Academic Appointments

All Publications

  • Mindfulness and Balanced Time Perspective: Predictive Model of Psychological Well-Being and Gender Differences in College Students. European journal of investigation in health, psychology and education Fuentes, A., Oyanadel, C., Zimbardo, P., Gonzalez-Loyola, M., Olivera-Figueroa, L. A., Penate, W. 2022; 12 (3): 306-318


    BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to establish an adjustment model to analyze the relationship among mindfulness, balanced time perspective (BTP) and psychological well-being (PWB) in college students and to explore gender differences among the variables.METHOD: The sample consisted of 380 college students, 220 women and 160 men, uniformly distributed according to the university's faculties.RESULTS: The results indicate that the synergy between mindfulness and BTP predicts the variance of PWB by 55%. Regarding gender differences, it was found that women have a greater tendency towards Past Positive than men and men a higher tendency towards Present Hedonistic than women. In addition, in the group of women, a stronger relationship was found among the variables and, consequently, a greater predictive value for PWB (58%), displaying an enhanced disposition to high PWB compared to men.CONCLUSIONS: Together, mindfulness and BTP promote optimal psychological functioning and alleviate or reduce discomfort. Thus, their promotion and training in universities is especially important given the high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in college students.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ejihpe12030022

    View details for PubMedID 35323208

  • Dispositional Self-Consciousness and Hypnotizability. The International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis Cardena, E., Lindstrom, L., Astrom, A., Zimbardo, P. G. 2021: 1-12


    The abeyance of self-consciousness (SC) during hypnosis has been discussed as a central aspect of hypnosis, yet dispositional SC has been very rarely evaluated as a correlate of hypnotizability. In this study (N = 328), the authors administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS), the Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth (ISHD), and the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised (SCS-R). Women tended to score higher than men on the HGSHS, besides experiencing greater ISHD automaticity. The Discontinuity (with everyday experiences) subscale of the ISHD correlated with the Public Self-Consciousness scale of the SCS-R and with the Private Self-Consciousness subscale (using simple, quadratic, and cubic regressions). Being concerned about the perception of others related to experiencing hypnosis as discontinuous with everyday life, which also related to being more introspective and interested in subjectivity at the middle range of scores. The article concludes with suggestions on how to pursue the implications of these results, including testing for nonlinear relations.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/00207144.2022.2003695

    View details for PubMedID 34806558

  • Continuing to acknowledge the power of dehumanizing environments: Comment on Haslam et al. (2019) and Le Texier (2019). The American psychologist Zimbardo, P. G., Haney, C. 2020; 75 (3): 400–402


    Decades after it was conducted, the Stanford Prison Experiment endures as a classic, dramatic demonstration of the potentially destructive psychological dynamics that can be created when one group of people is given nearly total power over a group of derogated others in a powerful, dehumanizing environment such as prison. The authors of the study value the intellectually engaged alternative perspectives that continue to be used to discuss its unsettling results but reject those that are ad hominem, misleading, inaccurate, and unscientific. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

    View details for DOI 10.1037/amp0000593

    View details for PubMedID 32250143

  • New perspectives on time perspective and temporal focus JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Levasseur, L., Shipp, A. J., Fried, Y., Rousseau, D. M., Zimbardo, P. G. 2020; 41 (3): 235–43

    View details for DOI 10.1002/job.2435

    View details for Web of Science ID 000517995300001

  • How Orwell's 1984 Has Influenced Rev. Jim Jones to Dominate and Then Destroy His Followers: With Extensions to Current Political Leaders PEACE AND CONFLICT-JOURNAL OF PEACE PSYCHOLOGY Zimbardo, P. G. 2020; 26 (1): 4–8

    View details for DOI 10.1037/pac0000428

    View details for Web of Science ID 000512328300002

  • The structure of time perspective: Age-related differences in Poland TIME & SOCIETY Sobol-Kwapinska, M., Przepiorka, A., Zimbardo, P. P. 2019; 28 (1): 5–32
  • What Is the Structure of Time? A Study on Time Perspective in the United States, Poland, and Nigeria. Frontiers in psychology Sobol-Kwapińska, M., Jankowski, T., Przepiorka, A., Oinyshi, I., Sorokowski, P., Zimbardo, P. 2018; 9: 2078


