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  • Impact of shelter-in-place order for COVID-19 on trauma activations: Santa Clara County, California, March 2020. Trauma surgery & acute care open Forrester, J. D., Liou, R. n., Knowlton, L. M., Jou, R. M., Spain, D. A. 2020; 5 (1): e000505


    The shelter-in-place order for Santa Clara County, California on 16 March was the first of its kind in the USA. It was unknown what impact this order would have on trauma activations.We performed a retrospective analysis of institutional trauma registries among the two American College of Surgeons Level 1 trauma centers serving Santa Clara County, California. Trauma activation volumes at the trauma centers from January to March 2020 were compared with month-matched historical cohorts from 2018 to 2019.Only 81 (3%) patients were trauma activations at the trauma centers in the 15 days after the shelter-in-place order went into effect on 16 March 2020, compared with 389 activations during the same time period in 2018 and 2019 (p<0.0001). There were no other statistically significant changes to the epidemiology of trauma activations. Only one trauma activation had a positive COVID-19 test.Overall trauma activations decreased 4.8-fold after the shelter-in-place order went into effect in Santa Clara County on 16 March 2020, with no other effect on the epidemiology of persons presenting after traumatic injury.Shelter-in-place orders may reduce strain on healthcare systems by diminishing hospital admissions from trauma, in addition to reducing virus transmission.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/tsaco-2020-000505

    View details for PubMedID 32426529

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7228662

  • Differential Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A165 Isoforms Between Intracranial Atherosclerosis and Moyamoya Disease. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association Jiang, H., Toscano, J. F., Schiraldi, M., Song, S. S., Schlick, K. H., Dumitrascu, O. M., Liou, R., Lyden, P. D., Pan, J., Zhan, R., Saver, J. L., Gonzalez, N. R. 2018


    BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A165 (VEGF-A165) has been identified as a combination of 2 alternative splice variants: proangiogenic VEGF-A165a and antiangiogenic VEGF-A165b. Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) and moyamoya disease (MMD) are 2 main types of intracranial arterial steno-occlusive disorders with distinct capacities for collateral formation. Recent studies indicate that VEGF-A165 regulates collateral growth in ischemia. Therefore, we investigated if there is a distinctive composition of VEGF-A165 isoforms in ICAD and MMD.METHODS: Sixty-six ICAD patients, 6 MMD patients, and 5 controls were enrolled in this prospective study. ICAD and MMD patients received intensive medical management upon enrollment. Surgery was offered to 9 ICAD patients who had recurrent ischemic events, 6 MMD patients, and 5 surgical controls without ICAD. VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b plasma levels were measured at baseline, within 1 week after patients having surgery, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment.RESULTS: A significantly higher baseline VEGF-A165a/b ratio was observed in MMD compared to ICAD (P = .016). The VEGF-A165a/b ratio increased significantly and rapidly after surgical treatment in ICAD (P = .026) more so than in MMD and surgical controls. In patients with ICAD receiving intensive medical management, there was also an elevation of the VEGF-A165a/b ratio, but at a slower rate, reaching the peak at 3 months after initiation of treatment (baseline versus 3 months VEGF-A165a/b ratio, P = .028).CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows an increased VEGF-A165a/b ratio in MMD compared to ICAD, and suggests that both intensive medical management and surgical revascularization elevate the VEGF-A165a/b ratio in ICAD patients.

    View details for PubMedID 30392834

  • Antiangiogenesis and medical therapy failure in intracranial atherosclerosis ANGIOGENESIS Gonzalez, N. R., Liou, R., Kurth, F., Jiang, H., Saver, J. 2018; 21 (1): 23–35


    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is one of the most common causes of stroke worldwide and the one with the worst prognosis. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that the balance of circulating pro- and antiangiogenic factors plays a role in the evolution of the disease and can be used as a potential marker for the disease course and a target for treatment. Seventy-four patients with severe ICAD were enrolled in this prospective observational study, medically optimized, and followed for 6 months. Thirteen pro- and eight antiangiogenic factors were measured in the participants' serum using a sandwich multiplex ELISA. Angiogenic profiles were calculated using principal component analysis. We tested the association between angiogenic profiles and recurring cerebrovascular events despite intensive medical therapy, disability at 6 months after enrollment, and angiographic neovascularization in patients who failed medical treatment and underwent indirect revascularization surgery. There is a strong association between a functionally antiangiogenic profile and recurrent stroke or TIA in patients with ICAD (OR = 7.2, CI 2.4-34.4). Multivariable regression analysis showed that this antiangiogenic profile was also associated with poor functional status after 6 months (p = 0.002), independent from other clinical features such as history of previous stroke, diabetes, and age. In patients who failed medical management and underwent indirect revascularization surgery, high endostatin and angiostatin levels were also associated with low angiographic neovascularization (p = 0.02). The results of this study point to the striking importance of antiangiogenesis as a determinant of ICAD patient prognosis and suggest a possible new target for therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 28993906

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5831393