Thyroid Cancer Incidence Trends Among Filipinos in the United States.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze thyroid cancer incidence trends among Filipinos relative to non-Filipino Asians and non-Hispanic Whites in the US.STUDY DESIGN: Population-based analysis of cancer incidence data.METHODS: Population-based analysis of cancer incidence data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 detailed Asian/Pacific Islander subgroup incidence and population datasets. Adult patients aged 20 and older with thyroid cancer diagnosed in 2004 to 2014 were included. Annual percent change (APC) of the incidence rates were calculated using joinpoint regression analysis.RESULTS: The incidence rates were 19.57 (95% CI 19.03-20.12) per 100,000 for Filipinos, 10.45 (95% CI 10.22-10.68) per 100,000 for non-Filipino Asians, and 13.94 (95% CI 13.85-14.02) per 100,000 for non-Hispanic Whites. The highest increase was seen among non-Hispanic Whites (average APC 5.04, 95% CI 4.61-5.46). Incidence rates of tumors≤2cm remained stable among Filipinos but increased in non-Filipino Asians (average APC 5.38, 95% CI 2.51-8.34) and non-Hispanic Whites (average APC 5.81 95% CI 4.52-7.11).CONCLUSION: Filipinos have high incidence of thyroid cancer compared with other racial/ethnic groups. However, non-Hispanic Whites have the highest increase in incidence rates, resulting in a significant narrowing of the gap in incidence rates between Filipinos and non-Hispanic Whites. This is most likely due to enhanced detection of small tumors in non-Hispanic Whites. Laryngoscope, 2021.
View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.29986
View details for PubMedID 34910822
MRI Correlates of Ototoxicity in the Auditory Pathway in Children Treated for Medulloblastoma.
Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
OBJECTIVE: To assess diffusion and perfusion changes of the auditory pathway in pediatric medulloblastoma patients exposed to ototoxic therapies.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.SETTING: A single academic tertiary children's hospital.PATIENTS: Twenty pediatric medulloblastoma patients (13 men; mean age 12.0 ± 4.8 yr) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiation and 18 age-and-sex matched controls were included. Ototoxicity scores were determined using Chang Ototoxicity Grading Scale.INTERVENTIONS: Three Tesla magnetic resonance was used for diffusion tensor and arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantitative diffusion tensor metrics were extracted from the Heschl's gyrus, auditory radiation, and inferior colliculus. Arterial spin labeling perfusion of the Heschl's gyrus was also examined.RESULTS: Nine patients had clinically significant hearing loss, or Chang grades more than or equal to 2a; 11 patients had mild/no hearing loss, or Chang grades less than 2a. The clinically significant hearing loss group showed reduced mean diffusivity in the Heschl's gyrus (p = 0.018) and auditory radiation (p = 0.037), and decreased perfusion in the Heschl's gyrus (p = 0.001). Mild/no hearing loss group showed reduced mean diffusivity (p = 0.036) in Heschl's gyrus only, with a decrease in perfusion (p = 0.008). There were no differences between groups in the inferior colliculus. There was no difference in fractional anisotropy between patients exposed to ototoxic therapies and controls.CONCLUSIONS: Patients exposed to ototoxic therapies demonstrated microstructural and physiological alteration of the auditory pathway. The present study shows proof-of-concept use of diffusion tensor imaging to gauge ototoxicity along the auditory pathway. Future larger cohort studies are needed to assess significance of changes in diffusion tensor imaging longitudinally, and the relationship between these changes and hearing loss severity and longitudinal changes of the developing auditory white matter.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003336
View details for PubMedID 34739428
Restoring metabolism of myeloid cells reverses cognitive decline in ageing.
Ageing is characterized by the development of persistent pro-inflammatory responses that contribute to atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, cancer and frailty1-3. The ageing brain is also vulnerable to inflammation, as demonstrated by the high prevalence of age-associated cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease4-6. Systemically, circulating pro-inflammatory factors can promote cognitive decline7,8, and in the brain, microglia lose the ability to clear misfolded proteins that are associated with neurodegeneration9,10. However, the underlying mechanisms that initiate and sustain maladaptive inflammation with ageing are not well defined. Here we show that in ageing mice myeloid cell bioenergetics are suppressed in response to increased signalling by the lipid messenger prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major modulator of inflammation11. In ageing macrophages and microglia, PGE2 signalling through its EP2 receptor promotes the sequestration of glucose into glycogen, reducing glucose flux and mitochondrial respiration. This energy-deficient state, which drives maladaptive pro-inflammatory responses, is further augmented by a dependence of aged myeloid cells on glucose as a principal fuel source. In aged mice, inhibition of myeloid EP2 signalling rejuvenates cellular bioenergetics, systemic and brain inflammatory states, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. Moreover, blockade of peripheral myeloid EP2 signalling is sufficient to restore cognition in aged mice. Our study suggests that cognitive ageing is not a static or irrevocable condition but can be reversed by reprogramming myeloid glucose metabolism to restore youthful immune functions.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-03160-0
View details for PubMedID 33473210
Parotid gland incidentalomas: A single-institution experience.
