Stanford Advisors

  • Lei Xing, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor

All Publications

  • A Spatial-Domain Factor for Sparse-Sampling Circular-View Photoacoustic Tomography IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Hakakzadeh, S., Rajendran, P., Nili, V., Kavehvash, Z., Pramanik, M. 2023; 29 (4)
  • High frame rate (similar to 3 Hz) circular photoacoustic tomography using single-element ultrasound transducer aided with deep learning JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS Rajendran, P., Pramanik, M. 2022; 27 (6): 066005


    In circular scanning photoacoustic tomography (PAT), it takes several minutes to generate an image of acceptable quality, especially with a single-element ultrasound transducer (UST). The imaging speed can be enhanced by faster scanning (with high repetition rate light sources) and using multiple-USTs. However, artifacts arising from the sparse signal acquisition and low signal-to-noise ratio at higher scanning speeds limit the imaging speed. Thus, there is a need to improve the imaging speed of the PAT systems without hampering the quality of the PAT image.To improve the frame rate (or imaging speed) of the PAT system by using deep learning (DL).For improving the frame rate (or imaging speed) of the PAT system, we propose a novel U-Net-based DL framework to reconstruct PAT images from fast scanning data.The efficiency of the network was evaluated on both single- and multiple-UST-based PAT systems. Both phantom and in vivo imaging demonstrate that the network can improve the imaging frame rate by approximately sixfold in single-UST-based PAT systems and by approximately twofold in multi-UST-based PAT systems.We proposed an innovative method to improve the frame rate (or imaging speed) by using DL and with this method, the fastest frame rate of ∼ 3    Hz imaging is achieved without hampering the quality of the reconstructed image.

    View details for DOI 10.1117/1.JBO.27.6.066005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000819038300010

    View details for PubMedID 36452448

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9209813

  • Multi-angle data acquisition to compensate transducer finite size in photoacoustic tomography PHOTOACOUSTICS Hakakzadeh, S., Mozaffarzadeh, M., Mostafavi, S., Kavehvash, Z., Rajendran, P., Verweij, M., de Jong, N., Pramanik, M. 2022; 27: 100373


    In photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems, the tangential resolution decreases due to the finite size of the transducer as the off-center distance increases. To address this problem, we propose a multi-angle detection approach in which the transducer used for data acquisition rotates around its center (with specific angles) as well as around the scanning center. The angles are calculated based on the central frequency and diameter of the transducer and the radius of the region-of-interest (ROI). Simulations with point-like absorbers (for point-spread-function evaluation) and a vasculature phantom (for quality assessment), and experiments with ten 0.5 mm-diameter pencil leads and a leaf skeleton phantom are used for evaluation of the proposed approach. The results show that a location-independent tangential resolution is achieved with 150 spatial sampling and central rotations with angles of ±8°/±16°. With further developments, the proposed detection strategy can replace the conventional detection (rotating a transducer around ROI) in PAT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pacs.2022.100373

    View details for Web of Science ID 000812053400001

    View details for PubMedID 35662895

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9157198

  • Multi-transducer photoacoustic tomography imaging without radius calibration using Deep learning Rajendran, P., Pramanik, M., Oraevsky, A. A., Wang, L. V. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2607703

    View details for Web of Science ID 000831856700007

  • Hybrid Carbon Dot Assembly as a Reactive Oxygen Species Nanogenerator for Ultrasound-Assisted Tumor Ablation JACS AU Jana, D., Wang, D., Rajendran, P., Bindra, A., Guo, Y., Liu, J., Pramanik, M., Zhao, Y. 2021; 1 (12): 2328-2338


