Bio


Professor Huggins joined Stanford as Assistant Professor in 1954, was promoted to Associate Professor in 1958, and to Professor in 1962.

His research activities have included studies of imperfections in crystals, solid-state reaction kinetics, ferromagnetism, mechanical behavior of solids, crystal growth, and a wide variety of topics in physical metallurgy, ceramics, solid state chemistry and electrochemistry. Primary attention has recently been focused on the development of understanding of solid state ionic phenomena involving solid electrolytes and mixed ionic-electronic conducting materials containing atomic or ionic species such as lithium, sodium or oxygen with unusually high mobility, as well as their use in novel battery and fuel cell systems, electrochromic optical devices, sensors, and in enhanced heterogeneous catalysis. He was also involved in the development of the understanding of the key role played by the phase composition and oxygen stoichiometry in determining the properties of high temperature oxide superconductors.

Topics of particular recent interest have been related to energy conversion and storage, including hydrogen transport and hydride formation in metals, alloys and intermetallic compounds, and various aspects of materials and phenomena related to advanced lithium batteries.

He has over 400 professional publications, including two books; "Advanced Batteries", published by Springer in 2009, and "Energy Storage", published by Springer in 2010.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Honorary Professor, University of Kiel, Germany (2000 - Present)
  • Honorary Professor, University of Ulm, Germany (1994 - Present)
  • Chief Scientist, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Ulm, Germany (1991 - 1995)
  • Director for Materials Sciences, Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) (1968 - 1970)
  • Director, Center for Materials Research, Stanford (1961 - 1977)

Honors & Awards


  • Research Award, International Battery Association (2001)
  • Research Award, Electrochemical Society's Battery Division (1982)
  • 23rd Annual Vincent Bendix Award, American Society for Engineering Education (1978)
  • Senior United States Scientist Award, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (1977)
  • Senior Postdoctoral Fellowship, National Science Foundation (1965-1966)
  • Hardy Gold Medal, AIME (1957)

Professional Education


  • BA, Amherst College, Physics (1950)
  • ScD, MIT, Metallurgy (1954)

Journal Articles


  • Full open-framework batteries for stationary energy storage NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Pasta, M., Wessells, C. D., Liu, N., Nelson, J., McDowell, M. T., Huggins, R. A., Toney, M. F., Cui, Y. 2014; 5

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms4007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331082900006

  • Full open-framework batteries for stationary energy storage. Nature communications Pasta, M., Wessells, C. D., Liu, N., Nelson, J., McDowell, M. T., Huggins, R. A., Toney, M. F., Cui, Y. 2014; 5: 3007-?

    Abstract

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of renewable energy sources and their integration with the electrical grid. We have recently introduced a family of cathodes involving the reversible insertion of cations into materials with the Prussian Blue open-framework crystal structure. Here we report a newly developed manganese hexacyanomanganate open-framework anode that has the same crystal structure. By combining it with the previously reported copper hexacyanoferrate cathode we demonstrate a safe, fast, inexpensive, long-cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery, which involves the insertion of sodium ions. This high rate, high efficiency cell shows a 96.7% round trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate and an 84.2% energy efficiency at a 50C rate. There is no measurable capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. Bulk quantities of the electrode materials can be produced by a room temperature chemical synthesis from earth-abundant precursors.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms4007

    View details for PubMedID 24389854

  • Highly Reversible Open Framework Nanoscale Electrodes for Divalent Ion Batteries NANO LETTERS Wang, R. Y., Wessells, C. D., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2013; 13 (11): 5748-5752

    Abstract

    The reversible insertion of monovalent ions such as lithium into electrode materials has enabled the development of rechargeable batteries with high energy density. Reversible insertion of divalent ions such as magnesium would allow the creation of new battery chemistries that are potentially safer and cheaper than lithium-based batteries. Here we report that nanomaterials in the Prussian Blue family of open framework materials, such as nickel hexacyanoferrate, allow for the reversible insertion of aqueous alkaline earth divalent ions, including Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+). We show unprecedented long cycle life and high rate performance for divalent ion insertion. Our results represent a step forward and pave the way for future development in divalent batteries.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl403669a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327111700118

    View details for PubMedID 24147617

  • Oxidation processes on conducting carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries JOURNAL OF APPLIED ELECTROCHEMISTRY La Mantia, F., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2013; 43 (1): 1-7
  • The Ferrocyanide/Stabilized Carbon System, a New Class of High Rate, Long Cycle Life, Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Huggins, R. A. 2013; 160 (5): A3020-A3025
  • Do You Really Want an Unsafe Battery? JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Huggins, R. A. 2013; 160 (5): A3001-A3005
  • Cotton-templated hierarchical porous structures for high power lithium rechargeable batteries JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A Choi, D. I., Lee, H., Lee, D. J., Nam, K., Kim, J., Huggins, R. A., Park, J., Choi, J. W. 2013; 1 (17): 5320-5325

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3ta00192j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316968000019

  • A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Pasta, M., Wessells, C. D., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2012; 3

