Dr Kumari’s clinical interests lie in taking care of patients with Hepatitis C , cirrhosis and complications, liver cancer and management of post transplant patients. Her research interests are doing Translational research in Portal Hypertension and its complications.
- Transplant Hepatology
Clinical Associate Professor, Medicine - Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Residency: St Louis University School of Medicine (2006) MO
Internship: St Louis University School of Medicine (2004) MO
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Transplant Hepatology (2014)
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology (2011)
Fellowship: Saint Louis University Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2011) MO
Fellowship: Saint Louis University Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2007) MO
Medical Education: Sri Venkates Medical College (2000) India
Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B virus infection in those not meeting criteria for antiviral therapy.
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of HCC in a cohort of subjects with HBV and correlate with HBV treatment current guidance. We identified 2846 subjects with HBV over the study period. HCC was diagnosed in 386 of 2846 (14%) subjects; 209 of 386 (54%) were on nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy at time of HCC diagnosis, and 177 of 386 (46%) were not on NA therapy. Of the 177 subjects not on NAs who developed HCC during follow-up, 153 of 177 (86%) had cirrhosis. Within the 177 subjects not on NAs, 158 of 177 (89%) had undetectable HBV DNA, 10 of 177 (6%) had detectable HBV DNA < 2000 IU/L, and 9 of 177 (5%) had HBV DNA > 2000 IU/L. Of those with cirrhosis and undetectable HBV DNA, 115 of 141 had compensated cirrhosis, and 26 of 141 had decompensated cirrhosis. Significant predictors of HCC on time to event analysis included cirrhosis (hazard ratio [HR] 10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.8-17.5; p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase level (HR 1.004, 95% CI 1.002-1.006; p < 0.001), age (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.06; p < 0.001), (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1; p 0.007), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.8; p 0.02). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated the cumulative incidence of HCC in subjects with compensated cirrhosis receiving NA therapy was significantly lower compared to subjects with compensated cirrhosis outside current HBV treatment practice guidance (undetectable HBV DNA) (32% vs. 51%; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Those with untreated compensated cirrhosis with undetectable HBV DNA who do not meet current guidance for treatment had higher rates of HCC than those with compensated cirrhosis and suppressed HBV DNA by NA therapy. This study highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and treatment of HBV.
View details for DOI 10.1002/hep4.2064
View details for PubMedID 36004713
Predictors of Outcomes of Patients Referred to a Transplant Center for Urgent Liver Transplantation Evaluation.
2021; 5 (3): 516-525
Liver transplantation (LT) is definitive treatment for end-stage liver disease. This study evaluated factors predicting successful evaluation in patients transferred for urgent inpatient LT evaluation. Eighty-two patients with cirrhosis were transferred for urgent LT evaluation from January 2016 to December 2018. Alcohol-associated liver disease was the common etiology of liver disease (42/82). Of these 82 patients, 35 (43%) were declined for LT, 27 (33%) were wait-listed for LT, 5 (6%) improved, and 15 (18%) died. Psychosocial factors were the most common reasons for being declined for LT (49%). Predictors for listing and receiving LT on multivariate analysis included Hispanic race (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; P = 0.003), Asian race (OR, 1.52; P = 0.02), non-Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 1.49; P = 0.04), hyponatremia (OR, 1.38; P = 0.04), serum albumin (OR, 1.13; P = 0.01), and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD)-Na (OR, 1.02; P = 0.003). Public insurance (i.e., Medicaid) was a predictor of not being listed for LT on multivariate analysis (OR, 0.77; P = 0.02). Excluding patients declined for psychosocial reasons, predictors of being declined for LT on multivariate analysis included Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C) score >51.5 (OR, 1.26; P = 0.03), acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) grade 3 (OR, 1.41; P = 0.01), hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) (OR, 1.38; P = 0.01), and respiratory failure (OR, 1.51; P = 0.01). Predictors of 3-month mortality included CLIF-C score >51.5 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.52; P = 0.04) and intensive care unit (HR, 8.25; P < 0.001). Conclusion: MELD-Na, albumin, hyponatremia, ACLF grade 3, HRS, respiratory failure, public insurance, Hispanic race, Asian race, and non-Hispanic ethnicity predicted liver transplant outcome. Lack of psychosocial support was a major reason for being declined for LT. The CLIF-C score predicted being declined for LT and mortality.