    The aim of this article was to analyze the fit of the model of time perspective, measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; Zimbardo and Boyd, 1999), to data collected in three countries: the United States (N = 283), Poland (N = 510), and Nigeria (N = 357). Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, an expected parameter change and parallel analysis were used. The best-fitted model of time perspective was the one in the United States, and the least fitted model was the one in Nigeria. Possible sources of misspecifications in the model of time perspective were discussed. We also present an analysis of the fit of the four-factor model of time perspective. The four-factor model was very well fitted in the United States and in Poland. Results were discussed in the context of clock time and event time theory.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02078

    View details for PubMedID 30443231

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6221929

  • What Is the Structure of Time? A Study on Time Perspective in the United States, Poland, and Nigeria FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY Sobol-Kwapinska, M., Jankowski, T., Przepiorka, A., Oinyshi, I., Sorokowski, P., Zimbardo, P. 2018; 9
  • Dealing with toxic behaviour PSYCHOLOGIST Haney, C., Haslam, A., Reicher, S., Zimbardo, P., Wilde, J. 2018; 31: 2–3
  • Smooth tracking of visual targets distinguishes lucid REM sleep dreaming and waking perception from imagination. Nature communications LaBerge, S., Baird, B., Zimbardo, P. G. 2018; 9 (1): 3298


    Humans are typically unable to engage in sustained smooth pursuit for imagined objects. However, it is unknown to what extent smooth tracking occurs for visual imagery during REM sleep dreaming. Here we examine smooth pursuit eye movements during tracking of a slow-moving visual target during lucid dreams in REM sleep. Highly similar smooth pursuit tracking was observed during both waking perception and lucid REM sleep dreaming, in contrast to the characteristically saccadic tracking observed during visuomotor imagination. Our findings suggest that, in this respect, the visual imagery that occurs during REM sleep is more similar to perception than imagination. The data also show that the neural circuitry of smooth pursuit can be driven by a visual percept in the absence of retinal stimulation and that specific voluntary shifts in the direction of experienced gaze within REM sleep dreams are accompanied by corresponding rotations of the physical eyes.

    View details for PubMedID 30120229

  • Heroism Research: A Review of Theories, Methods, Challenges, and Trends JOURNAL OF HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY Franco, Z. E., Allison, S. T., Kinsella, E. L., Kohen, A., Langdon, M., Zimbardo, P. G. 2018; 58 (4): 382–96
  • How Compulsive Buying Is Influenced by Time Perspective-Cross-Cultural Evidence from Germany, Ukraine, and China INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH AND ADDICTION Unger, A., Lyu, H., Zimbardo, P. G. 2018; 16 (3): 525–44
  • On the dynamics of disobedience: experimental investigations of defying unjust authority. Psychology research and behavior management Bocchiaro, P., Zimbardo, P. 2017; 10: 219-229


    Across six Experimental conditions with university student participants (N=600), we examined some of the dynamics underlying expressed defiance to unjust authority. Results revealed disobedience was best enacted by participants low in right-wing authoritarianism and was more likely to occur when: 1) in physical proximity of other rebels, 2) the authority made two demanding requests instead of one, and 3) there had been an earlier opposition to injustice. Results are discussed within the theoretical framework of bounded rationality.

    View details for DOI 10.2147/PRBM.S135094

    View details for PubMedID 28761383

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5518916

  • The process of desistance among core ex-gang members. The American journal of orthopsychiatry Berger, R., Abu-Raiya, H., Heineberg, Y., Zimbardo, P. 2017; 87 (4): 487-502


    Research has established robust links between gang membership, delinquency, violence and victimization. Yet studies examining the process of gang desistance in general and that of core gang members in particular, are quite rare. The current study aims to identify factors associated with desistance of core gang members as well as describe the nature of the process that these "formers" have undergone. Thirty-nine core ex-gang members (80% males and 20% females) from the San Francisco Bay area and Los Angeles, with an average length of 11.6-years gang membership, were interviewed regarding their involvement in the gang and the desistance process. A systematic qualitative analysis based on grounded theory methodology was mainly utilized. We found that the decision to leave the gang is a result of a combination of push (e.g., personal and vicarious victimization, burnout of gang lifestyle, disillusionment by the gang) and pull (e.g., parenthood, family responsibilities, religious and cultural awakening) factors that evolved over time. Push factors were more dominant in this domain. We also found that while male core ex-gang members tended to leave the gang more frequently because of push factors, female ex-gang members were more inclined to desist due to pull factors. Our analysis also showed that core gang members shared a general pattern of the desistance process comprising of the following 5 stages: triggering, contemplation, exploration, exiting and maintenance. Based on these results, we outlined stage-specific recommendations for agents of societal change to help in facilitating the desistance of core gang members. (PsycINFO Database Record