    The efficacy of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-based therapy is substantially constrained by the limited ROS generation, stern activation conditions, and lack of a straightforward reaction paradigm. Carbon dots (CDs) have been highly sought after for therapeutic applications for their biocompatibility and intrinsic fluorescence imaging capabilities, making them suitable for ROS generation. Herein, we synthesized a CD-based ultrasmall hybrid nanostructure possessing active sites of Mo, Cu, and IR-780 dye. After cooperative self-assembly with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-poly(ethylene glycol), the obtained assembly (CMIR-CDa) exhibits near-infrared fluorescence imaging and photoacoustic tomography. Interestingly, CMIR-CDa can generate singlet oxygen (1O2), hydroxyl radical (·OH), and superoxide radical anion (O2 • -) upon ultrasound stimulus owing to its sonosensitizing and enzyme-mimicking properties, showing an enhanced efficacy for tumor ablation in vivo. The collective in vitro and in vivo results indicate that CMIR-CDa has a high potency as an ROS nanogenerator under US irradiation, even at a low concentration. The present study offers an approach for engineering hybrid CDs in a bioinspired way for intratumoral ROS augmentation in response to deep tissue penetrable external stimuli.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacsau.1c00422

    View details for Web of Science ID 000746271300004

    View details for PubMedID 34977901

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8715545

  • Photoacoustic imaging aided with deep learning: a review BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING LETTERS Rajendran, P., Sharma, A., Pramanik, M. 2022; 12 (2): 155-173


    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging hybrid imaging modality integrating the benefits of both optical and ultrasound imaging. Although PAI exhibits superior imaging capabilities, its translation into clinics is still hindered by various limitations. In recent years, deeplearning (DL), a new paradigm of machine learning, is gaining a lot of attention due to its ability to improve medical images. Likewise, DL is also widely being used in PAI to overcome some of the limitations of PAI. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the various DL techniques employed in PAI along with its promising advantages.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s13534-021-00210-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000721676600001

    View details for PubMedID 35529338

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9046497

  • Deep-learning-based multi-transducer photoacoustic tomography imaging without radius calibration OPTICS LETTERS Rajendran, P., Pramanik, M. 2021; 46 (18): 4510-4513


    Pulsed laser diodes are used in photoacoustic tomography (PAT) as excitation sources because of their low cost, compact size, and high pulse repetition rate. In combination with multiple single-element ultrasound transducers (SUTs) the imaging speed of PAT can be improved. However, during PAT image reconstruction, the exact radius of each SUT is required for accurate reconstruction. Here we developed a novel deep learning approach to alleviate the need for radius calibration. We used a convolutional neural network (fully dense U-Net) aided with a convolutional long short-term memory block to reconstruct the PAT images. Our analysis on the test set demonstrates that the proposed network eliminates the need for radius calibration and improves the peak signal-to-noise ratio by ∼73% without compromising the image quality. In vivo imaging was used to verify the performance of the network.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OL.434513

    View details for Web of Science ID 000696222700020

    View details for PubMedID 34525034

  • Another decade of photoacoustic imaging PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY Das, D., Sharma, A., Rajendran, P., Pramanik, M. 2021; 66 (5)


    Photoacoustic imaging-a hybrid biomedical imaging modality finding its way to clinical practices. Although the photoacoustic phenomenon was known more than a century back, only in the last two decades it has been widely researched and used for biomedical imaging applications. In this review we focus on the development and progress of the technology in the last decade (2011-2020). From becoming more and more user friendly, cheaper in cost, portable in size, photoacoustic imaging promises a wide range of applications, if translated to clinic. The growth of photoacoustic community is steady, and with several new directions researchers are exploring, it is inevitable that photoacoustic imaging will one day establish itself as a regular imaging system in the clinical practices.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/1361-6560/abd669

    View details for Web of Science ID 000624511800001

    View details for PubMedID 33361580

  • Deep learning approach to improve tangential resolution in photoacoustic tomography BIOMEDICAL OPTICS EXPRESS Ajendran, P. R., Pramanik, M. 2020; 11 (12): 7311-7323


    In circular scan photoacoustic tomography (PAT), the axial resolution is spatially invariant and is limited by the bandwidth of the detector. However, the tangential resolution is spatially variant and is dependent on the aperture size of the detector. In particular, the tangential resolution improves with the decreasing aperture size. However, using a detector with a smaller aperture reduces the sensitivity of the transducer. Thus, large aperture size detectors are widely preferred in circular scan PAT imaging systems. Although several techniques have been proposed to improve the tangential resolution, they have inherent limitations such as high cost and the need for customized detectors. Herein, we propose a novel deep learning architecture to counter the spatially variant tangential resolution in circular scanning PAT imaging systems. We used a fully dense U-Net based convolutional neural network architecture along with 9 residual blocks to improve the tangential resolution of the PAT images. The network was trained on the simulated datasets and its performance was verified by experimental in vivo imaging. Results show that the proposed deep learning network improves the tangential resolution by eight folds, without compromising the structural similarity and quality of image.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/BOE.410145

