Emeritus Faculty, Acad Council, Psychology
Mindfulness and Balanced Time Perspective: Predictive Model of Psychological Well-Being and Gender Differences in College Students.
European journal of investigation in health, psychology and education
2022; 12 (3): 306-318
BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to establish an adjustment model to analyze the relationship among mindfulness, balanced time perspective (BTP) and psychological well-being (PWB) in college students and to explore gender differences among the variables.METHOD: The sample consisted of 380 college students, 220 women and 160 men, uniformly distributed according to the university's faculties.RESULTS: The results indicate that the synergy between mindfulness and BTP predicts the variance of PWB by 55%. Regarding gender differences, it was found that women have a greater tendency towards Past Positive than men and men a higher tendency towards Present Hedonistic than women. In addition, in the group of women, a stronger relationship was found among the variables and, consequently, a greater predictive value for PWB (58%), displaying an enhanced disposition to high PWB compared to men.CONCLUSIONS: Together, mindfulness and BTP promote optimal psychological functioning and alleviate or reduce discomfort. Thus, their promotion and training in universities is especially important given the high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in college students.
View details for DOI 10.3390/ejihpe12030022
View details for PubMedID 35323208
Dispositional Self-Consciousness and Hypnotizability.
The International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis
The abeyance of self-consciousness (SC) during hypnosis has been discussed as a central aspect of hypnosis, yet dispositional SC has been very rarely evaluated as a correlate of hypnotizability. In this study (N = 328), the authors administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS), the Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth (ISHD), and the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised (SCS-R). Women tended to score higher than men on the HGSHS, besides experiencing greater ISHD automaticity. The Discontinuity (with everyday experiences) subscale of the ISHD correlated with the Public Self-Consciousness scale of the SCS-R and with the Private Self-Consciousness subscale (using simple, quadratic, and cubic regressions). Being concerned about the perception of others related to experiencing hypnosis as discontinuous with everyday life, which also related to being more introspective and interested in subjectivity at the middle range of scores. The article concludes with suggestions on how to pursue the implications of these results, including testing for nonlinear relations.
View details for DOI 10.1080/00207144.2022.2003695
View details for PubMedID 34806558
Continuing to acknowledge the power of dehumanizing environments: Comment on Haslam et al. (2019) and Le Texier (2019).
The American psychologist
2020; 75 (3): 400–402
Decades after it was conducted, the Stanford Prison Experiment endures as a classic, dramatic demonstration of the potentially destructive psychological dynamics that can be created when one group of people is given nearly total power over a group of derogated others in a powerful, dehumanizing environment such as prison. The authors of the study value the intellectually engaged alternative perspectives that continue to be used to discuss its unsettling results but reject those that are ad hominem, misleading, inaccurate, and unscientific. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
View details for DOI 10.1037/amp0000593
View details for PubMedID 32250143
- New perspectives on time perspective and temporal focus JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR 2020; 41 (3): 235–43
- How Orwell's 1984 Has Influenced Rev. Jim Jones to Dominate and Then Destroy His Followers: With Extensions to Current Political Leaders PEACE AND CONFLICT-JOURNAL OF PEACE PSYCHOLOGY 2020; 26 (1): 4–8
- The structure of time perspective: Age-related differences in Poland TIME & SOCIETY 2019; 28 (1): 5–32
What Is the Structure of Time? A Study on Time Perspective in the United States, Poland, and Nigeria.