    View details for DOI 10.1037/ort0000196

    View details for PubMedID 27243575

  • The paradoxical effect of climate on time perspective considering resource accumulation BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES Orosz, G., Zimbardo, P. G., Bothe, B., Toth-Kiraly, I. 2017; 40: e92


    Considering purely climate, southern countries are less harsh and more predictable than northern countries. From a historical perspective, freezing winters resulting in fewer available resources contribute to the development of strong future orientation. The paradox is that future orientation contributes to accumulation of resources in the long run, making individuals' immediate living conditions less harsh, leading to slower life strategies.

    View details for PubMedID 29342550

  • Carrying on Kurt Lewin's Legacy in Many Current Domains Lewin Award 2015 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES Zimbardo, P. G. 2016; 72 (4): 828-838

    View details for DOI 10.1111/josi.12196

    View details for Web of Science ID 000390390800011

  • Academic cheating and time perspective: Cheaters live in the present instead of the future LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Orosz, G., Dombi, E., Toth-Kiraly, I., Bothe, B., Jagodics, B., Zimbardo, P. G. 2016; 52: 39-45
  • A School-Based Intervention for Reducing Posttraumatic Symptomatology and Intolerance During Political Violence JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Berger, R., Gelkopf, M., Heineberg, Y., Zimbardo, P. 2016; 108 (6): 761-771

    View details for DOI 10.1037/edu0000066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000383098800001

  • Social Representations of Hero and Everyday Hero: A Network Study from Representative Samples. PloS one Keczer, Z., File, B., Orosz, G., Zimbardo, P. G. 2016; 11 (8)


    The psychological investigation of heroism is relatively new. At this stage, inductive methods can shed light on its main aspects. Therefore, we examined the social representations of Hero and Everyday Hero by collecting word associations from two separate representative samples in Hungary. We constructed two networks from these word associations. The results show that the social representation of Hero is more centralized and it cannot be divided into smaller units. The network of Everyday Hero is divided into five units and the significance moves from abstract hero characteristics to concrete social roles and occupations exhibiting pro-social values. We also created networks from the common associations of Hero and Everyday Hero. The structures of these networks show a moderate similarity and the connections are more balanced in case of Everyday Hero. While heroism in general can be the source of inspiration, the promotion of everyday heroism can be more successful in encouraging ordinary people to recognize their own potential for heroic behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0159354

    View details for PubMedID 27525418

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4985139

  • ADHD and Present Hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISEASE AND TREATMENT Weissenberger, S., Klicperova-Baker, M., Zimbardo, P., Schonova, K., Akotia, D., Kostal, J., Goetz, M., Raboch, J., Ptacek, R. 2016; 12: 2963-2971


    The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo's time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool - the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD.

    View details for DOI 10.2147/NDT.S116721

    View details for Web of Science ID 000387818400004

    View details for PubMedID 27895485

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5118029

  • Culture, militarism, and America's heroic future CULTURE & PSYCHOLOGY Zimbardo, P. G., Breckenridge, J. N., Moghaddam, F. M. 2015; 21 (4): 505-514
  • Multiple Facets of Compassion: The Impact of Social Dominance Orientation and Economic Systems Justification JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS Martin, D., Seppala, E., Heineberg, Y., Rossomando, T., Doty, J., Zimbardo, P., Shiue, T., Berger, R., Zhou, Y. 2015; 129 (1): 237-249
  • Social intensity syndrome: The development and validation of the social intensity syndrome scale PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Zimbardo, P. G., Ferreras, A. C., Brunskill, S. R. 2015; 73: 17-23
  • How We Feel is a Matter of Time: Relationships Between Time Perspectives and Mood JOURNAL OF HAPPINESS STUDIES Stolarski, M., Matthews, G., Postek, S., Zimbardo, P. G., Bitner, J. 2014; 15 (4): 809-827
  • Time Perspective Therapy: A New Time-Based Metaphor Therapy for PTSD JOURNAL OF LOSS & TRAUMA Sword, R. M., Sword, R. K., Brunskill, S. R., Zimbardo, P. G. 2014; 19 (3): 197-201
  • Jacob Max Rabbie (1927-2013). American psychologist Stroebe, W., Zimbardo, P. G. 2014; 69 (1): 84-?


