Bio


Paul M. Sniderman is the Fairleigh S. Dickinson Jr. Professor in Public Policy.

Sniderman’s research focuses on multiculturalism and politics in Western Europe and spatial reasoning.

He coauthored The Struggle for Inclusion: Muslims and Liberal Democracy (University of Chicago Press, 2020) with Elisabeth Ivarsflaten.

He has published many other books, including When Ways of Life Collide: Multiculturalism and Its Discontents in the Netherlands (Princeton University Press, 2007) with Louk Hagendoorn, Reasoning and Choice, The Scar of Race, Reaching beyond Race, The Outsider, and Black Pride and Black Prejudice, in addition to a plethora of articles. He initiated the use of computer-assisted interviewing to combine randomized experiments and general population survey research.

A fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, he has been awarded the Woodrow Wilson Prize, 1992; the Franklin L. Burdette Pi Sigma Alpha Award, 1994; an award for the Outstanding Book on the Subject of Human Rights from the Gustavus Meyers Center, 1994; the Gladys M. Kammerer Award, 1998; the Pi Sigma Alpha Award; and the Ralph J. Bunche Award, 2003.

Sniderman received his B.A. degree (philosophy) from the University of Toronto and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Fairleigh S. Dickinson Jr., Professor in Public Policy, Stanford University (2001 - 2001)
  • Senior Fellow, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies (1999 - Present)
  • Professor of Sociology, University of Trento, Italy (1993 - 1993)
  • Research Psychologist, stitute of Personality and Social Research, University of California (1990 - Present)
  • Research Political Scientist, Survey Research Center, University of California (1987 - Present)
  • Professor of Criminology, University of Toronto (1987 - 1987)
  • Professor, Stanford University (1981 - Present)
  • Associate Professor, Stanford University (1975 - 1981)
  • Assistant Professor, University of Toronto (1971 - 1972)
  • Assistant Professor, Stanford University (1969 - 1971)

Honors & Awards


  • E.E. Schattschneider Award, American Political Science Association (1972)
  • Mellon Fellowship, Stanford University (1974)
  • Guggenheim Fellowship, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation (1975-1976)
  • Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (1977-1978)
  • Woodrow Wilson Foundation Prize, Woodrow Wilson Foundation (1992)
  • Fellow of the Institute of Advanced Studies, Indiana University (1993)
  • Franklin L. Burdette Pi Sigma Alpha Award, American Political Science Association (1994)
  • Gustavus Meyers Center, Outstanding Book on the Subject of Human Rights, Gustavus Meyers Center (1994)
  • Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1997)
  • Harold D. Lasswell Award, International Society of Political Psychology (1998)
  • Gladys M. Kammerer Award, American Political Science Association (1998)
  • Pi Sigma Alpha Award, Midwest Political Science Association (2000)
  • National Science Foundation Achievement-­‐Based Award, National Science Foundation (2001)
  • The Ralph J. Bunche Award, American Political Science Association (2003)
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (2005)
  • Science Publication in The Netherlands, Dutch Sociological Association (2004-2005)
  • Best Paper for the year in the Journal of Politics, Journal of Politics (2006)
  • Fellow, Royal Society of the Arts (2007)
  • Robert E. Lane Award, Best Book in Political Psychology, Political
  • Psychology Section, American Political Science Association (2008)
  • Frank J. Goodnow Distinguished Service Award, American Political Science Association (2008)
  • Philip E. Converse Award for Outstanding Book judged five years after publication, Philip E. Converse (2010)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Chair, Committee on Professional Ethics, Rights, and Freedoms, American Political Science Association (2008 - 2009)
  • Member, Board of Overseers, American National Election Studies (2005 - 2005)
  • Chair, Department of Political Science, Stanford University (2001 - 2004)
  • Member, Governing Council, International Society of Political Psychology (2000 - 2000)
  • Vice President, American Political Science Association (1998 - 1999)
  • Eli Halevy Chair, Political Science, Institute d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (1998 - 1998)
  • Member, Administrative Committee, American Political Science Association (1996 - 1997)
  • Member, Council of the American, Political Science Association (1995 - 1997)
  • Chair, Committee on Professional Ethics, Rights, and Freedoms, American Political Science Association (1988 - 1988)
  • Member, Committee on Professional Ethics, Rights, and Freedoms, American Political Science Association (1987 - 1987)
  • Member, Ad Hoc Committee on Representation, American Political Science Association (1973 - 1973)

Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Some Advances in the Design of Survey Experiments ANNUAL REVIEW OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, VOL 21 Sniderman, P. M., Levi, M., Rosenblum, N. L. 2018; 21: 259–75
  • The Ideological Asymmetry of the American Party System BRITISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Lelkes, Y., Sniderman, P. M. 2016; 46 (4): 825-844
  • The Reputational Premium: A Theory of Party Identification and Spatial Reasoning Sniderman, P. M., Stiglitz, E. J. Princeton University Press. 2012
  • On the Meaning, Measurement, and Implications of Racial Resentment ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE Carmines, E. G., Sniderman, P. M., Easter, B. C. 2011; 634: 98-116
  • The Logic and Design of the Survey Experiment: An Autobiography of a Methodological Innovation Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Political Science Sniderman, P. M. edited by Druckman, J. M., Green, D. P., Kuklinski, J. H., Lupia, A. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2011: 102–114
  • Facing the Democratic Challenge edited by Sniderman, P. M., Highton, B. H. Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press. 2011
  • Democracy, Diversity, and Leadership Domestic Perspectives on Contemporary Democracy Sniderman, P. M. edited by Narduli, P. F. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. 2008
  • An Institutional Theory of Political Choice The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior Sniderman, P. M., Levendusky, M. S. edited by Dalton, R. J., Klingemann, H. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008: 437–456
  • Race and the Moral Character of the Modern American Experience FORUM-A JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN CONTEMPORARY POLITICS Sniderman, P. M., Stiglitz, E. H. 2008; 6 (4)
  • When Ways of Life Collide Sniderman, P. M., Hagendoorn, L. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 2007
  • The limits of deliberative discussion: A model of everyday political arguments JOURNAL OF POLITICS Jackman, S., Sniderman, P. M. 2006; 68 (2): 272-283
  • Informational Rhythms of Incumbent-­‐Dominated Congressional Elections Capturing Campaign Effects Sniderman, P. M. edited by Brady, H. E., Johnston, R. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 2006
  • Two Theories of Self Censorship Academic Freeedom at the Dawn of a New Century Sniderman, P. M. edited by Gerstmann, E., Streb, M. J. Stanford, Ca.: Stanford University Press. 2006
  • Predisposing factors and situational triggers: Exclusionary reactions to immigrant minorities AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW Sniderman, P. M., Hagendoorn, L., Prior, M. 2004; 98 (1): 35-49
  • Het Conformisme Effect Sociale Hagendoorn, L., Sniderman, P. 2004
  • Consistency Theory of Public Opinion and Political Choice: The Hypothesis of Menu Dependence Studies in Public Opinion Sniderman, P. M., Bullock, J. G. edited by Saris, W., Sniderman, P. M. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2004
  • The Structure of Political Argument and the Logic of Issue Framing Studies in Public Opinion Sniderman, P. M., Theriault, S. M. edited by Saris, W., Sniderman, P. M. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2004
  • Predispositional Factors and Situational Triggers: Exclusionary Reactions to Immigrant Minorities American Political Science Review Sniderman, P. M., Hagendoorn, L., Prior, M. 2004; 98: 35-50
  • Studies in Public Opinion: Attitudes, Nonattitudes, Measurement Error, and Change edited by Saris, W. E., Sniderman, P. M. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 2004
  • De Moeizame Acceptatie Van Mosilims in Nederland Mens and Maatschappij Sniderman, P. M., Hagendoorn, L., Prior, M. 2003; 78: 199-218
  • Black Pride and Black Prejudice Sniderman, P. M., Piazza, T. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 2002
  • La démocratie à l'épreuve. Une nouvelle approche de l'opinion des Français edited by Grunberg, G., Mayer, N., Sniderman, P. M. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po. 2002
  • The Structure of Racial Attitudes: Issue Pluralism and the Changing American Dilemma Understanding Public Opinion Carmines, E. G., Sniderman, P. M. edited by Norrander, B., Wilcox, C. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. 2002
  • The Institutional Organization of Choice Spaces: A Political Conception of Political Psychology Political Psychology Jackman, S., Sniderman, P. M. edited by Monroe, K. Mahway, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. 2002