Frontiers in psychology
2018; 9: 2078
The aim of this article was to analyze the fit of the model of time perspective, measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; Zimbardo and Boyd, 1999), to data collected in three countries: the United States (N = 283), Poland (N = 510), and Nigeria (N = 357). Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, an expected parameter change and parallel analysis were used. The best-fitted model of time perspective was the one in the United States, and the least fitted model was the one in Nigeria. Possible sources of misspecifications in the model of time perspective were discussed. We also present an analysis of the fit of the four-factor model of time perspective. The four-factor model was very well fitted in the United States and in Poland. Results were discussed in the context of clock time and event time theory.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02078
View details for PubMedID 30443231
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6221929
- What Is the Structure of Time? A Study on Time Perspective in the United States, Poland, and Nigeria FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 2018; 9
Dealing with toxic behaviour
2018; 31: 2–3
View details for Web of Science ID 000447637900001
Smooth tracking of visual targets distinguishes lucid REM sleep dreaming and waking perception from imagination.
2018; 9 (1): 3298
Humans are typically unable to engage in sustained smooth pursuit for imagined objects. However, it is unknown to what extent smooth tracking occurs for visual imagery during REM sleep dreaming. Here we examine smooth pursuit eye movements during tracking of a slow-moving visual target during lucid dreams in REM sleep. Highly similar smooth pursuit tracking was observed during both waking perception and lucid REM sleep dreaming, in contrast to the characteristically saccadic tracking observed during visuomotor imagination. Our findings suggest that, in this respect, the visual imagery that occurs during REM sleep is more similar to perception than imagination. The data also show that the neural circuitry of smooth pursuit can be driven by a visual percept in the absence of retinal stimulation and that specific voluntary shifts in the direction of experienced gaze within REM sleep dreams are accompanied by corresponding rotations of the physical eyes.
View details for PubMedID 30120229
- Heroism Research: A Review of Theories, Methods, Challenges, and Trends JOURNAL OF HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY 2018; 58 (4): 382–96
- How Compulsive Buying Is Influenced by Time Perspective-Cross-Cultural Evidence from Germany, Ukraine, and China INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH AND ADDICTION 2018; 16 (3): 525–44
On the dynamics of disobedience: experimental investigations of defying unjust authority.
Psychology research and behavior management
2017; 10: 219-229
Across six Experimental conditions with university student participants (N=600), we examined some of the dynamics underlying expressed defiance to unjust authority. Results revealed disobedience was best enacted by participants low in right-wing authoritarianism and was more likely to occur when: 1) in physical proximity of other rebels, 2) the authority made two demanding requests instead of one, and 3) there had been an earlier opposition to injustice. Results are discussed within the theoretical framework of bounded rationality.
View details for DOI 10.2147/PRBM.S135094
View details for PubMedID 28761383
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5518916
The process of desistance among core ex-gang members.
The American journal of orthopsychiatry
2017; 87 (4): 487-502
Research has established robust links between gang membership, delinquency, violence and victimization. Yet studies examining the process of gang desistance in general and that of core gang members in particular, are quite rare. The current study aims to identify factors associated with desistance of core gang members as well as describe the nature of the process that these "formers" have undergone. Thirty-nine core ex-gang members (80% males and 20% females) from the San Francisco Bay area and Los Angeles, with an average length of 11.6-years gang membership, were interviewed regarding their involvement in the gang and the desistance process. A systematic qualitative analysis based on grounded theory methodology was mainly utilized. We found that the decision to leave the gang is a result of a combination of push (e.g., personal and vicarious victimization, burnout of gang lifestyle, disillusionment by the gang) and pull (e.g., parenthood, family responsibilities, religious and cultural awakening) factors that evolved over time. Push factors were more dominant in this domain. We also found that while male core ex-gang members tended to leave the gang more frequently because of push factors, female ex-gang members were more inclined to desist due to pull factors. Our analysis also showed that core gang members shared a general pattern of the desistance process comprising of the following 5 stages: triggering, contemplation, exploration, exiting and maintenance. Based on these results, we outlined stage-specific recommendations for agents of societal change to help in facilitating the desistance of core gang members. (PsycINFO Database Record
View details for DOI 10.1037/ort0000196
View details for PubMedID 27243575
The paradoxical effect of climate on time perspective considering resource accumulation
BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
2017; 40: e92
Considering purely climate, southern countries are less harsh and more predictable than northern countries. From a historical perspective, freezing winters resulting in fewer available resources contribute to the development of strong future orientation. The paradox is that future orientation contributes to accumulation of resources in the long run, making individuals' immediate living conditions less harsh, leading to slower life strategies.