    Abstract

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2139

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313514100059

    View details for PubMedID 23093186

  • Tunable Reaction Potentials in Open Framework Nanoparticle Battery Electrodes for Grid-Scale Energy Storage ACS NANO Wessells, C. D., McDowell, M. T., Peddada, S. V., Pasta, M., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2012; 6 (2): 1688-1694

    Abstract

    The electrical energy grid has a growing need for energy storage to address short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load leveling. Though electrochemical energy storage devices such as batteries offer an attractive solution, current commercial battery technology cannot provide adequate power, and cycle life, and energy efficiency at a sufficiently low cost. Copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, two open framework materials with the Prussian Blue structure, were recently shown to offer ultralong cycle life and high-rate performance when operated as battery electrodes in safe, inexpensive aqueous sodium ion and potassium ion electrolytes. In this report, we demonstrate that the reaction potential of copper-nickel alloy hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles may be tuned by controlling the ratio of copper to nickel in these materials. X-ray diffraction, TEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and galvanostatic electrochemical cycling of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate reveal that copper and nickel form a fully miscible solution at particular sites in the framework without perturbing the structure. This allows copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate to reversibly intercalate sodium and potassium ions for over 2000 cycles with capacity retentions of 100% and 91%, respectively. The ability to precisely tune the reaction potential of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate without sacrificing cycle life will allow the development of full cells that utilize the entire electrochemical stability window of aqueous sodium and potassium ion electrolytes.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn204666v

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300757900079

    View details for PubMedID 22283739

  • The Effect of Insertion Species on Nanostructured Open Framework Hexacyanoferrate Battery Electrodes JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Wessells, C. D., Peddada, S. V., McDowell, M. T., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2012; 159 (2): A98-A103
  • Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticle Electrodes For Aqueous Sodium and Potassium Ion Batteries NANO LETTERS Wessells, C. D., Peddada, S. V., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2011; 11 (12): 5421-5425

    Abstract

    The electrical power grid faces a growing need for large-scale energy storage over a wide range of time scales due to costly short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load balancing. The durability, high power, energy efficiency, and low cost needed for grid-scale storage pose substantial challenges for conventional battery technology. (1, 2) Here, we demonstrate insertion/extraction of sodium and potassium ions in a low-strain nickel hexacyanoferrate electrode material for at least five thousand deep cycles at high current densities in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Its open-framework structure allows retention of 66% of the initial capacity even at a very high (41.7C) rate. At low current densities, its round trip energy efficiency reaches 99%. This low-cost material is readily synthesized in bulk quantities. The long cycle life, high power, good energy efficiency, safety, and inexpensive production method make nickel hexacyanoferrate an attractive candidate for use in large-scale batteries to support the electrical grid.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl203193q

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297950200055

    View details for PubMedID 22043814

  • Copper hexacyanoferrate battery electrodes with long cycle life and high power NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Wessells, C. D., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2011; 2

    Abstract

    Short-term transients, including those related to wind and solar sources, present challenges to the electrical grid. Stationary energy storage systems that can operate for many cycles, at high power, with high round-trip energy efficiency, and at low cost are required. Existing energy storage technologies cannot satisfy these requirements. Here we show that crystalline nanoparticles of copper hexacyanoferrate, which has an ultra-low strain open framework structure, can be operated as a battery electrode in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. After 40,000 deep discharge cycles at a 17?C rate, 83% of the original capacity of copper hexacyanoferrate is retained. Even at a very high cycling rate of 83?C, two thirds of its maximum discharge capacity is observed. At modest current densities, round-trip energy efficiencies of 99% can be achieved. The low-cost, scalable, room-temperature co-precipitation synthesis and excellent electrode performance of copper hexacyanoferrate make it attractive for large-scale energy storage systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms1563

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297686500037

    View details for PubMedID 22109524

  • Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Wessells, C., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2011; 196 (5): 2884-2888
  • Synthesis of Nanoscale Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials Using a Porous Polymer Precursor Method JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Deshazer, H. D., La Mantia, F., Wessells, C., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2011; 158 (10): A1079-A1082

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3611428

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294063000003

  • Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Wessells, C., La Mantia, F., Deshazer, H., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2011; 158 (3): A352-A355

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3536619

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286677900023

  • Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications ELECTROCHEMICAL AND SOLID STATE LETTERS Wessells, C., Ruffo, R., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2010; 13 (5): A59-A61

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3329652

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275660200002

  • Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Ruffo, R., Hong, S. S., Chan, C. K., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2009; 113 (26): 11390-11398

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp901594g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267324600033

  • Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS Ruffo, R., Wessells, C., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2009; 11 (2): 247-249
  • Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanorods as Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes NANO LETTERS Kim, D. K., Muralidharan, P., Lee, H., Ruffo, R., Yang, Y., Chan, C. K., Peng, H., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2008; 8 (11): 3948-3952