View details for DOI 10.1002/hep4.1644
View details for PubMedID 33681683
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7917272
Trends in the Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection based on the Insurance Status in the United States from 2013 to 2018.
Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
With the recent improvement in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a better understanding of the infection burden is needed. We aimed to (1) estimate the trends in the national prevalence of HCV infection based on the type of health insurance coverage and (2) identify at-risk populations for HCV infection in the United States (US) general population.Population-based analyses using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013-2018) were performed with a focus on HCV infection. We analyzed the prevalence of HCV infection based on the health insurance status before the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) era (2013-2014) and during the DAA era (2015-2018).The age-adjusted prevalence of active HCV infection (HCV RNA [+]) was 0.92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71%-1.19%) in the US non-institutionalized civilian population. While the prevalence of active HCV infection has remained stable, the prevalence of resolved HCV infection has increased after the introduction of DAA. In terms of health insurance coverage, the prevalence of active HCV infection decreased, and the prevalence of resolved HCV infection increased among individuals who had health insurance, especially private health insurance. The independent risk factors of active HCV infection were 40-69 years group, male, less than high school education, unmarried, below poverty status, being born in the US, history of blood transfusion, and not having private health insurance.The burden of active HCV infection has decreased among individuals who had health insurance, especially private health insurance, during the DAA era.
View details for DOI 10.1111/liv.15113
View details for PubMedID 34817925
- Predictors of Outcomes of Patients Referred to a Transplant Center for Urgent Liver Transplantation Evaluation HEPATOLOGY COMMUNICATIONS 2020
- Strongyloides Superinfection After Liver Transplantion. Digestive diseases and sciences 2020
THE INCIDENCE OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION SUBJECTS NOT MEETING CRITERIA FOR ANTIVIRAL THERAPY
WILEY. 2020: 472A–473A
View details for Web of Science ID 000574027001230
Clinical Response to Treatment for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in Patients With Cirrhosis
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020: S587–S588
View details for Web of Science ID 000607196703094
Characterizing Ascites in Subjects With Nonhepatic Solid Tumors
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020: S507
View details for Web of Science ID 000607196702295
THE ROLE OF LOCOREGIONAL THERAPY (LRT), POST LRT IMAGING, AND EXPLANT PATHOLOGY AS PREDICTORS OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA (HCC) RECURRENCE POST ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANT (OLT)
WILEY. 2019: 691A–692A
View details for Web of Science ID 000488653502295
- Temporal Trends in Disease Presentation and Survival of Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Real-World Experience From 1998 to 2015 CANCER 2018; 124 (12): 2588–98
Temporal trends in disease presentation and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A real-world experience from 1998 to 2015.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the few cancers whose incidence continues to increase. The goal of the current study was to investigate the presentation and survival trends of patients with HCC presenting to a university hospital between 1998 and 2015.Study data were ascertained by individual chart review with survival data also supplemented by National Death Index query up to December 31, 2015. Patients were divided into three 6-year groups by diagnosis date (1998-2003, 2004-2009, and 2010-2015).A total of 2106 consecutive patients with HCC were included. The majority of patients had either hepatitis C (56.7%) or hepatitis B (22.1%), but cases of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis HCC increased by 68% over the most recent time period. Screening/surveillance identified 61% of HCC cases, but only 31% of these patients underwent curative treatment, which did not increase significantly over time. The overall median survival was 29.8 months (2.48 years) and without improvement over time. On multivariable analysis, Asian or Hispanic ethnicity, meeting Milan criteria, and receiving any of the standard HCC treatments were found to be significantly associated with improved survival, but diagnosis time period and liver disease etiology were not.Over the last 18 years, the percentage of cases of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis HCC has increased but not overall survival. It is interesting to note that only 31% of patients with HCC identified via screening/surveillance received any curative treatment. Further research is needed to better understand the barriers to curative care for patients with HCC and the causes of the lack of improvement in survival in the more recent patient cohort. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
View details for PubMedID 29624631
Optimizing the Nutritional Support of Adult Patients in the Setting of Cirrhosis.