  • Pluralistic Intolerance, Political Culture and Democratic Theory Democracy Under Strain Sniderman, P. M., Jackman, S. edited by Grunber, G., Mayer, N. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po. 2002
  • Democratic Discussion: The Role of Reasons and Political Sophistication in Political Argument Democracy Under Strain Sniderman, P. M., Jackam, S. edited by Grunber, G., Mayer, N. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po. 2002
  • Experimenting with a national sample: a Dutch survey of prejudice PATTERNS OF PREJUDICE Hagendoorn, L., SNIDERMAN, P. 2001; 35 (4): 19-31
  • Blatant and subtle prejudice: dimensions, determinants, and consequences; some comments on Pettigrew and Meertens EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Coenders, M., Scheepers, P., Sniderman, P. M., Verberk, G. 2001; 31 (3): 281-297
  • The Future of Racial Politics: Beyond Fatalism The State of Democracy in America Carmines, E. G., Sniderman, P. M. edited by Crotty, W. J. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. 2001
  • Experiment with a National Sample: A Dutch Survey of Prejudice Patterns of Prejudice Hagendoorn, L., Sniderman, P. M. 2001; 35: 19-32
  • ublic Opinion and Democratic Politics: The Problem of Non-­‐attitudes and Social Construction of Political Judgment Citizens and Politics: Perspectives From Political Psychology Sniderman, P. M., Tetlock, P. E., Elms, L., Kuklinski, J. H. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2001: 254–84
  • The politics of race National Conference on Race in Mass Politics in America Sniderman, P. M., Crosby, G. C., HOWELL, W. G. UNIV CHICAGO PRESS. 2000: 236-?
  • Taking Sides: A Fixed Choice Theory of Political Reasoning Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality Sniderman, P. M., Lupia, A., McCubbins, M. D., Popkin, S. L. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2000
  • The Politics of Race Racialized Politics: The Debate About Racism in America Sniderman, P. M., Crosby, G. C., Howell, W. G. edited by Sears, D. O., Sidanius, J., Bobo, L. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2000: 236-­‐279
  • The Outsider: Prejudice and Politics in Italy Sniderman, P. M., Peri, P., de Figuerido, R., Piazza, T. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2000
  • The empirical dimensionality of racial stereotypes PUBLIC OPINION QUARTERLY Levine, J., Carmines, E. G., Sniderman, P. M. 1999; 63 (3): 371-384
  • Dynamics of Political Values: Education and Issues of Tolerance Education and Racism: A Cross-­‐National Inventory of the Positive Effects of Education on Ethnic Tolerance Sniderman, P. M., Gould, E. edited by Hagendoorn, L., Nekuee, S. Aldershot: Ashgate. 1999: 137–162
  • The Moral Basis of a Color-­‐Blind Politics The African-­‐American Predicament Sniderman, P. M., Carmines, E. G. edited by Foreman, C. H. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. 1999
  • Essai Sur Differentes Interpretations du Facteur Racial Dans Le Systeme Politique American Aujourd'Hui Revue Francaise de Science Politique Sniderman, P. M., Carmines, E. G., Howell, W. G., Morgan, W. 1999; 46: 265-293
  • Affirmative action and the politics of realignment BRITISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE GILENS, M., Sniderman, P. M., KUKLINSKI, J. H. 1998; 28: 159-183
  • Incorporating Experiments into Computer Assisted Surveys Computer Assisted Survey Information Collection Piazza, T., Sniderman, P. M., Couper, M. P., Baker, R. P., Bethlehem, J., Clark, C. Z., Martin, J., Nicholls, W. L., O'Reill, J. M. New York, John Wiley and Sons. 1998
  • Prejudice and Politics: An Intellectual Biography of a Research Project Perception and Prejudice Sniderman, P. M., Piazza, T., Harvey, H. edited by Hurwitz, J., Peffley, M. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. 1998
  • Une Approche Experimentale aux Etats-­‐Unis Le Monde Sniderman, P. M. 1998
  • Reaching beyond race PS-POLITICAL SCIENCE & POLITICS Sniderman, P. M., Carmines, E. G. 1997; 30 (3): 466-471
  • Racial prejudice and attitudes toward affirmative action AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE KUKLINSKI, J. H., Sniderman, P. M., Knight, K., Piazza, T., Tetlock, P. E., Lawrence, G. R., Mellers, B. 1997; 41 (2): 402-419
  • Racial stereotypes and whites' political views of blacks in the context of welfare and crime AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Peffley, M., Hurwitz, J., Sniderman, P. M. 1997; 41 (1): 30-60