    Abstract

    Spinel LiMn2O4 is a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and highly abundant material for Li-ion battery cathodes. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of single-crystalline beta-MnO2 nanorods and their chemical conversion into free-standing single-crystalline LiMn2O4 nanorods using a simple solid-state reaction. The LiMn2O4 nanorods have an average diameter of 130 nm and length of 1.2 microm. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that LiMn2O4 nanorods have a high charge storage capacity at high power rates compared with commercially available powders. More than 85% of the initial charge storage capacity was maintained for over 100 cycles. The structural transformation studies showed that the Li ions intercalated into the cubic phase of the LiMn2O4 with a small change of lattice parameter, followed by the coexistence of two nearly identical cubic phases in the potential range of 3.5 to 4.3 V.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl8024328

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260888600070

    View details for PubMedID 18826287

  • High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Chan, C. K., Peng, H., Liu, G., Mcilwrath, K., Zhang, X. F., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2008; 3 (1): 31-35

    Abstract

    There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nnano.2007.411

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252117000012

    View details for PubMedID 18654447

  • Nanowire Batteries for Next Generation Electronics IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING 2008, TECHNICAL DIGEST Chan, C. K., Connor, S. T., Yang, Y., Hsu, C., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2008: 175-178
  • Reaction of lithium with FeAsS, a quaternary system IONICS McLaurin, R. A., Huggins, R. A. 2007; 13 (3): 107-110
  • Decrepitation Model For Capacity Loss During Cycling of Alloys in Rechargeable Electrochemical Systems IONICS Huggins, R. A., Nix, W. D. 2000; 6 (1-2): 57-63
  • ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF KINETIC-PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM-HYDROGEN AND VANADIUM-HYDROGEN SYSTEMS AT INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURES USING MOLTEN-SALT TECHNIQUES JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Liaw, B. Y., DEUBLEIN, G., Huggins, R. A. 1995; 142 (7): 2196-2203
  • AN ISOPERIBOLIC CALORIMETER TO STUDY ELECTROCHEMICAL INSERTION OF DEUTERIUM INTO PALLADIUM FUSION TECHNOLOGY Gur, T. M., Schreiber, M., Lucier, G., FERRANTE, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A. 1994; 25 (4): 487-501
  • PARTIAL OXIDATION OF METHANE CATALYZED BY YBA2CU3OX IN A SOLID-STATE ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTOR CATALYSIS LETTERS Gur, T. M., Wise, H., Huggins, R. A. 1994; 23 (3-4): 387-393
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE OXYGEN-TRANSPORT AND ELECTROCHEMICAL-BEHAVIOR OF YBA2CU3OX JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. 1993; 140 (7): 1990-2000
  • A NEW CLASS OF OXYGEN SELECTIVE CHEMICALLY DRIVEN NONPOROUS CERAMIC MEMBRANES .1. A-SITE DOPED PEROVSKITES JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE Gur, T. M., Belzner, A., Huggins, R. A. 1992; 75 (1-2): 151-162
  • INVESTIGATION OF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE TI-H SYSTEM USING MOLTEN-SALT ELECTROLYTES CONTAINING HYDRIDE IONS JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS Liaw, B. Y., DEUBLEIN, G., Huggins, R. A. 1992; 189 (2): 175-186
  • OXYGEN CHEMICAL DIFFUSION IN STRONTIUM DOPED LANTHANUM MANGANITES SOLID STATE IONICS Belzner, A., Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. 1992; 57 (3-4): 327-337
  • MULTINARY ALLOY ELECTRODES FOR SOLID-STATE BATTERIES .1. A PHASE-DIAGRAM APPROACH FOR THE SELECTION AND STORAGE PROPERTIES DETERMINATION OF CANDIDATE ELECTRODE MATERIALS JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Anani, A., Huggins, R. A. 1992; 38 (3): 351-362
  • MULTINARY ALLOY ELECTRODES FOR SOLID-STATE BATTERIES .2. A NEW LI-SI-MG ALLOY NEGATIVE ELECTRODE MATERIAL FOR USE IN HIGH-ENERGY DENSITY RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM CELLS JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Anani, A., Huggins, R. A. 1992; 38 (3): 363-372
  • PHASE-BEHAVIOR AND CONDUCTIVITY OF LI2SIS3 COMPOSITION SOLID STATE IONICS Ahn, B. T., Huggins, R. A. 1991; 46 (3-4): 237-242