    Jacob Max Rabbie, an internationally renowned social psychologist and a founding member of the European Association of Social Psychology (EASP), died on June 29, 2013. Jaap was born in Haarlem, the Netherlands, on October 4, 1927. Jaap studied social psychology at the University of Amsterdam and became the face of Dutch social psychology. His later research focused on aggression between individuals and groups, his early work attempted to isolate the minimal conditions that suffice to generate discriminatory ingroup-outgroup attitudes. Jaap was a dedicated and passionate scientist, oriented to getting things right even when this meant going against the current stream.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0034366

    View details for PubMedID 24446847

  • Out of Mind, Out of Sight: Unexpected Scene Elements Frequently Go Unnoticed Until Primed CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY Slavich, G. M., Zimbardo, P. G. 2013; 32 (4): 301-317
  • Out of Mind, Out of Sight: Unexpected Scene Elements Frequently Go Unnoticed Until Primed. Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) Slavich, G. M., Zimbardo, P. G. 2013; 32 (4)


    The human visual system employs a sophisticated set of strategies for scanning the environment and directing attention to stimuli that can be expected given the context and a person's past experience. Although these strategies enable us to navigate a very complex physical and social environment, they can also cause highly salient, but unexpected stimuli to go completely unnoticed. To examine the generality of this phenomenon, we conducted eight studies that included 15 different experimental conditions and 1,577 participants in all. These studies revealed that a large majority of participants do not report having seen a woman in the center of an urban scene who was photographed in midair as she was committing suicide. Despite seeing the scene repeatedly, 46 % of all participants failed to report seeing a central figure and only 4.8 % reported seeing a falling person. Frequency of noticing the suicidal woman was highest for participants who read a narrative priming story that increased the extent to which she was schematically congruent with the scene. In contrast to this robust effect of inattentional blindness, a majority of participants reported seeing other peripheral objects in the visual scene that were equally difficult to detect, yet more consistent with the scene. Follow-up qualitative analyses revealed that participants reported seeing many elements that were not actually present, but which could have been expected given the overall context of the scene. Together, these findings demonstrate the robustness of inattentional blindness and highlight the specificity with which different visual primes may increase noticing behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12144-013-9184-3

    View details for PubMedID 24363542

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3865713

  • "Exclusive" and "Inclusive" Visions of Heroism and Democracy CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY Zimbardo, P. G., Breckenridge, J. N., Moghaddam, F. M. 2013; 32 (3): 221-233
  • Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW Slavich, G. M., Zimbardo, P. G. 2012; 24 (4): 569-608
  • To defy or not to defy: An experimental study of the dynamics of disobedience and whistle-blowing SOCIAL INFLUENCE Bocchiaro, P., Zimbardo, P. G., Van Lange, P. A. 2012; 7 (1): 35-50
  • A medical issue affecting the diagnosis of mood, attention and autistic disorders: a closer look at celiac disease and gluten sensitivity HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW Beaudoin, M., Zimbardo, P. G. 2012; 6 (2): 222-240
  • Time perspective, emotional intelligence and discounting of delayed awards TIME & SOCIETY Stolarski, M., Bitner, J., Zimbardo, P. G. 2011; 20 (3): 346-363
  • Heroism: A Conceptual Analysis and Differentiation Between Heroic Action and Altruism REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY Franco, Z. E., Blau, K., Zimbardo, P. G. 2011; 15 (2): 99-113

