Honors & Awards
MRS Graduate Student Silver Award, Materials Research Society (Spring, 2015)
International Fulbright Science and Technology Award, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the U.S. Department of State (2010-2013)
Doctor of Philosophy, Stanford University, MATSC-PHD (2016)
Bachelor of Science, National Tsing Hua University, Materials Science and Engineering (2007)
Arunava Majumdar, Postdoctoral Research Mentor
Roll-to-Roll Encapsulation of Metal Nanowires between Graphene and Plastic Substrate for High-Performance Flexible Transparent Electrodes
2015; 15 (6): 4206-4213
Transparent conductive film on plastic substrate is a critical component in low-cost, flexible, and lightweight optoelectronics. Industrial-scale manufacturing of high-performance transparent conductive flexible plastic is needed to enable wide-ranging applications. Here, we demonstrate a continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) production of transparent conductive flexible plastic based on a metal nanowire network fully encapsulated between graphene monolayer and plastic substrate. Large-area graphene film grown on Cu foil via a R2R chemical vapor deposition process was hot-laminated onto nanowires precoated EVA/PET film, followed by a R2R electrochemical delamination that preserves the Cu foil for reuse. The encapsulated structure minimized the resistance of both wire-to-wire junctions and graphene grain boundaries and strengthened adhesion of nanowires and graphene to plastic substrate, resulting in superior optoelectronic properties (sheet resistance of ∼8 Ω sq(-1) at 94% transmittance), remarkable corrosion resistance, and excellent mechanical flexibility. With these advantages, long-cycle life flexible electrochromic devices are demonstrated, showing up to 10000 cycles.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01531
View details for Web of Science ID 000356316900083
View details for PubMedID 26020567
Personal thermal management by metallic nanowire-coated textile.
2015; 15 (1): 365-371
Heating consumes large amount of energy and is a primary source of greenhouse gas emission. Although energy-efficient buildings are developing quickly based on improving insulation and design, a large portion of energy continues to be wasted on heating empty space and nonhuman objects. Here, we demonstrate a system of personal thermal management using metallic nanowire-embedded cloth that can reduce this waste. The metallic nanowires form a conductive network that not only is highly thermal insulating because it reflects human body infrared radiation but also allows Joule heating to complement the passive insulation. The breathability and durability of the original cloth is not sacrificed because of the nanowires' porous structure. This nanowire cloth can efficiently warm human bodies and save hundreds of watts per person as compared to traditional indoor heaters.
View details for DOI 10.1021/nl5036572
View details for PubMedID 25434959
Transparent air filter for high-efficiency PM2.5 capture.
2015; 6: 6205-?
Particulate matter (PM) pollution has raised serious concerns for public health. Although outdoor individual protection could be achieved by facial masks, indoor air usually relies on expensive and energy-intensive air-filtering devices. Here, we introduce a transparent air filter for indoor air protection through windows that uses natural passive ventilation to effectively protect the indoor air quality. By controlling the surface chemistry to enable strong PM adhesion and also the microstructure of the air filters to increase the capture possibilities, we achieve transparent, high air flow and highly effective air filters of ~90% transparency with >95.00% removal of PM2.5 under extreme hazardous air-quality conditions (PM2.5 mass concentration >250 μg m(-3)). A field test in Beijing shows that the polyacrylonitrile transparent air filter has the best PM2.5 removal efficiency of 98.69% at high transmittance of ~77% during haze occurrence.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms7205
View details for PubMedID 25683688
Electrolessly deposited electrospun metal nanowire transparent electrodes.
Journal of the American Chemical Society
2014; 136 (30): 10593-10596
Metal nanowire (MNW) transparent electrodes have been widely developed for their promising sheet resistance (Rs)-transmittance (T) performance, excellent mechanical flexibility, and facile synthesis. How to lower the junction resistance without compromising optical transmittance has become the key issue in enhancing their performance. Here we combine electrospinning and electroless deposition to synthesize interconnected, ultralong MNW networks. For both silver and copper nanowire networks, the Rs and T values reach around 10 Ω/sq and 90%, respectively. This process is scalable and takes place at ambient temperature and pressure, which opens new opportunities for flexible electronics and roll-to-roll large-scale manufacturing.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja505741e
View details for PubMedID 25019606
- Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires. Nature communications 2013; 4: 2522-?
Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires.
2013; 4: 2522-?