American journal of otolaryngology
2021; 43 (2): 103296
Parotid gland incidentaloma (PGI) management has not been well characterized in the literature. This study assesses clinicopathologic features, initial evaluation, management, and outcomes of PGIs discovered on various imaging modalities.This is a retrospective case series from a single academic institution. The study cohort included 34 patients with parotid gland incidentalomas discovered between January 2009 and December 2019.Parotid gland incidentalomas were most frequently identified on magnetic resonance imaging (16 patients, 47.1%). Most patients (26 patients, 76.5%) underwent further evaluation with subsequent imaging, most often magnetic resonance imaging (18 patients, 69.2%), and fine needle aspiration biopsy (33 patients, 97.1%). Most tumors were benign on fine needle aspiration biopsy (19 patients, 57.6%). Most cases (21 patients, 61.8%) were managed with observation without parotidectomy. Malignant findings on fine needle aspiration cytology were associated with increased likelihood of undergoing parotidectomy (25% vs 0%; p = 0.04). Among the patients who received a parotidectomy, most (8 patients, 61.5%) had benign findings on final histopathology.Parotid gland incidentalomas were discovered across a diverse set of imaging modalities in our institution. Magnetic resonance imaging and fine needle aspiration were often performed for further evaluation. Most cases were found to be benign on fine needle aspiration and were managed with observation. These findings highlight the necessity of appropriate work-up for these tumors, and the need for shared decision making between the patient and the physician in selecting the appropriate treatment strategy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjoto.2021.103296
View details for PubMedID 34894452
Cerebral volume and diffusion MRI changes in children with sensorineural hearing loss.
2020; 27: 102328
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is the most prevalent congenital sensory deficit in children. Information regarding underlying brain microstructure could offer insight into neural development in deaf children and potentially guide therapies that optimize language development. We sought to quantitatively evaluate MRI-based cerebral volume and gray matter microstructure children with SNHL.We conducted a retrospective study of children with SNHL who obtained brain MRI at 3 T. The study cohort comprised 63 children with congenital SNHL without known focal brain lesion or structural abnormality (33 males; mean age 5.3 years; age range 1 to 11.8 years) and 64 age-matched controls without neurological, developmental, or MRI-based brain macrostructure abnormality. An atlas-based analysis was used to extract quantitative volume and median diffusivity (ADC) in the following brain regions: cerebral cortex, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, brain stem, and cerebral white matter. SNHL patients were further stratified by severity scores and hearing loss etiology.Children with SNHL showed higher median ADC of the cortex (p = .019), thalamus (p < .001), caudate (p = .005), and brainstem (p = .003) and smaller brainstem volumes (p = .007) compared to controls. Patients with profound bilateral SNHL did not show any significant differences compared to patients with milder bilateral SNHL, but both cohorts independently had smaller brainstem volumes compared to controls. Children with unilateral SNHL showed greater amygdala volumes compared to controls (p = .021), but no differences were found comparing unilateral SNHL to bilateral SNHL. Based on etiology for SNHL, patients with Pendrin mutations showed higher ADC values in the brainstem (p = .029, respectively); patients with Connexin 26 showed higher ADC values in both the thalamus (p < .001) and brainstem (p < .001) compared to controls.SNHL patients showed significant differences in diffusion and volume in brain subregions, with region-specific findings for patients with Connexin 26 and Pendrin mutations. Future longitudinal studies could examine macro- and microstructure changes in children with SNHL over development and potential predictive role for MRI after interventions including cochlear implant outcome.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102328
View details for PubMedID 32622314
Association of Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome With Microstructural Differences in Brain Regions Detected via Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging
JAMA Network Open
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.4063
Significance of Nodal Metastasis in Parotid Gland Acinar Cell Carcinoma
View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.28966
- Revisiting IDO and its value as a predictive marker for anti-PD-1 resistance JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2019; 17
- Macrophage de novo NAD(+) synthesis specifies immune function in aging and inflammation NATURE IMMUNOLOGY 2019; 20 (1): 50-+
- Reexamining IFN-gamma Stimulation of De Novo NAD+ in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRYPTOPHAN RESEARCH 2018; 11
Reevaluating the role of IDO1: Examining NAD+ metabolism in inflammation
Journal of Neuroimmunology
2017; 307: 31-32
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.03.016
- Teasing apart NAD(+) metabolism in inflammation: commentary on Zhou et al. (2016). Br J Pharmacol 173: 2352-2368. British journal of pharmacology 2017; 174 (3): 281–83