  • ELECTROCATALYTIC CONVERSION OF CARBON-DIOXIDE TO METHANE AND OXYGEN WITH AN OXYGEN ION-CONDUCTING ELECTROLYTE JOURNAL OF CATALYSIS Gur, T. M., Wise, H., Huggins, R. A. 1991; 129 (1): 216-224
  • THERMODYNAMIC AND STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS OF INSERTION REACTIONS IN LITHIUM VANADIUM BRONZE STRUCTURES SOLID STATE IONICS Liaw, B. Y., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1991; 45 (3-4): 323-328
  • INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE WATER-VAPOR ELECTROLYSIS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY Schreiber, M., Lucier, G., FERRANTE, J. A., Huggins, R. A. 1991; 16 (6): 373-378
  • MATERIALS CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO SODIUM-BASED RECHARGEABLE CELLS FOR USE ABOVE ROOM-TEMPERATURE SOLID STATE IONICS CROUCHBAKER, S., DEUBLEIN, G., Tsai, H. C., Huggins, R. A. 1990; 42 (1-2): 109-115
  • QUATERNARY PHASE-RELATIONS NEAR YBA2CU3O6+X AT 850-DEGREES-C IN REDUCED OXYGEN PRESSURES PHYSICA C-SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Ahn, B. T., Lee, V. Y., Beyers, R., Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. 1990; 167 (5-6): 529-537
  • PREPARATION, STRUCTURES AND CONDUCTIVITIES OF LI2SIS3 PHASES MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Ahn, B. T., Huggins, R. A. 1990; 25 (3): 381-389
  • THERMODYNAMIC RATIONALIZATION OF MOLTEN-SALT ELECTRODEPOSITION IN OXIDE-BASED SYSTEMS JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH CROUCHBAKER, S., Huggins, R. A. 1989; 4 (6): 1495-1504
  • PREPARATION AND CONDUCTIVITY OF THE LAYERED STRUCTURE J-PHASE OF ANHYDROUS CRYSTALLINE LI2ZR(PO4)2 JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Wang, J. Q., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1989; 136 (9): 2529-2532
  • OXYGEN ORDERING, PHASE-SEPARATION AND THE 60-K AND 90-K PLATEAUS IN YBA2CU3OX NATURE Beyers, R., Ahn, B. T., Gorman, G., Lee, V. Y., Parkin, S. S., Ramirez, M. L., Roche, K. P., Vazquez, J. E., Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. 1989; 340 (6235): 619-621
  • HYDROGEN-TRANSPARENT METAL-SURFACES PRODUCED BY USE OF MOLTEN-SALTS WITH VERY LOW OXYGEN AND WATER ACTIVITIES JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY DEUBLEIN, G., Huggins, R. A. 1989; 136 (8): 2234-2238
  • SYNTHESIS AND LITHIUM CONDUCTIVITIES OF LI2SIS3 AND LI4SIS4 MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Ahn, B. T., Huggins, R. A. 1989; 24 (7): 889-897
  • MATERIALS SCIENCE PRINCIPLES RELATED TO ALLOYS OF POTENTIAL USE IN RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM CELLS JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Huggins, R. A. 1989; 26 (1-2): 109-120
  • DEMONSTRATION OF A NOVEL COMPOSITE SOLID LIQUID SOLID ELECTROLYTE CONFIGURATION FOR HYDROGEN-RELATED APPLICATIONS ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHYSIKALISCHE CHEMIE NEUE FOLGE Liaw, B. Y., Huggins, R. A. 1989; 164: 1533-1538
  • HYDROGEN-CONDUCTING ELECTROLYTE CONFIGURATIONS SOLID STATE IONICS DEUBLEIN, G., Liaw, B. Y., Huggins, R. A. 1988; 28: 1084-1088
  • CONTROLLED ELECTROLYTE ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR USE FOR STUDYING AND MODIFYING MATERIALS PROPERTIES - POTENTIALS FOR EMPLOYMENT IN PRACTICAL DEVICES SOLID STATE IONICS DEUBLEIN, G., Liaw, B. Y., Huggins, R. A. 1988; 28: 1078-1083
  • PHASE-BEHAVIOR IN THE LI-AL-O-H SYSTEM AT INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURES SOLID STATE IONICS CROUCHBAKER, S., Huggins, R. A. 1988; 28: 611-616
  • THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM-NICKEL HYDRIDES SOLID STATE IONICS MALYSCHREIBER, M., Huggins, R. A., Maly, K. 1988; 28: 873-878
  • NOVEL ELECTROCHEMICAL HYDROGEN SENSORS FOR USE AT ELEVATED-TEMPERATURES SOLID STATE IONICS DEUBLEIN, G., Liaw, B. Y., Huggins, R. A. 1988; 28: 1660-1663
  • DC CONDUCTIVITY STUDIES ON LI5ALO4 AT INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURES AND ITS POSSIBLE APPLICATION FOR THE ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER SOLID STATE IONICS Cheng, L. Y., CROUCHBAKER, S., Huggins, R. A. 1988; 28: 656-659
  • STUDIES OF SUPERCONDUCTING OXIDES WITH A SOLID-STATE IONIC TECHNIQUE PHYSICA C-SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Ahn, B. T., Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A., Beyers, R., ENGLER, E. M., Grant, P. M., Parkin, S. S., Lim, G., Ramirez, M. L., Roche, K. P., Vazquez, J. E., Lee, V. Y., JACOWITZ, R. D. 1988; 153: 590-593
