All Publications

  • Clonally Expanded B Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Bind EBV EBNA1 and GlialCAM. Nature Lanz, T. V., Brewer, R. C., Ho, P. P., Moon, J. S., Jude, K. M., Fernandez, D., Fernandes, R. A., Gomez, A. M., Nadj, G. S., Bartley, C. M., Schubert, R. D., Hawes, I. A., Vazquez, S. E., Iyer, M., Zuchero, J. B., Teegen, B., Dunn, J. E., Lock, C. B., Kipp, L. B., Cotham, V. C., Ueberheide, B. M., Aftab, B. T., Anderson, M. S., DeRisi, J. L., Wilson, M. R., Bashford-Rogers, R. J., Platten, M., Garcia, K. C., Steinman, L., Robinson, W. H. 2022


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogenous autoimmune disease in which autoreactive lymphocytes attack the myelin sheath of the central nervous system (CNS). B lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients contribute to inflammation and secrete oligoclonal immunoglobulins1,2. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been linked to MS epidemiologically, but its pathological role remains unclear3. Here we demonstrate high-affinity molecular mimicry between the EBV transcription factor EBNA1 and the CNS protein GlialCAM, and provide structural and in-vivo functional evidence for its relevance. A cross-reactive CSF-derived antibody was initially identified by single-cell sequencing of the paired-chain B cell repertoire of MS blood and CSF, followed by protein microarray-based testing of recombinantly expressed CSF-derived antibodies against MS-associated viruses. Sequence analysis, affinity measurements, and the crystal structure of the EBNA1-peptide epitope in complex with the autoreactive Fab fragment allowed for tracking the development of the naïve EBNA1-restricted antibody to a mature EBNA1/GlialCAM cross-reactive antibody. Molecular mimicry is facilitated by a post-translational modification of GlialCAM. EBNA1 immunization exacerbates the mouse model of MS and anti-EBNA1/GlialCAM antibodies are prevalent in MS patients. Our results provide a mechanistic link for the association between MS and EBV, and could guide the development of novel MS therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-04432-7

    View details for PubMedID 35073561

  • BNT162b2 vaccine induces divergent B cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 NATURE IMMUNOLOGY Brewer, R., Ramadoss, N. S., Lahey, L. J., Jahanbani, S., Robinson, W. H., Lanz, T. 2021


    The first ever US Food and Drug Administration-approved messenger RNA vaccines are highly protective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-3. However, the contribution of each dose to the generation of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and the degree of protection against novel variants warrant further study. Here, we investigated the B cell response to the BNT162b2 vaccine by integrating B cell repertoire analysis with single-cell transcriptomics pre- and post-vaccination. The first vaccine dose elicits a recall response of IgA+ plasmablasts targeting the S subunit S2. Three weeks after the first dose, we observed an influx of minimally mutated IgG+ memory B cells that targeted the receptor binding domain on the S subunit S1 and likely developed from the naive B cell pool. This response was strongly boosted by the second dose and delivers potently neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and several of its variants.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41590-021-01088-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000723985200001

    View details for PubMedID 34848871

  • Maternal Anti-Dengue IgG Fucosylation Predicts Susceptibility to Dengue Disease in Infants. Cell reports Thulin, N. K., Brewer, R. C., Sherwood, R., Bournazos, S., Edwards, K. G., Ramadoss, N. S., Taubenberger, J. K., Memoli, M., Gentles, A. J., Jagannathan, P., Zhang, S., Libraty, D. H., Wang, T. T. 2020; 31 (6): 107642


    Infant mortality from dengue disease is a devastating global health burden that could be minimized with the ability to identify susceptibility for severe disease prior to infection. Although most primary infant dengue infections are asymptomatic, maternally derived anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgGs) present during infection can trigger progression to severe disease through antibody-dependent enhancement mechanisms. Importantly, specific characteristics of maternal IgGs that herald progression to severe infant dengue are unknown. Here, we define ≥10% afucosylation of maternal anti-dengue IgGs as a risk factor for susceptibility of infants to symptomatic dengue infections. Mechanistic experiments show that afucosylation of anti-dengue IgGs promotes FcgammaRIIIa signaling during infection, in turn enhancing dengue virus replication in FcgammaRIIIa+ monocytes. These studies identify a post-translational modification of anti-dengue IgGs that correlates with risk for symptomatic infant dengue infections and define a mechanism by which afucosylated antibodies and FcgammaRIIIa enhance dengue infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107642

    View details for PubMedID 32402275