2017; 9 (10)
The aim of this work is to develop a pragmatic approach in the assessment and management strategies of patients with cirrhosis in order to optimize the outcomes in this patient population.A systematic review of literature was conducted through 8 July 2017 on the PubMed Database looking for key terms, such as malnutrition, nutrition, assessment, treatment, and cirrhosis. Articles and studies looking at associations between nutrition and cirrhosis were reviewed.An assessment of malnutrition should be conducted in two stages: the first, to identify patients at risk for malnutrition based on the severity of liver disease, and the second, to perform a complete multidisciplinary nutritional evaluation of these patients. Optimal management of malnutrition should focus on meeting recommended daily goals for caloric intake and inclusion of various nutrients in the diet. The nutritional goals should be pursued by encouraging and increasing oral intake or using other measures, such as oral supplementation, enteral nutrition, or parenteral nutrition.Although these strategies to improve nutritional support have been well established, current literature on the topic is limited in scope. Further research should be implemented to test if this enhanced approach is effective.
View details for DOI 10.3390/nu9101114
View details for PubMedID 29027963
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5691730
- Optimizing the Nutritional Support of Adult Patients in the Setting of Cirrhosis NUTRIENTS 2017; 9 (10)
Increased Prevalence of Metabolic Risk Factors in Asian Americans With Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology
2017; 51 (4): 384-390
We used metabolic risk factors to estimate the prevalence and clinical significance of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Americans with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).This is a retrospective cohort study of 824 consecutive Asian HCC patients at Stanford University Medical Center from 1998 to 2015. Patients were subdivided as: Chinese, other East Asian (Japanese and Korean), South East Asian (Vietnamese, Thai, and Laotian), Maritime South East Asian (MSEA: Malaysian, Indonesian, Filipino, and Singaporean), and South West Asian (Indian, Pakistani, and Middle Eastern). Metabolic risk factors studied were body mass index, hypertension, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.Most patients were male (76%) with mean age 63 years. Metabolic risk factors were highly prevalent on presentation and increased over time (P<0.001), as did the prevalence of cryptogenic HCC (P<0.004). Compared with other Asian subgroups, MSEAs had the highest body mass index (26.3) and higher rates of type II diabetes (44% vs. 23% to 35%, P=0.004), hypertension (59% vs. 38% to 55%, P=0.04), and cryptogenic HCC (15% vs. 4% to 10%, P=0.01). They were more likely to be symptomatic on presentation (44% vs. 32% to 58%, P=0.07), less likely to present within Milan criteria (34% vs. 35% to 63%, P<0.0001), and trended toward decreased 10-year survival rates compared with other ethnic subgroups (9% vs. 25% to 32%, P=0.07).Metabolic risk factors were increasingly prevalent among Asian Americans with HCC. MSEAs, who had the highest incidence of these risk factors, had more advanced tumor stage and trended toward worse survival.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000689
View details for PubMedID 27636408
Sofosbuvir Use in the Setting of End-stage Renal Disease: A Single Center Experience.
Journal of clinical and translational hepatology
2017; 5 (1): 23-26
Background and Aims: Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are dialysis-dependent form a unique group, in which safety, tolerability and efficacy of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) need further evaluation. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 14 patients with CHC and ESRD on dialysis who received 15 courses of SOF-based therapy. We evaluated dose escalation to standard-dose SOF in this proof-of-principle experience. Results: Sustained virological response (defined as undetectable viral load at 12 weeks, SVR-12) was achieved in 13 out of the 15 (86.7%) treatment courses. Seven (46.6%) patients received reduced half dose as conservative proof-of-principal to mitigate potential toxicity. In 13 out of 15 treatment courses, patients completed the designated treatment duration. One patient was treated twice and developed SVR-12 with the retreatment. One patient was lost to follow-up and counted as a non-responder. Premature discontinuations were not due to DAA-related adverse effects. There were no reports of severe adverse effects or drug interactions. Conclusion: We treated CHC patients with ESRD using dose escalation to standard-dose SOF in this proof-of-principle experience and achieved SVR rates comparable to general population.
View details for DOI 10.14218/JCTH.2016.00060
View details for PubMedID 28507922
Real-world experience with interferon-free, direct acting antiviral therapies in Asian Americans with chronic hepatitis C and advanced liver disease.