  • POLYPHASE ALLOYS AS RECHARGEABLE ELECTRODES IN ADVANCED BATTERY SYSTEMS JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Huggins, R. A. 1988; 22 (3-4): 341-350
  • LITHIUM INSERTION IN SEVERAL MOLYBDENUM(IV) OXIDE PHASES AT ROOM-TEMPERATURE JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Huang, C. K., CROUCHBAKER, S., Huggins, R. A. 1988; 135 (2): 408-412
  • IMPORTANCE OF ELECTRODE ZIRCONIA INTERFACE MORPHOLOGY IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE SOLID ELECTROLYTE CELLS JOURNAL OF APPLIED ELECTROCHEMISTRY Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. 1987; 17 (4): 800-806
  • THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL HYDROGEN SYSTEMS BY ASSESSMENT OF PHASE-DIAGRAMS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY LUDECKI, C. M., DEUBLEIN, G., Huggins, R. A. 1987; 12 (2): 81-88
  • INVESTIGATIONS OF BINARY LITHIUM-ZINC, LITHIUM-CADMIUM AND LITHIUM-LEAD ALLOYS AS NEGATIVE ELECTRODES IN ORGANIC SOLVENT-BASED ELECTROLYTE SOLID STATE IONICS Wang, J. Q., King, P., Huggins, R. A. 1986; 20 (3): 185-189
  • BEHAVIOR OF SOME BINARY LITHIUM ALLOYS AS NEGATIVE ELECTRODES IN ORGANIC SOLVENT-BASED ELECTROLYTES JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Wang, J. Q., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1986; 133 (3): 457-460
  • STABILITY OF ALKALI ION-CONDUCTING SOLID AND LIQUID ELECTROLYTES - THERMODYNAMIC ASPECTS SOLID STATE IONICS DEUBLEIN, G., Huggins, R. A. 1986; 18-9: 1110-1114
  • THE THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF THE GAMMA-LITHIUM VANADIUM BRONZE STRUCTURE SOLID STATE IONICS Liaw, B. Y., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1986; 18-9: 828-832
  • PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5TH INTERNATIONAL-CONFERENCE-ON-SOLID-STATE-IONICS, LAKE-TAHOE, CA, USA, AUGUST 18-24, 1985 .2. PREFACE SOLID STATE IONICS Boyce, J. B., DeJonghe, L. C., Huggins, R. A. 1986; 18-9: R9-R9
  • THE ELECTROCHEMICAL INSERTION OF LITHIUM INTO BLEACHED POTASSIUM HEXATUNGSTATE THIN-FILMS - A NEW ELECTROCHEMICAL MATERIAL SOLID STATE IONICS Joo, S. K., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1986; 18-9: 592-596
  • RAPID ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION OF LITHIUM IN ELECTROCHROMIC THIN-FILMS BASED ON THE HEXAGONAL TUNGSTEN BRONZE STRUCTURE SOLID STATE IONICS Joo, S., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1985; 17 (4): 313-318
  • ELECTROCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEN STORAGE IN METAL-HYDRIDES JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY LUEDECKE, C. M., DEUBLEIN, G., Huggins, R. A. 1985; 132 (1): 52-56
  • PREPARATION OF HEXAGONAL POTASSIUM TUNGSTEN BRONZE THIN-FILMS BY THERMAL VACUUM EVAPORATION MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Joo, S. K., Huggins, R. A. 1985; 20 (11): 1265-1271
  • NEW ELECTROCHROMIC MATERIAL BASED ON THE ELECTROCHEMICAL INSERTION OF LITHIUM INTO BLEACHED POTASSIUM HEXATUNGSTATE MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Joo, S. K., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1985; 20 (8): 897-904
  • GENERAL DISCUSSION, 2ND INTERNATIONAL MEETING ON LITHIUM BATTERIES, PARIS, APRIL 27, 1984 JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Owens, B. B., Bro, P., Lenfant, P., Ogawa, H., TOBIAS, C. W., Voss, E., Megahed, S., Taylor, H., WOLSKY, S., SCHLAIKJER, C., Huggins, R., Moshtev, R., Scrosati, B., Jones, K., DOWNAROWICZ, J., Leroy, Y., Yamamoto, O. 1985; 14 (1-3): 259-266
  • THE OXYGEN ION CONDUCTIVITY OF MULLITE PREPARED USING A WET CHEMICAL PROCESS SOLID STATE IONICS Meng, G. Y., Huggins, R. A. 1984; 11 (4): 271-278
  • RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ELECTROCHEMICAL, THERMODYNAMIC, AND OXYGEN POTENTIAL QUANTITIES IN LITHIUM-TRANSITION METAL-OXYGEN MOLTEN-SALT CELLS JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Godshall, N. A., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1984; 131 (3): 543-549
  • AN ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE MIXED BETA-VANADIUM BRONZES LIYNAXV2O5 AND LIYKXV2O5 MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1983; 18 (3): 337-346
  • THE KINETICS OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL INSERTION OF LITHIUM INTO CUBIC SODIUM TUNGSTEN BRONZES JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY MARK, A. J., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1983; 130 (4): 776-782
  • METHANE SYNTHESIS ON NICKEL BY A SOLID-STATE IONIC METHOD SCIENCE Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. 1983; 219 (4587): 967-969