For transparent conducting electrodes in optoelectronic devices, electrical sheet resistance and optical transmittance are two of the main criteria. Recently, metal nanowires have been demonstrated to be a promising type of transparent conducting electrode because of low sheet resistance and high transmittance. Here we incorporate a mesoscale metal wire (1-5 μm in diameter) into metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes and demonstrate at least a one order of magnitude reduction in sheet resistance at a given transmittance. We realize experimentally a hybrid of mesoscale and nanoscale metal nanowires with high performance, including a sheet resistance of 0.36 Ω sq(-1) and transmittance of 92%. In addition, the mesoscale metal wires are applied to a wide range of transparent conducting electrodes including conducting polymers and oxides with improvement up to several orders of magnitude. The metal mesowires can be synthesized by electrospinning methods and their general applicability opens up opportunities for many transparent conducting electrode applications.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms3522
View details for PubMedID 24065116
Passivation Coating on Electrospun Copper Nanofibers for Stable Transparent Electrodes
2012; 6 (6): 5150-5156
Copper nanofiber networks, which possess the advantages of low cost, moderate flexibility, small sheet resistance, and high transmittance, are one of the most promising candidates to replace indium tin oxide films as the premier transparent electrode. However, the chemical activity of copper nanofibers causes a substantial increase in the sheet resistance after thermal oxidation or chemical corrosion of the nanofibers. In this work, we utilize atomic layer deposition to coat a passivation layer of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and aluminum oxide onto electrospun copper nanofibers and remarkably enhance their durability. Our AZO-copper nanofibers show resistance increase of remarkably only 10% after thermal oxidation at 160 °C in dry air and 80 °C in humid air with 80% relative humidity, whereas bare copper nanofibers quickly become insulating. In addition, the coating and baking of the acidic PEDOT:PSS layer on our fibers increases the sheet resistance of bare copper nanofibers by 6 orders of magnitude, while the AZO-Cu nanofibers show an 18% increase.
View details for DOI 10.1021/nn300844g
View details for Web of Science ID 000305661300065
View details for PubMedID 22548313
Roll-to-Roll Transfer of Electrospun Nanofiber Film for High-Efficiency Transparent Air Filter
2016; 16 (2): 1270-1275
Particulate matter (PM) pollution in air has become a serious environmental issue calling for new type of filter technologies. Recently, we have demonstrated a highly efficient air filter by direct electrospinning of polymer fibers onto supporting mesh although its throughput is limited. Here, we demonstrate a high throughput method based on fast transfer of electrospun nanofiber film from roughed metal foil to a receiving mesh substrate. Compared with the direct electrospinning method, the transfer method is 10 times faster and has better filtration performance at the same transmittance, owing to the uniformity of transferred nanofiber film (>99.97% removal of PM2.5 at ∼73% of transmittance). With these advantages, large area freestanding nanofiber film and roll-to-roll production of air filter are demonstrated.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04596
View details for Web of Science ID 000370215200066
View details for PubMedID 26789781
High Ionic Conductivity of Composite Solid Polymer Electrolyte via In Situ Synthesis of Monodispersed SiO2 Nanospheres in Poly(ethylene oxide)
2016; 16 (1): 459-465
High ionic conductivity solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) has long been desired for the next generation high energy and safe rechargeable lithium batteries. Among all of the SPEs, composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) with ceramic fillers has garnered great interest due to the enhancement of ionic conductivity. However, the high degree of polymer crystallinity, agglomeration of ceramic fillers, and weak polymer-ceramic interaction limit the further improvement of ionic conductivity. Different from the existing methods of blending preformed ceramic particles with polymers, here we introduce an in situ synthesis of ceramic filler particles in polymer electrolyte. Much stronger chemical/mechanical interactions between monodispersed 12 nm diameter SiO2 nanospheres and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains were produced by in situ hydrolysis, which significantly suppresses the crystallization of PEO and thus facilitates polymer segmental motion for ionic conduction. In addition, an improved degree of LiClO4 dissociation can also be achieved. All of these lead to good ionic conductivity (1.2 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 60 °C, 4.4 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 30 °C). At the same time, largely extended electrochemical stability window up to 5.5 V can be observed. We further demonstrated all-solid-state lithium batteries showing excellent rate capability as well as good cycling performance.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04117
View details for Web of Science ID 000368322700071
Polymer Nanofiber-Guided Uniform Lithium Deposition for Battery Electrodes
2015; 15 (5): 2910-2916
Lithium metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode material for next-generation energy storage systems due to its highest specific capacity (3860 mAh/g) and lowest redox potential of all. The uncontrolled lithium dendrite growth that causes a poor cycling performance and serious safety hazards, however, presents a significant challenge for the realization of lithium metal-based batteries. Here, we demonstrate a novel electrode design by placing a three-dimensional (3D) oxidized polyacrylonitrile nanofiber network on top of the current collector. The polymer fiber with polar surface functional groups could guide the lithium ions to form uniform lithium metal deposits confined on the polymer fiber surface and in the 3D polymer layer. We showed stable cycling of lithium metal anode with an average Coulombic efficiency of 97.4% over 120 cycles in ether-based electrolyte at a current density of 3 mA/cm(2) for a total of 1 mAh/cm(2) of lithium.