View details for PubMedID 29342550
- Carrying on Kurt Lewin's Legacy in Many Current Domains Lewin Award 2015 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES 2016; 72 (4): 828-838
- Academic cheating and time perspective: Cheaters live in the present instead of the future LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 2016; 52: 39-45
- A School-Based Intervention for Reducing Posttraumatic Symptomatology and Intolerance During Political Violence JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 2016; 108 (6): 761-771
Social Representations of Hero and Everyday Hero: A Network Study from Representative Samples.
2016; 11 (8)
The psychological investigation of heroism is relatively new. At this stage, inductive methods can shed light on its main aspects. Therefore, we examined the social representations of Hero and Everyday Hero by collecting word associations from two separate representative samples in Hungary. We constructed two networks from these word associations. The results show that the social representation of Hero is more centralized and it cannot be divided into smaller units. The network of Everyday Hero is divided into five units and the significance moves from abstract hero characteristics to concrete social roles and occupations exhibiting pro-social values. We also created networks from the common associations of Hero and Everyday Hero. The structures of these networks show a moderate similarity and the connections are more balanced in case of Everyday Hero. While heroism in general can be the source of inspiration, the promotion of everyday heroism can be more successful in encouraging ordinary people to recognize their own potential for heroic behavior.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0159354
View details for PubMedID 27525418
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4985139
ADHD and Present Hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool
NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISEASE AND TREATMENT
2016; 12: 2963-2971
The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo's time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool - the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD.
View details for DOI 10.2147/NDT.S116721
View details for Web of Science ID 000387818400004
View details for PubMedID 27895485
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5118029
- Culture, militarism, and America's heroic future CULTURE & PSYCHOLOGY 2015; 21 (4): 505-514
- Multiple Facets of Compassion: The Impact of Social Dominance Orientation and Economic Systems Justification JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS 2015; 129 (1): 237-249
- Social intensity syndrome: The development and validation of the social intensity syndrome scale PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 2015; 73: 17-23
- How We Feel is a Matter of Time: Relationships Between Time Perspectives and Mood JOURNAL OF HAPPINESS STUDIES 2014; 15 (4): 809-827
- Time Perspective Therapy: A New Time-Based Metaphor Therapy for PTSD JOURNAL OF LOSS & TRAUMA 2014; 19 (3): 197-201
Jacob Max Rabbie (1927-2013).
2014; 69 (1): 84-?
Jacob Max Rabbie, an internationally renowned social psychologist and a founding member of the European Association of Social Psychology (EASP), died on June 29, 2013. Jaap was born in Haarlem, the Netherlands, on October 4, 1927. Jaap studied social psychology at the University of Amsterdam and became the face of Dutch social psychology. His later research focused on aggression between individuals and groups, his early work attempted to isolate the minimal conditions that suffice to generate discriminatory ingroup-outgroup attitudes. Jaap was a dedicated and passionate scientist, oriented to getting things right even when this meant going against the current stream.
View details for DOI 10.1037/a0034366
View details for PubMedID 24446847
- Out of Mind, Out of Sight: Unexpected Scene Elements Frequently Go Unnoticed Until Primed CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY 2013; 32 (4): 301-317
Out of Mind, Out of Sight: Unexpected Scene Elements Frequently Go Unnoticed Until Primed.
Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.)
