Institute Affiliations

Professional Education

  • BS, Cumberland University, Exercise Science (2015)
  • MS, Appalachian State University, Exercise Science (2017)
  • MS, Appalachian State University, Engineering Physics (2018)
  • PhD, University of Vermont, Mechanical Engineering (2021)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • How Much Data Is Enough? A Reliable Methodology to Examine Long-Term Wearable Data Acquisition in Gait and Postural Sway. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Meyer, B. M., Depetrillo, P., Franco, J., Donahue, N., Fox, S. R., O'Leary, A., Loftness, B. C., Gurchiek, R. D., Buckley, M., Solomon, A. J., Ng, S. K., Cheney, N., Ceruolo, M., McGinnis, R. S. 2022; 22 (18)


    Wearable sensors facilitate the evaluation of gait and balance impairment in the free-living environment, often with observation periods spanning weeks, months, and even years. Data supporting the minimal duration of sensor wear, which is necessary to capture representative variability in impairment measures, are needed to balance patient burden, data quality, and study cost. Prior investigations have examined the duration required for resolving a variety of movement variables (e.g., gait speed, sit-to-stand tests), but these studies use differing methodologies and have only examined a small subset of potential measures of gait and balance impairment. Notably, postural sway measures have not yet been considered in these analyses. Here, we propose a three-level framework for examining this problem. Difference testing and intra-class correlations (ICC) are used to examine the agreement in features computed from potential wear durations (levels one and two). The association between features and established patient reported outcomes at each wear duration is also considered (level three) for determining the necessary wear duration. Utilizing wearable accelerometer data continuously collected from 22 persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) for 6 weeks, this framework suggests that 2 to 3 days of monitoring may be sufficient to capture most of the variability in gait and sway; however, longer periods (e.g., 3 to 6 days) may be needed to establish strong correlations to patient-reported clinical measures. Regression analysis indicates that the required wear duration depends on both the observation frequency and variability of the measure being considered. This approach provides a framework for evaluating wear duration as one aspect of the comprehensive assessment, which is necessary to ensure that wearable sensor-based methods for capturing gait and balance impairment in the free-living environment are fit for purpose.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/s22186982

    View details for PubMedID 36146348