    Abstract

    The feasibility of electrochemically synthesizing methane by a Fischer-Tropsch type reaction by use of a solid oxide electrolyte has been demonstrated. This solid-state ionic approach provides in situ control of the oxygen activity at the gascatalyst interface by imposing a suitable voltage drop across an oxygen-conducting solid electrolyte from an external source. Methanation rates for hydrogen-carbon monoxide and hydrogen-carbon dioxide synthesis gas mixtures upon nickel electrodes showed substantial enhancement with the use of this technique, reaching values nearly two orders of magnitude higher than their intrinsic rates.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QC05000026

    View details for PubMedID 17817934

  • A NEW CHEMICAL METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF BOTH PURE AND DOPED MULLITE MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Meng, G. Y., Huggins, R. A. 1983; 18 (5): 581-588
  • THE TRANSIENT ELECTRICAL RESPONSE OF ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS CONTAINING INSERTION REACTION ELECTRODES SOLID STATE IONICS Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1982; 7 (3): 213-218
  • ELECTROCATALYTIC SYNTHESIS OF METHANE ON STABILIZED ZIRCONIA FROM H2-CO2 MIXTURES SOLID STATE IONICS Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. 1981; 5 (OCT): 563-566
  • ANION DISORDER OF BETA-PBF2 IN SUPERIONIC STATE BY X-RAY-DIFFRACTION SOLID STATE IONICS Koto, K., SCHULZ, H., Huggins, R. A. 1981; 3-4 (AUG): 381-384
  • THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE LITHIUM-TIN SYSTEM JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Wen, C. J., Huggins, R. A. 1981; 128 (6): 1181-1187
  • THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL INSERTION OF LITHIUM INTO TUNGSTEN BRONZES SOLID STATE IONICS Raistrick, I. D., MARK, A. J., Huggins, R. A. 1981; 5 (OCT): 351-354
  • ELECTROCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE LITHIUM-GALLIUM SYSTEM JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Wen, C. J., Huggins, R. A. 1981; 128 (8): 1636-1641
  • ALL-SOLID LITHIUM ELECTRODES WITH MIXED-CONDUCTOR MATRIX JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Boukamp, B. A., LESH, G. C., Huggins, R. A. 1981; 128 (4): 725-729
  • CHEMICAL DIFFUSION IN INTERMEDIATE PHASES IN THE LITHIUM-SILICON SYSTEM JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Wen, C. J., Huggins, R. A. 1981; 37 (3): 271-278
  • SOME NON-BATTERY APPLICATIONS OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES AND MIXED CONDUCTORS SOLID STATE IONICS Huggins, R. A. 1981; 5 (OCT): 15-20
  • STEADY-STATE DC POLARIZATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE O2, PT-STABILIZED ZIRCONIA INTERFACE JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Gur, T. M., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1980; 127 (12): 2620-2628
  • THERMODYNAMIC AND MASS-TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF LIIN MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Wen, C. J., Huggins, R. A. 1980; 15 (9): 1225-1234
  • ELECTROCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLUBILITY AND CHEMICAL DIFFUSION OF LITHIUM IN ALUMINUM METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS B-PROCESS METALLURGY Wen, C. J., Weppner, W., Boukamp, B. A., Huggins, R. A. 1980; 11 (1): 131-137
  • THERMODYNAMIC INVESTIGATIONS OF TERNARY LITHIUM-TRANSITION METAL-OXYGEN CATHODE MATERIALS MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Godshall, N. A., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1980; 15 (5): 561-570
  • CHEMICAL DIFFUSION IN INTERMEDIATE PHASES IN THE LITHIUM-TIN SYSTEM JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Wen, C. J., Huggins, R. A. 1980; 35 (3): 376-384
  • SILVER IONIC AND ELECTRONIC CONDUCTIVITY IN AG9GAS6, AG9AIS6, AGGAS2, AGAIS2, AND AGAL5S8 JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Hellstrom, E. E., Huggins, R. A. 1980; 35 (2): 207-214
  • APPLICATION OF AC TECHNIQUES TO THE STUDY OF LITHIUM DIFFUSION IN TUNGSTEN TRIOXIDE THIN-FILMS JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Ho, C., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1980; 127 (2): 343-350
  • IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY OF 8MOL.-PERCENTSC2O3-ZRO2 MEASURED BY USE OF BOTH AC AND DC TECHNIQUES MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Gur, T. M., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1980; 46 (1): 53-62