View details for DOI 10.1021/nl5046318
View details for Web of Science ID 000354906000021
View details for PubMedID 25822282
Ionic Conductivity Enhancement of Polymer Electrolytes with Ceramic Nanowire Fillers
2015; 15 (4): 2740-2745
Solid-state electrolytes provide substantial improvements to safety and electrochemical stability in lithium-ion batteries when compared with conventional liquid electrolytes, which makes them a promising alternative technology for next-generation high-energy batteries. Currently, the low mobility of lithium ions in solid electrolytes limits their practical application. The ongoing research over the past few decades on dispersing of ceramic nanoparticles into polymer matrix has been proved effective to enhance ionic conductivity although it is challenging to form the efficiency networks of ionic conduction with nanoparticles. In this work, we first report that ceramic nanowire fillers can facilitate formation of such ionic conduction networks in polymer-based solid electrolyte to enhance its ionic conductivity by three orders of magnitude. Polyacrylonitrile-LiClO4 incorporated with 15 wt % Li0.33La0.557TiO3 nanowire composite electrolyte exhibits an unprecedented ionic conductivity of 2.4 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at room temperature, which is attributed to the fast ion transport on the surfaces of ceramic nanowires acting as conductive network in the polymer matrix. In addition, the ceramic-nanowire filled composite polymer electrolyte shows an enlarged electrochemical stability window in comparison to the one without fillers. The discovery in the present work paves the way for the design of solid ion electrolytes with superior performance.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00600
View details for Web of Science ID 000352750200080
View details for PubMedID 25782069
- Electrochemical tuning of olivine-type lithium transition-metal phosphates as efficient water oxidation catalysts ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2015; 8 (6): 1719-1724
Bifunctional non-noble metal oxide nanoparticle electrocatalysts through lithium-induced conversion for overall water splitting.
2015; 6: 7261-?
Developing earth-abundant, active and stable electrocatalysts which operate in the same electrolyte for water splitting, including oxygen evolution reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction, is important for many renewable energy conversion processes. Here we demonstrate the improvement of catalytic activity when transition metal oxide (iron, cobalt, nickel oxides and their mixed oxides) nanoparticles (∼20 nm) are electrochemically transformed into ultra-small diameter (2-5 nm) nanoparticles through lithium-induced conversion reactions. Different from most traditional chemical syntheses, this method maintains excellent electrical interconnection among nanoparticles and results in large surface areas and many catalytically active sites. We demonstrate that lithium-induced ultra-small NiFeOx nanoparticles are active bifunctional catalysts exhibiting high activity and stability for overall water splitting in base. We achieve 10 mA cm(-2) water-splitting current at only 1.51 V for over 200 h without degradation in a two-electrode configuration and 1 M KOH, better than the combination of iridium and platinum as benchmark catalysts.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms8261
View details for PubMedID 26099250
- A high tap density secondary silicon particle anode fabricated by scalable mechanical pressing for lithium-ion batteries ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2015; 8 (8): 2371-2376
- Use of low cost and easily regenerated Prussian Blue cathodes for efficient electrical energy recovery in a microbial battery ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2015; 8 (2): 546-551
Large-Scale Production of Graphene Nanoribbons from Electrospun Polymers
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2014; 136 (49): 17284-17291
Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are promising building blocks for high-performance electronics due to their high electron mobility and dimensionality-induced bandgap. Despite many past efforts, direct synthesis of GNRs with controlled dimensions and scalability remains challenging. Here we report the scalable synthesis of GNRs using electrospun polymer nanofiber templates. Palladium-incorporated poly(4-vinylphenol) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning with controlled diameter and orientation. Highly graphitized GNRs as narrow as 10 nm were then synthesized from these templates by chemical vapor deposition. A transport gap can be observed in 30 nm-wide GNRs, enabling them to function as field-effect transistors at room temperature. Our results represent the first success on the scalable synthesis of highly graphitized GNRs from polymer templates. Furthermore, the generality of this method allows various polymers to be explored, which will lead to understanding of growth mechanism and rational control over crystallinity, feature size and bandgap to enable a new pathway for graphene electronics.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja509871n
View details for Web of Science ID 000346544200045
View details for PubMedID 25407608
High Electrochemical Selectivity of Edge versus Terrace Sites in Two-Dimensional Layered MoS2 Materials
2014; 14 (12): 7138-7144
Exploring the chemical reactivity of different atomic sites on crystal surface and controlling their exposures are important for catalysis and renewable energy storage. Here, we use two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) to demonstrate the electrochemical selectivity of edge versus terrace sites for Li-S batteries and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanoparticles decorates along the edges of the MoS2 nanosheet versus terrace, confirming the strong binding energies between Li2S and the edge sites and guiding the improved electrode design for Li-S batteries. We also provided clear comparison of HER activity between edge and terrace sites of MoS2 beyond the previous theoretical prediction and experimental proof.