    View details for Web of Science ID 000596131800004

    View details for PubMedID 33408998

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7747891

  • Label-free high framerate imaging of circulating blood clots using a dual modal ultrasound and photoacoustic system. Journal of biophotonics Das, D., Sivasubramanian, K., Rajendran, P., Pramanik, M. 2020


    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a disorder when a blood clot (thrombus) is formed in one of the deep veins. These clots detach from the original sites and circulate in the blood stream at high velocities. Diagnosing these blood clots at an early stage is necessary to decide the treatment strategy. For label-free, in vivo and real-time detection, high framerate photoacoustic imaging can be used. In this work, a dual modal clinical ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) system is used for the high framerate PA imaging of circulating blood clots in blood at linear velocities up to 107 cm/sec. Blood clot had 1.4 times higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the static mode and 1.3 times higher SNR compared to blood PA signal in the flow experiments. This work demonstrates that fast-moving circulating blood clots are easy to recognize against the background PA signal and may aid in early diagnosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbio.202000371

    View details for PubMedID 33231356

  • In vivo detection of venous sinus distension due to intracranial hypotension in small animal using pulsed-laser-diode photoacoustic tomography JOURNAL OF BIOPHOTONICS Rajendran, P., Sahu, S., Dienzo, R., Pramanik, M. 2020; 13 (6): e201960162


    Intracranial hypotension (IH) is a pathophysiological condition of reduced intracranial pressure caused by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume due to dural injuries from lumbar puncture, surgery, or trauma. Understanding the prognosis of IH in small animal models is important to gain insights on the complications associated with it such as orthostatic headache, cerebral venous thrombosis, coma, and so forth. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers a novel and cost-effective way to perceive and detect IH in small animal models. In this study, a pulsed laser diode (PLD)-based PAT imaging system was used to examine the changes in the venous sinuses of the rat brain due to IH, induced through CSF extraction. After the CSF extraction, an increase in the sagittal sinus area by ~30% and width by 40% ± 5% was observed. These results provide supportive evidence that the PLD-PAT can be employed for detecting changes in sagittal sinus due to IH in rat model.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbio.201960162

    View details for Web of Science ID 000520731900001

    View details for PubMedID 32030895

  • In vivo evaluation of cerebral venous sinus morphology using pulsed-laser-diode-based desktop photoacoustic tomography system Rajendran, P., Sahu, S., Dienzo, R., Pramanik, M., Oraevsky, A. A., Wang, L. V. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2543892

    View details for Web of Science ID 000558347500028

  • Pulsed Laser Diode-Based Desktop Photoacoustic Tomography for Monitoring Wash-In and Wash-Out of Dye in Rat Cortical Vasculature JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS Kalva, S., Upputuri, P., Rajendran, P., Dienzo, R., Pramanik, M. 2019


    Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) imaging is an emerging biomedical imaging modality useful in various preclinical and clinical applications. Custom-made circular ring array-based transducers and conventional bulky Nd:YAG/OPO lasers inhibit translation of the PAT system to clinics. Ultra-compact pulsed laser diodes (PLDs) are currently being used as an alternative source of near-infrared excitation for PA imaging. High-speed dynamic in vivo imaging has been demonstrated using a compact PLD-based desktop PAT system (PLD-PAT). A visualized experimental protocol using the desktop PLD-PAT system is provided in this work for dynamic in vivo brain imaging. The protocol describes the desktop PLD-PAT system configuration, preparation of animal for brain vascular imaging, and procedure for dynamic visualization of indocyanine green (ICG) dye uptake and clearance process in rat cortical vasculature.

    View details for DOI 10.3791/59764

    View details for Web of Science ID 000469977600133

    View details for PubMedID 31205314