  • PREPARATION OF ALUMINUM SULFIDE MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Hellstrom, E. E., Huggins, R. A. 1979; 14 (1): 127-132
  • DECOMPOSITION OF NITRIC-OXIDE ON ZIRCONIA IN A SOLID-STATE ELECTROCHEMICAL-CELL JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. 1979; 126 (6): 1067-1075
  • THERMODYNAMIC AND MASS-TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF LIAL JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Wen, C. J., Boukamp, B. A., Huggins, R. A., Weppner, W. 1979; 126 (12): 2258-2266
  • IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY IN LITHIUM IMIDE PHYSICS LETTERS A Boukamp, B. A., Huggins, R. A. 1979; 72 (6): 464-466
  • STUDY OF THE SYSTEMS LI2S-AL2S3, NA2S-AL2S3, K2S-AL2S3 - PREPARATION, PHASE STUDY AND ELECTRICAL-CONDUCTIVITY MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Hellstrom, E. E., Huggins, R. A. 1979; 14 (7): 881-889
  • FAST IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY IN LITHIUM NITRIDE MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Boukamp, B. A., Huggins, R. A. 1978; 13 (1): 23-32
  • THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF INTERMETALLIC SYSTEMS LITHIUM-ANTIMONY AND LITHIUM-BISMUTH JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Weppner, W., Huggins, R. A. 1978; 125 (1): 7-14
  • ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING KINETIC-PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS ANNUAL REVIEW OF MATERIALS SCIENCE Weppner, W., Huggins, R. A. 1978; 8: 269-311
  • CONDITIONS FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL DIFFUSION OF IONS IN POLYMERS - REVIEW MACROMOLECULES Huggins, R. A., HUGGINS, J. M. 1977; 10 (5): 889-892
  • IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME LITHIUM SILICATES AND ALUMINOSILICATES JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Franklin, A. D., YOUNG, K. F., Raistrick, I. D., Ho, C., Huggins, R. A. 1977; 124 (6): 871-873
  • MORPHOLOGICAL STABILITY OF A PLANE INTERFACE DURING ELECTROCRYSTALLIZATION FROM MOLTEN-SALTS JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH Huggins, R. A., Elwell, D. 1977; 37 (2): 159-162
  • RECENT RESULTS ON LITHIUM ION CONDUCTORS ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA Huggins, R. A. 1977; 22 (7): 773-781
  • STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF SOME MIXED METAL FERROCYANIDES JOURNAL OF INORGANIC & NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY Raistrick, I. D., ENDOW, N., LEWKOWITZ, S., Huggins, R. A. 1977; 39 (10): 1779-1783
  • DETERMINATION OF KINETIC-PARAMETERS OF MIXED-CONDUCTING ELECTRODES AND APPLICATION TO SYSTEM LI3SB JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Weppner, W., Huggins, R. A. 1977; 124 (10): 1569-1578
  • ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PARABOLIC REACTION-RATES AND THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHYSIKALISCHE CHEMIE-FRANKFURT Weppner, W., Huggins, R. A. 1977; 108 (1): 105-122
  • IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY AND ELECTRODE EFFECTS ON BETA-PBF2 JOURNAL OF ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Raistrick, I. D., Ho, C., HU, Y. W., Huggins, R. A. 1977; 77 (3): 319-337
  • IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLID AND LIQUID LIALCL4 JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Weppner, W., Huggins, R. A. 1977; 124 (1): 35-38
  • ELECTROCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL DIFFUSION, PARTIAL IONIC CONDUCTIVITIES, AND OTHER KINETIC-PARAMETERS IN LI3SB AND LI3BI JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Weppner, W., Huggins, R. A. 1977; 22 (3): 297-308
  • IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY OF LITHIUM ORTHOSILICATE - LITHIUM PHOSPHATE SOLID-SOLUTIONS JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY HU, Y. W., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1977; 124 (8): 1240-1242
  • IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME LITHIUM SILICATES AND ALUMINOSILICATES JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Raistrick, I. D., Ho, C., Huggins, R. A. 1976; 123 (10): 1469-1476
  • REACTION OF ANTIMONY PENTAFLUORIDE WITH POLY (CARBON MONOFLUORIDE) MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Ebert, L. B., Huggins, R. A., Brauman, J. I. 1976; 11 (6): 615-620
  • IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY OF LI-4GEO-4, LI-2GEO-3 AND LI-2GE-7O-15 MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Liebert, B. E., Huggins, R. A. 1976; 11 (5): 533-538
  • BASIC RESEARCH IN MATERIALS SCIENCE Huggins, R. A. 1976; 191 (4228): 647-650