View details for DOI 10.1021/nl503730c
View details for Web of Science ID 000346322800059
View details for PubMedID 25372985
- Bifacial solar cell with SnS absorber by vapor transport deposition APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 2014; 105 (17)
- Two-dimensional layered transition metal disulphides for effective encapsulation of high-capacity lithium sulphide cathodes NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2014; 5
- Facile synthesis of-Li2S-polypyrrole composite structures for high-performance Li2S cathodes ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2014; 7 (2): 672-676
- Improving lithium-sulphur batteries through spatial control of sulphur species deposition on a hybrid electrode surface. Nature communications 2014; 5: 3943-?
Electrochemical tuning of layered lithium transition metal oxides for improvement of oxygen evolution reaction.
2014; 5: 4345-?
Searching for low-cost and efficient catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction has been actively pursued owing to its importance in clean energy generation and storage. While developing new catalysts is important, tuning the electronic structure of existing catalysts over a wide electrochemical potential range can also offer a new direction. Here we demonstrate a method for electrochemical lithium tuning of catalytic materials in organic electrolyte for subsequent enhancement of the catalytic activity in aqueous solution. By continuously extracting lithium ions out of LiCoO2, a popular cathode material in lithium ion batteries, to Li0.5CoO2 in organic electrolyte, the catalytic activity is significantly improved. This enhancement is ascribed to the unique electronic structure after the delithiation process. The general efficacy of this methodology is demonstrated in several mixed metal oxides with similar improvements. The electrochemically delithiated LiCo0.33Ni0.33Fe0.33O2 exhibits a notable performance, better than the benchmark iridium/carbon catalyst.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms5345
View details for PubMedID 24993836
Electrochemical tuning of vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms and its application in improving hydrogen evolution reaction
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2013; 110 (49): 19701-19706
The ability to intercalate guest species into the van der Waals gap of 2D layered materials affords the opportunity to engineer the electronic structures for a variety of applications. Here we demonstrate the continuous tuning of layer vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms through electrochemical intercalation of Li(+) ions. By scanning the Li intercalation potential from high to low, we have gained control of multiple important material properties in a continuous manner, including tuning the oxidation state of Mo, the transition of semiconducting 2H to metallic 1T phase, and expanding the van der Waals gap until exfoliation. Using such nanofilms after different degree of Li intercalation, we show the significant improvement of the hydrogen evolution reaction activity. A strong correlation between such tunable material properties and hydrogen evolution reaction activity is established. This work provides an intriguing and effective approach on tuning electronic structures for optimizing the catalytic activity.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1316792110
View details for Web of Science ID 000327744900025
View details for PubMedID 24248362
Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2013; 110 (40): 15925-15930
By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs-a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1307327110
View details for Web of Science ID 000325105500034
View details for PubMedID 24043800
A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network.
2013; 8 (6): 421-425
Transparent conducting electrodes are essential components for numerous flexible optoelectronic devices, including touch screens and interactive electronics. Thin films of indium tin oxide-the prototypical transparent electrode material-demonstrate excellent electronic performances, but film brittleness, low infrared transmittance and low abundance limit suitability for certain industrial applications. Alternatives to indium tin oxide have recently been reported and include conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, although flexibility is greatly improved, the optoelectronic performance of these carbon-based materials is limited by low conductivity. Other examples include metal nanowire-based electrodes, which can achieve sheet resistances of less than 10Ω □(-1) at 90% transmission because of the high conductivity of the metals. To achieve these performances, however, metal nanowires must be defect-free, have conductivities close to their values in bulk, be as long as possible to minimize the number of wire-to-wire junctions, and exhibit small junction resistance. Here, we present a facile fabrication process that allows us to satisfy all these requirements and fabricate a new kind of transparent conducting electrode that exhibits both superior optoelectronic performances (sheet resistance of ∼2Ω □(-1) at 90% transmission) and remarkable mechanical flexibility under both stretching and bending stresses. The electrode is composed of a free-standing metallic nanotrough network and is produced with a process involving electrospinning and metal deposition. We demonstrate the practical suitability of our transparent conducting electrode by fabricating a flexible touch-screen device and a transparent conducting tape.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nnano.2013.84
View details for PubMedID 23685985
- fSulphur-TiO2 yolk-shell nanoarchitecture with internal void space for long-cycle lithium-sulphur batteries NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 2013; 4