2013; 32 (4)
The human visual system employs a sophisticated set of strategies for scanning the environment and directing attention to stimuli that can be expected given the context and a person's past experience. Although these strategies enable us to navigate a very complex physical and social environment, they can also cause highly salient, but unexpected stimuli to go completely unnoticed. To examine the generality of this phenomenon, we conducted eight studies that included 15 different experimental conditions and 1,577 participants in all. These studies revealed that a large majority of participants do not report having seen a woman in the center of an urban scene who was photographed in midair as she was committing suicide. Despite seeing the scene repeatedly, 46 % of all participants failed to report seeing a central figure and only 4.8 % reported seeing a falling person. Frequency of noticing the suicidal woman was highest for participants who read a narrative priming story that increased the extent to which she was schematically congruent with the scene. In contrast to this robust effect of inattentional blindness, a majority of participants reported seeing other peripheral objects in the visual scene that were equally difficult to detect, yet more consistent with the scene. Follow-up qualitative analyses revealed that participants reported seeing many elements that were not actually present, but which could have been expected given the overall context of the scene. Together, these findings demonstrate the robustness of inattentional blindness and highlight the specificity with which different visual primes may increase noticing behavior.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12144-013-9184-3
View details for PubMedID 24363542
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3865713
- "Exclusive" and "Inclusive" Visions of Heroism and Democracy CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY 2013; 32 (3): 221-233
- Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW 2012; 24 (4): 569-608
- To defy or not to defy: An experimental study of the dynamics of disobedience and whistle-blowing SOCIAL INFLUENCE 2012; 7 (1): 35-50
- A medical issue affecting the diagnosis of mood, attention and autistic disorders: a closer look at celiac disease and gluten sensitivity HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW 2012; 6 (2): 222-240
- Time perspective, emotional intelligence and discounting of delayed awards TIME & SOCIETY 2011; 20 (3): 346-363
- Heroism: A Conceptual Analysis and Differentiation Between Heroic Action and Altruism REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011; 15 (2): 99-113
ZTPI - Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory - Czech validization study
2011; 55 (4): 356-373
View details for Web of Science ID 000295756300006
- Defying Unjust Authority: An Exploratory Study CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY 2010; 29 (2): 155-170
Persistent Dispositionalism in Interactionist Clothing: Fundamental Attribution Error in Explaining Prison Abuse
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
2009; 35 (6): 807-814
The Stanford Prison Experiment demonstrated some important lessons about the power of social situations, settings, and structures to shape and transform behavior. At the time the study was done, the authors scrupulously addressed the issue of whether and how the dispositions or personality traits of the participants might have affected the results. Here the authors renew and reaffirm their original interpretation of the results and apply this perspective to some recent socially and politically significant events.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0146167208322864
View details for Web of Science ID 000265918600011
View details for PubMedID 19398589
- The Social Language of Time: The Time Perspective-Social Network Connection BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009; 31 (2): 136-147
Corporate funding and conflicts of interest - A primer for psychologists
2007; 62 (9): 1005-1015
A presidential task force on external funding was established by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 2003 to review APA policies, procedures, and practices regarding the acceptance of funding and support from private corporations for educational and training programs; continuing education offerings; research projects; publications; advertising; scientific and professional meetings and conferences; and consulting, practice, and advocacy relationships. This article, based on the Executive Summary of the APA Task Force on External Funding Final Report, presents the findings and unanimous recommendations of the task force in the areas of association income, annual convention, research and journals, continuing education, education, practice, and conflicts of interest and ethics. The task force concluded that it is important for both APA and individual psychologists to become familiar with the challenges that corporate funding can pose to their integrity. The nature and extent of those challenges led the task force to recommend that APA develop explicit policies, educational materials, and continuing education programs to preserve the independence of psychological science, practice, and education.
