological relevance.
View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1302359
View details for PubMedID 24706724
Limitations of bystander killing in Th1/M1 immune responses against a secreted tumor antigen.
2014; 3 (9): e954953
T-cell recognition of tumor antigens presented on tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TAMs) induces a tumoricidal M1-like phenotype. Resultant indirect immune responses could eliminate not only antigen secreting (AgPOS), but also antigen negative (AgNEG) tumor cells via bystander killing. Such broad-spectrum response could eliminate antigenically heterogeneous tumors. Using an in vivo model of CD4+ T-cell mediated immunity against MHC II negative myeloma cells, bystander killing of AgNEG cells was ineffective due to strict spatial constraints of Th1-induced TAM cytotoxicity.
View details for DOI 10.4161/21624011.2014.954953
View details for PubMedID 25941607
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4292458
Indirect CD4+ T-cell-mediated elimination of MHC II(NEG) tumor cells is spatially restricted and fails to prevent escape of antigen-negative cells.
European journal of immunology
2014; 44 (9): 2625–37
Tumor-specific Th1 cells can activate tumor-infiltrating macrophages that eliminate MHC class II negative (MHC II(NEG)) tumor cells. Activated M1-like macrophages lack antigen (Ag) receptors, and are presumably unable to discriminate and thus kill both Ag-positive (Ag(POS)) and Ag-negative (Ag(NEG)) tumor cells (bystander killing). The lack of specificity of macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity might be of clinical importance as it could provide a means of avoiding tumor escape. Here, we have tested this idea using mixed populations of Ag(POS) and Ag(NEG) tumor cells in a TCR-transgenic model in which CD4(+) T cells recognize a secreted tumor-specific antigen. Surprisingly, while Ag(POS) tumor cells were recognized and rejected, Ag(NEG) cells grew unimpeded and formed tumors. We further demonstrated that macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity was spatially restricted to areas dominated by Ag(POS) tumor cells, sparing Ag(NEG) tumor cells in the vicinity. As a consequence, macrophage tumoricidal activity did not confer bystander killing in vivo. The present results offer novel insight into the mechanisms of indirect Th1-mediated elimination of MHC II(NEG) tumor cells.
View details for DOI 10.1002/eji.201444659
View details for PubMedID 24846412
How Do CD4(+) T Cells Detect and Eliminate Tumor Cells That Either Lack or Express MHC Class II Molecules?
Frontiers in immunology
2014; 5: 174
CD4(+) T cells contribute to tumor eradication, even in the absence of CD8(+) T cells. Cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells can directly kill MHC class II positive tumor cells. More surprisingly, CD4(+) T cells can indirectly eliminate tumor cells that lack MHC class II expression. Here, we review the mechanisms of direct and indirect CD4(+) T cell-mediated elimination of tumor cells. An emphasis is put on T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic models, where anti-tumor responses of naïve CD4(+) T cells of defined specificity can be tracked. Some generalizations can tentatively be made. For both MHCII(POS) and MHCII(NEG) tumors, presentation of tumor-specific antigen by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) appears to be required for CD4(+) T cell priming. This has been extensively studied in a myeloma model (MOPC315), where host APCs in tumor-draining lymph nodes are primed with secreted tumor antigen. Upon antigen recognition, naïve CD4(+) T cells differentiate into Th1 cells and migrate to the tumor. At the tumor site, the mechanisms for elimination of MHCII(POS) and MHCII(NEG) tumor cells differ. In a TCR-transgenic B16 melanoma model, MHCII(POS) melanoma cells are directly killed by cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells in a perforin/granzyme B-dependent manner. By contrast, MHCII(NEG) myeloma cells are killed by IFN-γ stimulated M1-like macrophages. In summary, while the priming phase of CD4(+) T cells appears similar for MHCII(POS) and MHCII(NEG) tumors, the killing mechanisms are different. Unresolved issues and directions for future research are addressed.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00174
View details for PubMedID 24782871
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3995058
Molecular profiling of tumor-specific TH1 cells activated in vivo.
2013; 2 (5): e24383
The central role of tumor-specific TH1 cells in anticancer immune responses is becoming increasingly appreciated. However, little is known about how these cells are generated in vivo. Here, we used flow cytometry and gene expression microarrays to characterize the primary activation and TH1 differentiation of naïve tumor-specific CD4+ T cells in a mouse model of cancer immunosurveillance. We took advantage of T-cell receptor-transgenic mice in which CD4+ T cells recognize a tumor-specific antigen secreted by MHC class II-negative MOPC315 myeloma cells. Cancer cells were injected subcutaneously and T-cell activation was analyzed in draining lymph nodes and at the incipient tumor site 8 d later. Upon activation and migration to incipient tumor sites, tumor-specific CD4+ T cells exhibited the upregulation of 29 cell-surface molecules (CD2, CD5, CD11a, CD18, CD25, CD28, CD44, CD45, CD49d, CD51, CD54, CD69, CD71, CD83, CD86, CD90, CD95, CD102, CD122, CD153, CD166, CD200, CD249, CD254, CD274, CD279, Ly6C, MHC class I and CCR7) and the downregulation of five (CD27, CD31, CD45RB, CD62L and CD126). Activated CD4+ T cells produced interferon γ, a cytokine consistent with a TH1-polarized response, tumor necrosis factor α as well as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-3 and IL-10. The activation of naïve tumor-specific CD4+ T cells in draining lymph nodes resulted in the upregulation of 609 genes and the downregulation of 284 genes. The bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed genes identified functional pathways related to tumor-specific TH1 cell activation. This study may represent a useful resource to guide the development of TH1-based immunotherapies against cancer.
View details for DOI 10.4161/onci.24383
View details for PubMedID 23762808
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3667914
A model for cancer-suppressive inflammation.
2012; 1 (7): 1146–55
In oncology, inflammation is generally regarded as a cancer-promoting process only. Here, we argue that this view may represent a misleading oversimplification. We present evidence from our own work and from the literature documenting cancer-suppressive aspects of inflammation. We propose that specific types of inflammation, in particular inflammation driven by tumor-specific Th1 cells, may repress rather than promote cancer. Th1 cells collaborate with tumor-infiltrating M1 macrophages to efficiently recognize and eliminate malignant cells. In a Th1 environment, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor-necrosis factor α (TNFα) enhance anti-cancer immunity. Inducing Th1-type inflammation may significantly improve immunotherapeutic strategies against cancer.
View details for DOI 10.4161/onci.21542
View details for PubMedID 23170261
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3494627
Inflammation driven by tumour-specific Th1 cells protects against B-cell cancer.
2011; 2: 240
The immune system can both promote and suppress cancer. Chronic inflammation and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 are considered to be tumour promoting. In contrast, the exact nature of protective antitumour immunity remains obscure. Here, we quantify locally secreted cytokines during primary immune responses against myeloma and B-cell lymphoma in mice. Strikingly, successful cancer immunosurveillance mediated by tumour-specific CD4(+) T cells is consistently associated with elevated local levels of both proinflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6) and T helper 1 (Th1)-associated cytokines (interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2 and IL-12). Cancer eradication is achieved by a collaboration between tumour-specific Th1 cells and tumour-infiltrating, antigen-presenting macrophages. Th1 cells induce secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 by macrophages. Th1-derived IFN-γ is shown to render macrophages directly cytotoxic to cancer cells, and to induce macrophages to secrete the angiostatic chemokines CXCL9/MIG and CXCL10/IP-10. Thus, inflammation, when driven by tumour-specific Th1 cells, may prevent rather than promote cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms1239
View details for PubMedID 21407206
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3072106