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0022672

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291184400002

  • ZTPI - Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory - Czech validization study CESKOSLOVENSKA PSYCHOLOGIE Lukavska, K., Klicperova-Baker, M., Lukavsky, J., Zimbardo, P. G. 2011; 55 (4): 356-373
  • Defying Unjust Authority: An Exploratory Study CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY Bocchiaro, P., Zimbardo, P. G. 2010; 29 (2): 155-170
  • Persistent Dispositionalism in Interactionist Clothing: Fundamental Attribution Error in Explaining Prison Abuse PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN Haney, C., Zimbardo, P. G. 2009; 35 (6): 807-814


    The Stanford Prison Experiment demonstrated some important lessons about the power of social situations, settings, and structures to shape and transform behavior. At the time the study was done, the authors scrupulously addressed the issue of whether and how the dispositions or personality traits of the participants might have affected the results. Here the authors renew and reaffirm their original interpretation of the results and apply this perspective to some recent socially and politically significant events.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0146167208322864

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265918600011

    View details for PubMedID 19398589

  • The Social Language of Time: The Time Perspective-Social Network Connection BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Holman, E. A., Zimbardo, P. G. 2009; 31 (2): 136-147
  • Corporate funding and conflicts of interest - A primer for psychologists AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Pachter, W. S., Fox, R. E., Zimbardo, P., Antonuccio, D. O. 2007; 62 (9): 1005-1015


    A presidential task force on external funding was established by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 2003 to review APA policies, procedures, and practices regarding the acceptance of funding and support from private corporations for educational and training programs; continuing education offerings; research projects; publications; advertising; scientific and professional meetings and conferences; and consulting, practice, and advocacy relationships. This article, based on the Executive Summary of the APA Task Force on External Funding Final Report, presents the findings and unanimous recommendations of the task force in the areas of association income, annual convention, research and journals, continuing education, education, practice, and conflicts of interest and ethics. The task force concluded that it is important for both APA and individual psychologists to become familiar with the challenges that corporate funding can pose to their integrity. The nature and extent of those challenges led the task force to recommend that APA develop explicit policies, educational materials, and continuing education programs to preserve the independence of psychological science, practice, and education.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0003-066X.62.9.1005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251576300004

    View details for PubMedID 18085846

  • Behavioral neuroscience, exploration, and K.C. Montgomery's legacy BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS Kalueff, A. V., Zimbardo, P. G. 2007; 53 (2): 328-331


    Exploration is a key animal and human behavior. Kay C. Montgomery (1921-1956) has made an important contribution to behavioral neuroscience of exploration, as well as motivation and learning. His works have many important applications to current experimental models of stress, fear and memory, continuing to influence research in this field. This paper, dedicated to the 85th anniversary of Montgomery's birth, and 50 years since his tragic death, summarizes Montgomery's contribution to behavioral neuroscience, and discusses its current importance for further progress in this field. It is aimed at neuroscientists with strong interests in both theory of animal exploration and motivation, and the history of behavioral neuroscience.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brainresrev.2006.09.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244552200009

    View details for PubMedID 17095097

  • On rethinking the psychology of tyranny: the BBC prison study. British journal of social psychology Zimbardo, P. G. 2006; 45: 47-53


    This commentary offers a critical evaluation of the scientific legitimacy of research generated by television programming interests. It challenges the validity of claims advanced by these researchers regarding the Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE) and highlights the biases, fallacies and distortions in this study conducted for BBC-TV that attempted a partial replication of my earlier experiment.

    View details for PubMedID 16573871

  • Does psychology make a significant difference in our lives? 2nd Stauffer Symposium on Applied Psychology Zimbardo, P. G. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC PUBL. 2006: 27–52
  • The role of moral disengagement in the execution process LAW AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR Osofsky, M. J., Bandura, A., Zimbardo, P. G. 2005; 29 (4): 371-393


    The present study tested the proposition that disengagement of moral self-sanctions enables prison personnel to carry out the death penalty. Three subgroups of personnel in penitentiaries located in three Southern states were assessed in terms of eight mechanisms of moral disengagement. The personnel included the execution teams that carry out the executions; the support teams that provide solace and emotional support to the families of the victims and the condemned inmate; and prison guards who have no involvement in the execution process. The executioners exhibited the highest level of moral, social, and economic justifications, disavowal of personal responsibility, and dehumanization. The support teams that provide the more humane services disavowed moral disengagement, as did the noninvolved guards but to a lesser degree than the support teams.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10979-005-4930-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231311400001