View details for DOI 10.1037/0003-066X.62.9.1005
View details for Web of Science ID 000251576300004
View details for PubMedID 18085846
Behavioral neuroscience, exploration, and K.C. Montgomery's legacy
BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS
2007; 53 (2): 328-331
Exploration is a key animal and human behavior. Kay C. Montgomery (1921-1956) has made an important contribution to behavioral neuroscience of exploration, as well as motivation and learning. His works have many important applications to current experimental models of stress, fear and memory, continuing to influence research in this field. This paper, dedicated to the 85th anniversary of Montgomery's birth, and 50 years since his tragic death, summarizes Montgomery's contribution to behavioral neuroscience, and discusses its current importance for further progress in this field. It is aimed at neuroscientists with strong interests in both theory of animal exploration and motivation, and the history of behavioral neuroscience.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brainresrev.2006.09.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000244552200009
View details for PubMedID 17095097
On rethinking the psychology of tyranny: the BBC prison study.
British journal of social psychology
2006; 45: 47-53
This commentary offers a critical evaluation of the scientific legitimacy of research generated by television programming interests. It challenges the validity of claims advanced by these researchers regarding the Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE) and highlights the biases, fallacies and distortions in this study conducted for BBC-TV that attempted a partial replication of my earlier experiment.
View details for PubMedID 16573871
Does psychology make a significant difference in our lives?
2nd Stauffer Symposium on Applied Psychology
LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC PUBL. 2006: 27–52
View details for Web of Science ID 000236264700002
The role of moral disengagement in the execution process
LAW AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR
2005; 29 (4): 371-393
The present study tested the proposition that disengagement of moral self-sanctions enables prison personnel to carry out the death penalty. Three subgroups of personnel in penitentiaries located in three Southern states were assessed in terms of eight mechanisms of moral disengagement. The personnel included the execution teams that carry out the executions; the support teams that provide solace and emotional support to the families of the victims and the condemned inmate; and prison guards who have no involvement in the execution process. The executioners exhibited the highest level of moral, social, and economic justifications, disavowal of personal responsibility, and dehumanization. The support teams that provide the more humane services disavowed moral disengagement, as did the noninvolved guards but to a lesser degree than the support teams.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10979-005-4930-1
View details for Web of Science ID 000231311400001
View details for PubMedID 16133946
Optimizing the power and magic of teaching
JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
2005; 24 (1): 11-21
View details for Web of Science ID 000227157200003
Does psychology make a significant difference in our lives?
The American psychologist
2004; 59 (5): 339-51
The intellectual tension between the virtues of basic versus applied research that characterized an earlier era of psychology is being replaced by an appreciation of creative applications of all research essential to improving the quality of human life. Psychologists are positioned to "give psychology away" to all those who can benefit from our wisdom. Psychologists were not there 35 years ago when American Psychological Association (APA) President George Miller first encouraged us to share our knowledge with the public. The author argues that psychology is indeed making a significant difference in people's lives; this article provides a sampling of evidence demonstrating how and why psychology matters, both in pervasive ways and specific applications. Readers are referred to a newly developed APA Web site that documents current operational uses of psychological research, theory, and methodology (its creation has been the author's primary presidential initiative): www.psychologymatters.org.
View details for PubMedID 15511121
Personalizing politics - A congruency model of political preference
2004; 59 (7): 581-594
Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political choice. The authors' findings reveal that people vote for candidates whose personality traits are in accordance with the ideology of their preferred political party. They also select politicians whose traits match their own traits. Moreover, voters' traits match their own values. The authors outline a congruency model of political preference that highlights the interacting congruencies among voters' self-reported traits and values, voters' perceptions of leaders' personalities, politicians' self-reported traits, and programs of favored political coalitions.