    View details for Web of Science ID A1976BE89600005

    View details for PubMedID 17754155

  • IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY OF LITHIUM PHOSPHATE DOPED LITHIUM ORTHOSILICATE MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN HU, Y. W., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1976; 11 (10): 1227-1230
  • CALCULATION OF MOTIONAL ACTIVATION-ENERGIES FOR INTERSTITIAL IONS IN RUTILE STRUCTURE USING A MINIMUM ENERGY PATH MODEL JOURNAL OF PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF SOLIDS Ajayi, O. B., NAGEL, L. E., Raistrick, I. D., Huggins, R. A. 1976; 37 (2): 167-172
  • LITHIUM ION CONDUCTIVITY IN LITHIUM NITRIDE PHYSICS LETTERS A Boukamp, B. A., Huggins, R. A. 1976; 58 (4): 231-233
  • IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY OF ALKALI-METAL CHLOROALUMINATES PHYSICS LETTERS A Weppner, W., Huggins, R. A. 1976; 58 (4): 245-248
  • ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES OF UNDOPED AND DOPED POTASSIUM TETRAFLUOALUMINATE - KA1F-4 JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Schoonman, J., Huggins, R. A. 1976; 16 (3-4): 413-422
  • ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES OF K2FECL5.H2O AND K2ALF5 JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Schoonman, J., Hellstrom, E. E., Huggins, R. A. 1976; 18 (4): 325-328
  • CRYSTAL-GROWTH BY ELECTROCHEMICAL CZOCHRALSKI TECHNIQUE (ECT) JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH DeMattei, R. C., Huggins, R. A., Feigelson, R. S. 1976; 34 (1): 1-10
  • GROWTH OF LANTHANUM HEXABORIDE SINGLE-CRYSTALS BY MOLTEN-SALT ELECTROLYSIS JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH ZUBECK, I. V., Feigelson, R. S., Huggins, R. A., PETTIT, P. A. 1976; 34 (1): 85-91
  • DC RESISTANCES IN ELECTROLYTIC CRYSTALLIZATION FROM MOLTEN-SALTS JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH Elwell, D., DeMattei, R. C., ZUBECK, I. V., Feigelson, R. S., Huggins, R. A. 1976; 33 (2): 232-238
  • SURFACE-STRUCTURE AND ELECTROLYTIC GROWTH STABILITY OF LAB6 CRYSTALS JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH Elwell, D., ZUBECK, I. V., Feigelson, R. S., Huggins, R. A. 1975; 29 (1): 65-68
  • PHASES IN SYSTEM NAALO2-AL2O3 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY ELLIOT, A. G., Huggins, R. A. 1975; 58 (11-1): 497-500
  • COMPOSITION DEPENDENCE OF IONIC-CONDUCTIVITY JOURNAL OF PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF SOLIDS Schoonman, J., Huggins, R. A. 1975; 36 (7-8): 815-817
  • CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF NITRIC-OXIDE ON ZIRCONIA BY ELECTROLYTIC REMOVAL OF OXYGEN JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Pancharatnam, S., Huggins, R. A., Mason, D. M. 1975; 122 (7): 869-875
  • IONIC MOTION IN BETA-PBF2 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Schoonman, J., Ebert, L. B., Hsieh, C. H., Huggins, R. A. 1975; 46 (7): 2873-2876
  • NATURE OF CHROMIUM TRIOXIDE INTERCALATION IN GRAPHITE CARBON Ebert, L. B., Huggins, R. A., Brauman, J. I. 1974; 12 (2): 199-208
  • WIDE LINE NUCLEAR MAGNETIC-RESONANCE OF F-19 IN GRAPHITE ANTIMONY PENTAFLUORIDE - EVIDENCE FOR RAPID MOTION OF INTERCALATED SPECIES JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS Ebert, L. B., Huggins, R. A., Brauman, J. I. 1974: 924-925
  • CARBON MONOFLUORIDE - EVIDENCE FOR A STRUCTURE CONTAINING AN INFINITE ARRAY OF CYCLOHEXANE BOATS JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Ebert, L. B., Brauman, J. I., Huggins, R. A. 1974; 96 (25): 7841-7842
  • MECHANISM AND KINETICS OF NICKEL CHROMITE FORMATION JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Armijo, J. S., Douglass, D. L., Huggins, R. A. 1973; 120 (6): 825-833

Conference Proceedings


  • Electrochemical characterization of LiCoO2 as rechargeable electrode in aqueous LiNO3 electrolyte Ruffo, R., La Mantia, F., Wessells, C., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2011: 289-292
  • Structural and electrochemical study of the reaction of lithium with silicon nanowires Chan, C. K., Ruffo, R., Hong, S. S., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2009: 34-39
  • Cause of the memory effect in "nickel" electrodes Huggins, R. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2007: 640-645
  • MEASUREMENT OF THE CHEMICAL DIFFUSION-COEFFICIENT OF OXYGEN IN MIXED CONDUCTORS BY A SOLID-STATE ELECTROCHEMICAL METHOD Belzner, A., Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1990: 535-538
  • RECENT RESULTS ON MIXED CONDUCTORS CONTAINING HYDROGEN OR DEUTERIUM Belzner, A., BISCHLER, U., CROUCHBAKER, S., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Schreiber, M., Huggins, R. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1990: 519-524
  • 2 FAST MIXED-CONDUCTOR SYSTEMS - DEUTERIUM AND HYDROGEN IN PALLADIUM - THERMAL MEASUREMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Belzner, A., BISCHLER, U., CROUCHBAKER, S., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Schreiber, M., Huggins, R. A. PLENUM PUBL CORP. 1990: 219-227
  • OXYGEN ORDERING IN Y1BA2CU3O7-X Beyers, R., Ahn, B. T., Gorman, G., Lee, V. Y., Parkin, S. S., Ramirez, M. L., Roche, K. P., Vazquez, J. E., Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1989: 548-549
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE PHASE-EQUILIBRIA NEAR YBA2CU3O6+X Ahn, B. T., Lee, V. Y., Beyers, R., Gur, T. M., Huggins, R. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1989: 883-884