    View details for PubMedID 16133946

  • Optimizing the power and magic of teaching JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Zimbardo, P. G. 2005; 24 (1): 11-21
  • Does psychology make a significant difference in our lives? The American psychologist Zimbardo, P. G. 2004; 59 (5): 339-51


    The intellectual tension between the virtues of basic versus applied research that characterized an earlier era of psychology is being replaced by an appreciation of creative applications of all research essential to improving the quality of human life. Psychologists are positioned to "give psychology away" to all those who can benefit from our wisdom. Psychologists were not there 35 years ago when American Psychological Association (APA) President George Miller first encouraged us to share our knowledge with the public. The author argues that psychology is indeed making a significant difference in people's lives; this article provides a sampling of evidence demonstrating how and why psychology matters, both in pervasive ways and specific applications. Readers are referred to a newly developed APA Web site that documents current operational uses of psychological research, theory, and methodology (its creation has been the author's primary presidential initiative):

    View details for PubMedID 15511121

  • Personalizing politics - A congruency model of political preference AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Caprara, G. V., Zimbardo, P. G. 2004; 59 (7): 581-594


    Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political choice. The authors' findings reveal that people vote for candidates whose personality traits are in accordance with the ideology of their preferred political party. They also select politicians whose traits match their own traits. Moreover, voters' traits match their own values. The authors outline a congruency model of political preference that highlights the interacting congruencies among voters' self-reported traits and values, voters' perceptions of leaders' personalities, politicians' self-reported traits, and programs of favored political coalitions.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0003-066X.59.7.581

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224284200001

    View details for PubMedID 15491254

  • The power of persuasion: A field exercise TEACHING OF PSYCHOLOGY Levine, R. V., Fast, N., Zimbardo, P. 2004; 31 (2): 136-138
  • Participant self-selection biases as a function of individual differences in time perspective BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Harber, K. D., Zimbardo, P. G., Boyd, J. N. 2003; 25 (3): 255-264
  • Testing Zimbardo's Stanford Time Perspective Inventory (STPI) - Short form - An Italian study TIME & SOCIETY D'Alessio, M., Guarino, A., De Pascalis, V., Zimbardo, P. G. 2003; 12 (2-3): 333-347
  • Personalities of politicians and voters: Unique and synergistic relationships JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Caprara, G., Barbaranelli, C., Consiglio, C., Picconi, L., Zimbardo, P. G. 2003; 84 (4): 849-856


    A rare collection of personality assessments from 103 Italian politicians revealed predictable patterns of contrasts and similarities with personality dimensions from a large normative sample (N = 4,578). Three modal personality characteristics distinguished politicians, with their significantly higher levels of Energy, Agreeableness, and Social Desirability, from the general public. Comparability between politicians and the public existed on dimensions of Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Openness (Big Five Questionnaire assessment). Politicians from rival coalitions differed on several dimensions; center-right was higher than center-left in Energy and Conscientiousness. Congruencies emerged between politicians and voters for their coalition on all personality dimensions, except that center-left politicians were higher in Energy than center-left voters, and center-right politicians were higher than voters in both Energy and Agreeableness.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.849

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181864200011

    View details for PubMedID 12703652

  • Time to find the right balance PSYCHOLOGIST Boniwell, I., Zimbardo, P. 2003; 16 (3): 129-131
  • Cooperative college examinations: More gain, less pain when students share information and grades JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION Zimbardo, P. G., Butler, L. D., Wolfe, V. A. 2003; 71 (2): 101-125
  • Psychology in the public service AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Zimbardo, P. G. 2002; 57 (6-7): 431-433


    Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0003-066X.57.6-7.431

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176433100003

    View details for PubMedID 12094437

  • When parsimony subdues distinctiveness: Simplified public perceptions of politicians' personality POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Zimbardo, P. G. 2002; 23 (1): 77-95
  • Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Bandura, A., Zimbardo, P. G. 2000; 11 (4): 302-306


    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088503700007

    View details for PubMedID 11273389

  • Comorbidity in chronic shyness DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY St Lorant, T. A., Henderson, L., Zimbardo, P. G. 2000; 12 (4): 232-237