View details for DOI 10.1037/0003-066X.59.7.581
View details for Web of Science ID 000224284200001
View details for PubMedID 15491254
The power of persuasion: A field exercise
TEACHING OF PSYCHOLOGY
2004; 31 (2): 136-138
View details for Web of Science ID 000221240600020
Participant self-selection biases as a function of individual differences in time perspective
BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
2003; 25 (3): 255-264
View details for Web of Science ID 000185073900008
Testing Zimbardo's Stanford Time Perspective Inventory (STPI) - Short form - An Italian study
TIME & SOCIETY
2003; 12 (2-3): 333-347
View details for Web of Science ID 000185769700010
Personalities of politicians and voters: Unique and synergistic relationships
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
2003; 84 (4): 849-856
A rare collection of personality assessments from 103 Italian politicians revealed predictable patterns of contrasts and similarities with personality dimensions from a large normative sample (N = 4,578). Three modal personality characteristics distinguished politicians, with their significantly higher levels of Energy, Agreeableness, and Social Desirability, from the general public. Comparability between politicians and the public existed on dimensions of Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Openness (Big Five Questionnaire assessment). Politicians from rival coalitions differed on several dimensions; center-right was higher than center-left in Energy and Conscientiousness. Congruencies emerged between politicians and voters for their coalition on all personality dimensions, except that center-left politicians were higher in Energy than center-left voters, and center-right politicians were higher than voters in both Energy and Agreeableness.
View details for DOI 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2069
View details for Web of Science ID 000181864200011
View details for PubMedID 12703652
Time to find the right balance
2003; 16 (3): 129-131
View details for Web of Science ID 000181636600020
Cooperative college examinations: More gain, less pain when students share information and grades
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION
2003; 71 (2): 101-125
View details for Web of Science ID 000179816300001
Psychology in the public service
2002; 57 (6-7): 431-433
Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.
View details for DOI 10.1037//0003-066X.57.6-7.431
View details for Web of Science ID 000176433100003
View details for PubMedID 12094437
When parsimony subdues distinctiveness: Simplified public perceptions of politicians' personality
2002; 23 (1): 77-95
View details for Web of Science ID 000174708800004
Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement
2000; 11 (4): 302-306
The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.
View details for Web of Science ID 000088503700007
View details for PubMedID 11273389
- Comorbidity in chronic shyness DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY 2000; 12 (4): 232-237
Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1999; 77 (6): 1271-1288
View details for Web of Science ID 000084208700013
Who's smoking, drinking, and using drugs? Time perspective as a predictor of substance use
BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1999; 21 (2): 149-164
View details for Web of Science ID 000081554300007
Personality profiles and political parties
1999; 20 (1): 175-197
View details for Web of Science ID 000079735600007
Escaping homelessness: The influences of self-efficacy and time perspective on coping with homelessness
JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1999; 29 (3): 575-596
View details for Web of Science ID 000080438100007
Experimental social psychology: Behaviorism with minds and matters
Yosemite Conference on Reflections on 100 Years of Experimental Social Psychology
BASIC BOOKS INC PUBL. 1999: 135–157
View details for Web of Science ID 000084553900007
The past and future of US prison policy - Twenty-five years after the Stanford prison experiment
1998; 53 (7): 709-727
In this article, the authors reflect on the lessons of their Stanford Prison Experiment, some 25 years after conducting it. They review the quarter century of change in criminal justice and correctional policies that has transpired since the Stanford Prison Experiment and then develop a series of reform-oriented proposals drawn from this and related studies on the power of social situations and institutional settings that can be applied to the current crisis in American corrections.
View details for Web of Science ID 000074944400001
View details for PubMedID 9699456
Present time perspective as a predictor of risky driving
PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
1997; 23 (6): 1007-1023
View details for Web of Science ID 000071115800012
Similarities and differences between dreaming and waking cognition: An exploratory study
CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION
1997; 6 (1): 132-147
Thirty-eight "practiced" dreamers (Study 1) and 50 "novice" dreamers (Study 2) completed questionnaires assessing the cognitive, metacognitive, and emotional qualities of recent waking and dreaming experiences. The present findings suggest that dreaming cognition is more similar to waking cognition than previously assumed and that the differences between dreaming and waking cognition are more quantitative than qualitative. Results from the two studies were generally consistent, indicating that high-order cognition during dreaming is not restricted to individuals practiced in dream recall or self-observation. None of the measured features was absent or infrequent in reports of either dreaming or waking experiences. Recollections of dreaming and waking experiences were similar for some cognitive features (e.g., attentional processes, internal commentary, and public self-consciousness) and different for other features (e.g., choice, event-related self-reflection, and affect).