2017; 96 (6)
Real-life data on interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is limited for Asian Americans.To evaluate sustained virologic response (SVR) and adverse events (AE) in Asian Americans treated with sofosbuvir (SOF)-based, IFN-free DAA therapies.This is a retrospective study of 110 consecutive Asian Americans with HCV genotypes 1 to 3 or 6 treated with IFN-free SOF-based regimens for 8 to 24 weeks between February 2014 and March 2016 at a university center in Northern California.Mean age was 63 ± 12 years, mean BMI was 25 ± 6 (kg/m), and about half (52%) were male. Most patients were infected with HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1, 64%), followed by HCV-2 (14%), HCV-6 (13%), and HCV-3 (8%). Half had cirrhosis, and the majority of these (67%) had decompensation. Overall SVR12 was 93% (102/110), and highest among patients without cirrhosis, liver transplant, or HCC (100%, 37/37). SVR12 was lower among patients with HCC (82%, 14/17), decompensated cirrhosis (84%, 31/37), or liver transplant (89%, 17/19), regardless of treatment and genotype. Most common AEs were anemia (25%), fatigue (20%), and headache (12%). Anemia was highest in patients receiving SOF/RBV (67%). There was 1 treatment-unrelated serious adverse effect (SAE). There were 7 dose reductions due to anemia or fatigue from RBV and 2 treatment discontinuations due to fatigue or loss of insurance authorization.This real-life cohort of Asian American CHC patients treated with IFN-free SOF-based therapies showed high overall treatment response and good tolerability, despite very high rates of advanced disease and prior treatment failure.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MD.0000000000006128
View details for PubMedID 28178174
- Sofosbuvir Use in the Setting of End-stage Renal Disease: A Single Center Experience JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL HEPATOLOGY 2017; 5 (1): 23–26
Effectiveness and tolerability of simeprevir and sofosbuvir in nontransplant and post-liver transplant patients with hepatitis C genotype 1.
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
2016; 44 (7): 738-746
Hepatitis C virus genotype 1a (HCV-1a), prior treatment, cirrhosis and post-transplant status are historically associated with poor treatment responses. The new oral direct-acting agents appear to be effective and safe in these patients.To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of simeprevir and sofosbuvir in a diverse real-life cohort of patients, including difficult-to-treat patients.We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 198 consecutive patients with hepatitis C genotype 1 (148 nontransplant, 50 post transplant), who were treated with simeprevir and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks between December 2013 and December 2014. Primary outcome was sustained virological response with undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after completion of therapy (SVR12). Risk factors evaluated for lack of SVR12 included HCV 1a (vs. 1b), prior treatment (vs. none), and cirrhosis (vs. no cirrhosis).SVR12 rates were similar in non- and post-transplant settings, 82% and 88%, respectively. There were no significant differences in adverse events in patients regardless of cirrhosis or transplant status. On multivariate analysis also inclusive of gender and liver transplant status, negative predictors of SVR12 were having at least 2 or 3 risk factors (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10-0.87, P = 0.027 or 0.29, 95% CI 0.09-0.85, P = 0.025, respectively).Simeprevir and sofosbuvir combination is a safe and effective regimen for the treatment of non- and post-transplant patients with traditional risk factors for poor treatment response, unless more than 2 difficult-to-treat risk factors are present.
View details for DOI 10.1111/apt.13761
View details for PubMedID 27506182
Differences in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence and Survival Rates among Asian Mono-Ethnicities
WILEY. 2016: 860A
View details for Web of Science ID 000385493804103
Outcomes in Patients with Severe Hepatic Encephalopathy and MELD 30 to 34 Justifies Exception to MELD 35 and Higher
WILEY. 2016: 709A
View details for Web of Science ID 000385493803223
Fulminant Hepatic Failure from Diff use Infiltration by Metastatic Melanoma
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2016: S949–S950
View details for Web of Science ID 000395764603290
The Effect of Gastric Acid Suppression on Ledipasivir-Sofosbuvir Effectiveness in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection
WILEY. 2016: 947A
View details for Web of Science ID 000385493804275
Advances in cirrhosis: Optimizing the management of hepatic encephalopathy.