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166218200007

    View details for PubMedID 11195760

  • Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Zimbardo, P. G., Boyd, J. N. 1999; 77 (6): 1271-1288
  • Who's smoking, drinking, and using drugs? Time perspective as a predictor of substance use BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Keough, K. A., Zimbardo, P. G., Boyd, J. N. 1999; 21 (2): 149-164
  • Personality profiles and political parties POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Zimbardo, P. G. 1999; 20 (1): 175-197
  • Escaping homelessness: The influences of self-efficacy and time perspective on coping with homelessness JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Elissa, E. S., Bandura, A., Zimbardo, P. G. 1999; 29 (3): 575-596
  • Experimental social psychology: Behaviorism with minds and matters Yosemite Conference on Reflections on 100 Years of Experimental Social Psychology Zimbardo, P. G. BASIC BOOKS INC PUBL. 1999: 135–157
  • The past and future of US prison policy - Twenty-five years after the Stanford prison experiment AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Haney, C., Zimbardo, P. 1998; 53 (7): 709-727


    In this article, the authors reflect on the lessons of their Stanford Prison Experiment, some 25 years after conducting it. They review the quarter century of change in criminal justice and correctional policies that has transpired since the Stanford Prison Experiment and then develop a series of reform-oriented proposals drawn from this and related studies on the power of social situations and institutional settings that can be applied to the current crisis in American corrections.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074944400001

    View details for PubMedID 9699456

  • Present time perspective as a predictor of risky driving PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Zimbardo, P. G., Keough, K. A., Boyd, J. N. 1997; 23 (6): 1007-1023
  • Similarities and differences between dreaming and waking cognition: An exploratory study CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION Kahan, T. L., Laberge, S., Levitan, L., Zimbardo, P. 1997; 6 (1): 132-147


    Thirty-eight "practiced" dreamers (Study 1) and 50 "novice" dreamers (Study 2) completed questionnaires assessing the cognitive, metacognitive, and emotional qualities of recent waking and dreaming experiences. The present findings suggest that dreaming cognition is more similar to waking cognition than previously assumed and that the differences between dreaming and waking cognition are more quantitative than qualitative. Results from the two studies were generally consistent, indicating that high-order cognition during dreaming is not restricted to individuals practiced in dream recall or self-observation. None of the measured features was absent or infrequent in reports of either dreaming or waking experiences. Recollections of dreaming and waking experiences were similar for some cognitive features (e.g., attentional processes, internal commentary, and public self-consciousness) and different for other features (e.g., choice, event-related self-reflection, and affect).

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XA77000012

    View details for PubMedID 9170565

  • Constructing time after death - The transcendental-future time perspective TIME & SOCIETY Boyd, J. N., Zimbardo, P. G. 1997; 6 (1): 35-54
  • Aggregation and amplification of marginal deviations in the social construction of personality and maladjustment EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY Caprara, G. V., Zimbardo, P. G. 1996; 10 (2): 79-110
  • Understanding the complexity of human aggression: Affective, cognitive, and social dimensions of individual differences in propensity toward aggression EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Zimbardo, P. G. 1996; 10 (2): 133-155
  • THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF VIEWING THE FILM JFK - EMOTIONS, BELIEFS, AND POLITICAL BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS Annual Meeting of the International-Society-of-Political-Psychology Butler, L. D., Koopman, C., Zimbardo, P. G. BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS. 1995: 237–57


    This experiment compared the emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses of Ss experiencing induced physiological arousal with and without awareness of the source of their arousal. Nine highly hypnotizable Ss and 9 nonhypnotizable controls were used in a within-subjects design. Each S received posthypnotic suggestions for arousal (increases in heart and respiration rate) with and without amnesia for its source in a two-phase procedure. Only the hypnotizable Ss were expected to differ between conditions. As predicted, for the hypnotizable Ss, unexplained arousal produced significant and dramatic effects when compared with explained arousal, including misattributions. These results are considered within a conceptual framework of the role of discontinuous experiences in the development of psychopathological symptoms in normal persons.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LU08000015