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XA77000012
View details for PubMedID 9170565
Constructing time after death - The transcendental-future time perspective
TIME & SOCIETY
1997; 6 (1): 35-54
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WP49500002
Aggregation and amplification of marginal deviations in the social construction of personality and maladjustment
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
1996; 10 (2): 79-110
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UX05600001
Understanding the complexity of human aggression: Affective, cognitive, and social dimensions of individual differences in propensity toward aggression
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
1996; 10 (2): 133-155
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UX05600003
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF VIEWING THE FILM JFK - EMOTIONS, BELIEFS, AND POLITICAL BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS
Annual Meeting of the International-Society-of-Political-Psychology
BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS. 1995: 237–57
View details for Web of Science ID A1995RA08200002
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF UNEXPLAINED AROUSAL - A POSTHYPNOTIC SUGGESTION PARADIGM
JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
1993; 102 (3): 466-473
This experiment compared the emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses of Ss experiencing induced physiological arousal with and without awareness of the source of their arousal. Nine highly hypnotizable Ss and 9 nonhypnotizable controls were used in a within-subjects design. Each S received posthypnotic suggestions for arousal (increases in heart and respiration rate) with and without amnesia for its source in a two-phase procedure. Only the hypnotizable Ss were expected to differ between conditions. As predicted, for the hypnotizable Ss, unexplained arousal produced significant and dramatic effects when compared with explained arousal, including misattributions. These results are considered within a conceptual framework of the role of discontinuous experiences in the development of psychopathological symptoms in normal persons.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993LU08000015
View details for PubMedID 8408959
ON THE DEGREE OF STABILITY OF MEASURED HYPNOTIZABILITY OVER A 25-YEAR PERIOD
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1989; 56 (2): 289-295
Conducted a longitudinal study of hypnotizability, as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A, that yielded a relatively high degree of stability in hypnotic responsiveness over repeated testings spanning a 25-year period. The 50 Ss were retested in 1985, after tests when they were students, between 1958-1962 and again in 1970. The statistically significant stability coefficients were .64 (10-year retest), .82 (15-year retest), and .71 (25-year retest). The means did not change significantly, and the median change in the scores of individuals was only 1 point on the 12-item scale. A set of score measures and their intercorrelations are insufficient to resolve the issue of why stability occurs. The stability of hypnotizability over time compares favorably with that of other measures of individual differences.
View details for Web of Science ID A1989T083700015
View details for PubMedID 2926631
TIME IN PERSPECTIVE
1985; 19 (3): 20-26
View details for Web of Science ID A1985ACR2600019
ACTOR OBSERVER DIFFERENCES IN THE PERCEIVED STABILITY OF SHYNESS
1985; 3 (3): 250-265
View details for Web of Science ID A1985ATL2400002
THE LOOKING-GLASS WAR
1984; 18 (11): 48-?
View details for Web of Science ID A1984TQ53300024
MIND-CONTROL IN 1984
1984; 18 (1): 68-?
View details for Web of Science ID A1984RX33000025
UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGICAL MAN - 15TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE
1982; 16 (5): 40-?