World journal of hepatology
2015; 7 (29): 2871-2879
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major complication of cirrhosis resulting in significant socioeconomic burden, morbidity, and mortality. HE can be further subdivided into covert HE (CHE) and overt HE (OHE). CHE is a subclinical, less severe manifestation of HE and requires psychometric testing for diagnosis. Due to the time consuming screening process and lack of standardized diagnostic criteria, CHE is frequently underdiagnosed despite its recognized role as a precursor to OHE. Screening for CHE with the availability of the Stroop test has provided a pragmatic method to promptly diagnose CHE. Management of acute OHE involves institution of lactulose, the preferred first-line therapy. In addition, prompt recognition and treatment of precipitating factors is critical as it may result in complete resolution of acute episodes of OHE. Treatment goals include improvement of daily functioning, evaluation for liver transplantation, and prevention of OHE recurrence. For secondary prophylaxis, intolerance to indefinite lactulose therapy may lead to non-adherence and has been identified as a precipitating factor for recurrent OHE. Rifaximin is an effective add-on therapy to lactulose for treatment and prevention of recurrent OHE. Recent studies have demonstrated comparable efficacy of probiotic therapy to lactulose use in both primary prophylaxis and secondary prophylaxis.
View details for DOI 10.4254/wjh.v7.i29.2871
View details for PubMedID 26692331
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4678373
Sofosbuvir and simeprevir combination therapy in the setting of liver transplantation and hemodialysis
TRANSPLANT INFECTIOUS DISEASE
2015; 17 (2): 275-278
We report safety, tolerability, and 12-week sustained virologic response with half-standard dose sofosbuvir and standard-dose simeprevir combination therapy in a hepatitis C virus genotype 1a-infected liver transplant recipient on hemodialysis - uncharted territory for sofosbuvir-based therapy. The patient was a non-responder to prior treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. Sofosbuvir efficacy was maintained despite pill-splitting and administration of half-standard dose, 200 mg per day. No drug-drug interactions were noted with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Laboratory tests remained stable or improved during therapy. Our observation, if reproduced in a larger study, may lead to significant improvement in clinical outcomes and cost savings in this patient population.
View details for DOI 10.1111/tid.12348
View details for Web of Science ID 000352219400013
View details for PubMedID 25641426
Fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1.
Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
2015; 16 (5): 739-748
Introduction: The recent October 2014 approval of the fixed dose combination (FDC) of the NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir (SOF) and the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir (LDV) for the treatment of treatment-naive and -experienced HCV genotype 1a/1b (HCV-1) has marked a new era of IFN and ribavirin free treatment for chronic hepatitis C. SOF/LDV combination is approved for 12 weeks in treatment-naive patients with and without cirrhosis. For treatment-experienced patients, it is approved for 12 weeks in patients without cirrhosis but for 24 weeks in patients with cirrhosis. A shorter 8-week course of treatment can be considered for treatment-naive patients who have pretreatment HCV RNA of < 6 million IU/ml and do not have cirrhosis. Areas covered: The purpose of this synopsis is to review the pharmacotherapy and results of pivotal clinical trials for SOF/LDV as the current standard-of-care for HCV-1 patients. We also briefly discuss emerging data with SOF/LDV for certain special populations. Preliminary data is also emerging for HCV genotypes non-1, but their discussion is beyond the scope of this synopsis. The review was done based on data from Phase I, II and III published studies as well as data presented at major national and international meetings. Expert opinion: The FDC of LDV (90 mg) and SOF (400 mg) has a sustained virologic response of approximately 96% when given as a once-a-day pill for 3 months to both treatment-naive and -experienced HCV-1 patients with the exception of prior null responders with cirrhosis. The latter group of patients also achieves high sustained virologic response of 95% but with therapy for 24 weeks. In addition, emerging data suggest that this FDC regimen may be effective in the treatment of HCV-1 co-infected patients with HIV, HCV-1 and -4, patients with cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation and those with post-liver transplant HCV recurrence.
View details for DOI 10.1517/14656566.2015.1013938
View details for PubMedID 25676581
- Coffee: a panacea or snake oil for the liver? Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology 2014; 12 (9): 1569-1571
Antibiotic Prophylaxis among Hospitalized End-Stage Liver Disease Patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score above Thirty: How Do the Physicians in the United States Practice?
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2013: S153
View details for Web of Science ID 000330178100517