    View details for PubMedID 8408959



    Conducted a longitudinal study of hypnotizability, as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A, that yielded a relatively high degree of stability in hypnotic responsiveness over repeated testings spanning a 25-year period. The 50 Ss were retested in 1985, after tests when they were students, between 1958-1962 and again in 1970. The statistically significant stability coefficients were .64 (10-year retest), .82 (15-year retest), and .71 (25-year retest). The means did not change significantly, and the median change in the scores of individuals was only 1 point on the 12-item scale. A set of score measures and their intercorrelations are insufficient to resolve the issue of why stability occurs. The stability of hypnotizability over time compares favorably with that of other measures of individual differences.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T083700015

    View details for PubMedID 2926631

  • TIME IN PERSPECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Gonzalez, A., Zimbardo, P. G. 1985; 19 (3): 20-26
  • THE LOOKING-GLASS WAR PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Plous, S., Zimbardo, P. G. 1984; 18 (11): 48-?
  • MIND-CONTROL IN 1984 PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Zimbardo, P. 1984; 18 (1): 68-?
  • UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGICAL MAN - 15TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Bruner, J., Lazarus, R. S., Neisser, U., Skinner, B. F., Milgram, S., Miller, N., HEBB, D. O., NEUGARTEN, B., McClelland, D., May, R., Zimbardo, P. G. 1982; 16 (5): 40-?


    An experimental misattribution paradigm proved to be a significant intervention treatment of altering social participation among dispositionally shy women. When specific arousal symptoms previously associated with their social anxiety were misattributed to a nonpsychological source, high-frequency noise, these extremely shy women behaved as if they were not shy. Their verbal fluency and interactional assertiveness resembled that of not-shy comparison women given the same treatment. Moreover, their scores on these measures were significantly elevated from the low levels recorded by shy controls who had been led to expect shyness-irrelevant "side effects" from their exposure to noise. A male partner (a confederate) accurately perceived whether or not the women in the two control groups were shy, but he misjudged as "not shy" the shy women in the misattribution group. The greater enjoyment of the interaction by those in this latter group, despite high-frequency noise bombardment, was also reflected in their stronger preference for further affiliation than that shown by either comparison group. The continuously monitored heart rate data provide grounds for speculation as to the relationship of physiological arousal and behavior. However, a paradoxical placebo finding emerged when it appeared that the non-shy women in this same misattribution condition experienced a higher level of arousal, and this anxiety-like arousal was associated with preferences for nonaffiliation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MG82800003

    View details for PubMedID 7288563

  • INDUCED HEARING DEFICIT GENERATES EXPERIMENTAL PARANOIA SCIENCE Zimbardo, P. G., Andersen, S. M., KABAT, L. G. 1981; 212 (4502): 1529-1531


    The development of paranoid reactions was investigated in normal people experiencing a temporary loss of hearing. In a social setting, subjects made partially deaf by hypnotic suggestion, but kept unaware of the source of their deafness, became more paranoid as indicated on a variety of assessment measures. The results support a hypothesizes cognitive-social mechanism for the clinically observed relationship between paranoia and deafness in the elderly.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981LT86900035

    View details for PubMedID 7233242

  • RESISTING MIND-CONTROL USA TODAY Andersen, S. M., Zimbardo, P. G. 1980; 109 (2426): 44-47
  • THE AGE OF INDIFFERENCE PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Zimbardo, P. G. 1980; 14 (3): 70-?
  • SHY MURDERERS PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Lee, M., Zimbardo, P. G., Bertholf, M. 1977; 11 (6): 68-?
  • MAKING IT AS A MENTAL PATIENT PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Katz, M., Zimbardo, P. 1977; 10 (11): 122-?
  • LIFE WITH PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE TEACHING OF PSYCHOLOGY Campbell, D. E., Zimbardo, P. G. 1976; 3 (4): 191-192
  • SOCIAL DISEASE CALLED SHYNESS PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Zimbardo, P. G., Pilkonis, P. A., NORWOOD, R. M. 1975; 8 (12): 69-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1973S697400005

    View details for PubMedID 11662069

  • OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF HYPNOTICALLY INDUCED TME DISTORTION SCIENCE Zimbardo, P. G., Marshall, G., White, G., Maslach, C. 1973; 181 (4096): 282-284


    The objective precision of operant conditioning methodology validates the power of hypnosis to induce alterations in time perception. Personal tempo was systematically modified by instructions to trained hypnotic subjects, with significant behavioral effects observed on a variety of response rate measures.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1973Q097000030

    View details for PubMedID 4719069