View details for Web of Science ID A1982NM11100009
MODIFYING SHYNESS-RELATED SOCIAL-BEHAVIOR THROUGH SYMPTOM MISATTRIBUTION
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1981; 41 (3): 437-449
An experimental misattribution paradigm proved to be a significant intervention treatment of altering social participation among dispositionally shy women. When specific arousal symptoms previously associated with their social anxiety were misattributed to a nonpsychological source, high-frequency noise, these extremely shy women behaved as if they were not shy. Their verbal fluency and interactional assertiveness resembled that of not-shy comparison women given the same treatment. Moreover, their scores on these measures were significantly elevated from the low levels recorded by shy controls who had been led to expect shyness-irrelevant "side effects" from their exposure to noise. A male partner (a confederate) accurately perceived whether or not the women in the two control groups were shy, but he misjudged as "not shy" the shy women in the misattribution group. The greater enjoyment of the interaction by those in this latter group, despite high-frequency noise bombardment, was also reflected in their stronger preference for further affiliation than that shown by either comparison group. The continuously monitored heart rate data provide grounds for speculation as to the relationship of physiological arousal and behavior. However, a paradoxical placebo finding emerged when it appeared that the non-shy women in this same misattribution condition experienced a higher level of arousal, and this anxiety-like arousal was associated with preferences for nonaffiliation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1981MG82800003
View details for PubMedID 7288563
INDUCED HEARING DEFICIT GENERATES EXPERIMENTAL PARANOIA
1981; 212 (4502): 1529-1531
The development of paranoid reactions was investigated in normal people experiencing a temporary loss of hearing. In a social setting, subjects made partially deaf by hypnotic suggestion, but kept unaware of the source of their deafness, became more paranoid as indicated on a variety of assessment measures. The results support a hypothesizes cognitive-social mechanism for the clinically observed relationship between paranoia and deafness in the elderly.
View details for Web of Science ID A1981LT86900035
View details for PubMedID 7233242
THE EFFECTS OF THREAT OF SURVEILLANCE AND ACTUAL SURVEILLANCE ON EXPRESSED OPINIONS TOWARD MARIHUANA
JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1980; 111 (1): 49-61
View details for Web of Science ID A1980JW90600007
1980; 109 (2426): 44-47
View details for Web of Science ID A1980KQ58400014
THE AGE OF INDIFFERENCE
1980; 14 (3): 70-?
View details for Web of Science ID A1980KC39900022
AFFECTIVE CONSEQUENCES OF INADEQUATELY EXPLAINED PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1979; 37 (6): 970-988
View details for Web of Science ID A1979HH08400015
MISUNDERSTANDING SHYNESS - COUNTERATTACK
1978; 12 (1): 17-?
View details for Web of Science ID A1978FC30200019
PERSONAL AND CULTURAL DYNAMICS OF SHYNESS - COMPARISON BETWEEN ISRAELIS, AMERICAN-JEWS AND AMERICANS
JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY AND JUDAISM
1978; 3 (2): 81-101
View details for Web of Science ID A1978GK57700001
1977; 11 (6): 68-?
View details for Web of Science ID A1977DZ68600005
MAKING IT AS A MENTAL PATIENT
1977; 10 (11): 122-?
View details for Web of Science ID A1977DA25800025
LIFE WITH PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE
TEACHING OF PSYCHOLOGY
1976; 3 (4): 191-192
View details for Web of Science ID A1976CT10900014
SOCIAL DISEASE CALLED SHYNESS
1975; 8 (12): 69-?
View details for Web of Science ID A1975W279400021
STUDY OF PRISONERS AND GUARDS IN A SIMULATED PRISON
NAVAL RESEARCH REVIEWS
1973; 26 (9): 1-17
View details for Web of Science ID A1973R421500001
- ETHICS OF INTERVENTION IN HUMAN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH - WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT COGNITION 1973; 2 (2): 243-256
OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF HYPNOTICALLY INDUCED TME DISTORTION
1973; 181 (4096): 282-284
The objective precision of operant conditioning methodology validates the power of hypnosis to induce alterations in time perception. Personal tempo was systematically modified by instructions to trained hypnotic subjects, with significant behavioral effects observed on a variety of response rate measures.
View details for Web of Science ID A1973Q097000030
View details for PubMedID 4719069
LIBERATING BEHAVIOR FROM TIME-BOUND CONTROL - EXPANDING PRESENT THROUGH HYPNOSIS
JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1971; 1 (4): 305-323
View details for Web of Science ID A1971Y258000001