  • Racial Attitudes Toward Affirmative Action American Journal of Political Science Kuklinski, J. H., Sniderman, P. M., Knight, K., Piazza, T., Tetlock, P. E., Lawrence, G. R., Mellers, B. 1997; 41: 402-419
  • Reaching Beyond Race Sniderman, P. M., Carmines, E. G. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 1997
  • Beyond race: Social justice as a race neutral ideal AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Sniderman, P. M., Carmines, E. G., Layman, G. C., Carter, M. 1996; 40 (1): 33-55
  • Innovations in experimental design in attitude surveys ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY Sniderman, P. M., Grob, D. B. 1996; 22: 377-399
  • The Clash of Rights: Liberty, Equality, and Legitimacy in Pluralist Democracies Sniderman, P. M., Flecher, J. E., Russell, P., Tetlock, P. E. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. 1996
  • Political Persuasion edited by Mutz, D., Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press. 1996
  • EVALUATION STANDARDS FOR A SLOW-MOVING SCIENCE PS-POLITICAL SCIENCE & POLITICS Sniderman, P. M. 1995; 28 (3): 464-467
  • COMMENTARY - BURDEN OF PROOF POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY Sniderman, P. M. 1994; 15 (3): 541-545
  • Sidney Verba: An Intellectual Biography PS: Political Science and Politics Sniderman, P. M. 1994; 27: 574-579
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS OF PREJUDICE - THE CASE OF ANTI-SEMITISM IN QUEBEC CANADIAN REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE SOCIOLOGIE ET D ANTHROPOLOGIE Sniderman, P. M., Northrup, D. A., Fletcher, J. F., Russell, P. H., Tetlock, P. E. 1993; 30 (2): 242-270
  • The Scar of Race Sniderman, P. M., Piazza, T. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 1993
  • The New Look in Public Opinion Research The State of The Discipline II Sniderman, P. M. edited by Finifter, A. ashington, D.C.: The American Political Science Association. 1993
  • Racism and Liberal Democracy Politics and the Individual Sniderman, P. M. 1993; 3: 1-28
  • The Politics of the American Dilemma: Issue Pluralism Prejudice, Politics and the American Dilemma Sniderman, P. M., Tetlock, P. E., Carmines, E. G., Peterson, R. S. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. 1993: 212–236
  • Prejudice, Politics and the American Dilemma edited by Sniderma, P. M., Tetlock, P. E., Carmines, E. G. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1993
  • Prejudice and Politics: An Introduction Prejudice, Politics and the American Dilemma Sniderman, P. M., Tetlock, P. E., Carmines, E. G. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. 1993: 1–31
  • THE FALLACY OF DEMOCRATIC ELITISM - ELITE COMPETITION AND COMMITMENT TO CIVIL-LIBERTIES BRITISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Sniderman, P. M., Fletcher, J. F., Russell, P. H., Tetlock, P. E., Gaines, B. J. 1991; 21: 349-370
  • THE NEW RACISM AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Sniderman, P. M., Piazza, T., Tetlock, P. E., Kendrick, A. 1991; 35 (2): 423-447
  • Reasoning and Choice: Explorations in Political Psychology Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A., Tetlock, P. E. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1991
  • Ideologogy and Issue Persuasibility: the Role of Law as a Persuasive Symbol Reasoning and Choice: Explorations in Political Psychology Sniderman, P. M., Piazza, T., Kendrick, A., Brody, R. A., Tetlock, P. E. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1991
  • Ideological Reasoning Reasoning and Choice: Explorations in Political Psychology Sniderman, P. M., Chubb, J. E., Hagen, M. G., Brody, R. A., Tetlock, P. E. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1991
  • The American Dilemma: The Role of Law as a Persuasive Symbol Reasoning and Choice: Explorations in Political Psychology Sniderman, P. M., Piazza, T., Tetlock, P. E., Feld, P. J., Brody, R. A. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1991
  • STRATEGIC CALCULATION AND POLITICAL VALUES - THE DYNAMICS OF LANGUAGE RIGHTS - REPLY CANADIAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE-REVUE CANADIENNE DE SCIENCE POLITIQUE Sniderman, P. M., Fletcher, J. F., Russell, P. H., Tetlock, P. E. 1990; 23 (3): 537-544
  • Information and Electoral Choice Information and Democratic Politics Sniderman, P. M., Griffin, R., Glaser, J. M. edited by Ferejohn, J. A., Kuklinski, J. H. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. 1990: 117–135
  • POLITICAL-CULTURE AND THE PROBLEM OF DOUBLE STANDARDS - MASS AND ELITE ATTITUDES TOWARD LANGUAGE RIGHTS IN THE CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS CANADIAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE-REVUE CANADIENNE DE SCIENCE POLITIQUE Sniderman, P. M., Fletcher, J. F., Russell, P. H., Tetlock, P. E. 1989; 22 (2): 259-284
  • PRINCIPLED TOLERANCE AND THE AMERICAN MASS PUBLIC BRITISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Sniderman, P. M., Tetlock, P. E., GLASER, J. M., Green, D. P., HOUT, M. 1989; 19: 25-45
  • Principled Tolerance and American Political Values British Journal of Political Science Sniderman, P. M., Telock, P. E., Glaser, J. M., Green, D., Hout, M. 1989; 19: 25-46
  • Analysis of the Dynamics of Political Reasoning: A General Purpose Computer-­‐Assisted Methodology Political Analysis Piazza, T., Sniderman, P. M., Tetlock, P. E. edited by Stimson, J. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press. 1989: 99–120
  • REASONING CHAINS - CAUSAL-MODELS OF POLICY REASONING IN MASS PUBLICS BRITISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Sniderman, P. M., Hagen, M. G., Tetlock, P. E., BRADY, H. E. 1986; 16: 405-430
  • REFLECTIONS ON AMERICAN-RACISM JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES Sniderman, P. M., Tetlock, P. E. 1986; 42 (2): 173-187
  • Public Opinion and Political Ideology Handbook of Political Psychology Sniderman, P. M., Tetlock, P. E. edited by Hermann, M. San Francisco: Jossey-­‐Bass. 1986: 62–96
  • SYMBOLIC RACISM - PROBLEMS OF MOTIVE ATTRIBUTION IN POLITICAL-ANALYSIS JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES Sniderman, P. M., Tetlock, P. E. 1986; 42 (2): 129-150
  • ATTITUDE ATTRIBUTION - A GROUP BASIS FOR POLITICAL REASONING AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW BRADY, H. E., Sniderman, P. M. 1985; 79 (4): 1061-1078
  • Race and Inequality: A Study in American Values Sniderman, P. M., Hagan, M. G. Chatham, N.J.: Chatham House. 1985
  • POLICY REASONING AND POLITICAL VALUES - THE PROBLEM OF RACIAL EQUALITY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A., KUKLINSKI, J. H. 1984; 28 (1): 75-94
  • Policy Reasoning in Political Issues: The Problem of Racial Equality American Journal of Political Science Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A., Kuklinski, J. H. 1984; 28: 75-94
  • Evaluation Bias and Issue Proximity Political Behavior Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A., Siegel, J. W., Tannenbaum, P. H. 1982; 4: 115-131
  • A Question of Loyalty Sniderman, P. M. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1981
  • POLITICS OF FAITH BRITISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Sniderman, P. M. 1978; 8 (JAN): 21-44
  • LIFE SPACE TO POLLING PLACE - RELEVANCE OF PERSONAL CONCERNS FOR VOTING-BEHAVIOR BRITISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Brody, R. A., Sniderman, P. M. 1977; 7 (JUL): 337-360
  • Coping: The ethic of self-­‐reliance American Journal of Political Science Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A. 1977; 21: 501-521
  • COPING - ETHIC OF SELF-RELIANCE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A. 1977; 21 (3): 501-521
  • The politics of faith British Journal of Political Science Sniderman, P. M. 1977; 7: 21-44
  • STABILITY OF SUPPORT FOR POLITICAL-SYSTEM - INITIAL IMPACT OF WATERGATE AMERICAN POLITICS QUARTERLY Sniderman, P. M., Neuman, W. R., CITRIN, J., MCCLOSKY, H., SHANKS, J. M. 1975; 3 (4): 437-457
  • Personality and Democratic Politics Sniderman, P. M. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1975
  • Personal and political sources of political alientation British Journal of Political Science Citrin, J., McClosky, H., Shanks, J. M., Sniderman, P. M. 1975; 5: 1-31
  • The stability of support for the political system: The impact of Watergate American Politics Quarterly Sniderman, P. M., Neuman, W. R., Citrin, J., McClosky, H., Shanks, J. M. 1975; 3: 437-457
  • PARTY LOYALTY AND ELECTORAL VOLATILITY - STUDY OF CANADIAN PARTY SYSTEM CANADIAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE-REVUE CANADIENNE DE SCIENCE POLITIQUE SNIDERMA, P. M., Forbes, H. D., Melzer, I. 1974; 7 (2): 268-288
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL SOURCES OF POLITICAL BELIEF - SELF-ESTEEM AND ISOLATIONIST ATTITUDES AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW SNIDERMA, P. M., CITRIN, J. 1971; 65 (2): 401-?