Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Comparing Scanning Electron Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope Grain Mapping Techniques Applied to Well-Defined and Highly Irregular Nanoparticles. ACS omega Mariano, R. G., Yau, A., McKeown, J. T., Kumar, M., Kanan, M. W. 2020; 5 (6): 2791–99


    Investigating how grain structure affects the functional properties of nanoparticles requires a robust method for nanoscale grain mapping. In this study, we directly compare the grain mapping ability of transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) in a scanning electron microscope to automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM) in a transmission electron microscope across multiple nanoparticle materials. Analysis of well-defined Au, ZnO, and ZnSe nanoparticles showed that the grain orientations and GB geometries obtained by TKD are accurate and match those obtained by ACOM. For more complex polycrystalline Cu nanostructures, TKD provided an interpretable grain map whereas ACOM, with or without precession electron diffraction, yielded speckled, uninterpretable maps with orientation errors. Acquisition times for TKD were generally shorter than those for ACOM. Our results validate the use of TKD for characterizing grain orientation and grain boundary distributions in nanoparticles, providing a framework for the broader exploration of how microstructure influences nanoparticle properties.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsomega.9b03505

    View details for PubMedID 32095702

  • Selective increase in CO2 electroreduction activity at grain-boundary surface terminations SCIENCE Mariano, R. G., McKelvey, K., White, H. S., Kanan, M. W. 2017; 358 (6367): 1187–91


    Altering a material's catalytic properties requires identifying structural features that give rise to active surfaces. Grain boundaries create strained regions in polycrystalline materials by stabilizing dislocations and may provide a way to create high-energy surfaces for catalysis that are kinetically trapped. Although grain-boundary density has previously been correlated with catalytic activity for some reactions, direct evidence that grain boundaries create surfaces with enhanced activity is lacking. We used a combination of bulk electrochemical measurements and scanning electrochemical cell microscopy with submicrometer resolution to show that grain-boundary surface terminations in gold electrodes are more active than grain surfaces for electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to carbon monoxide (CO) but not for the competing hydrogen (H2) evolution reaction. The catalytic footprint of the grain boundary is commensurate with its dislocation-induced strain field, providing a strategy for broader exploitation of grain-boundary effects in heterogeneous catalysis.

    View details for PubMedID 29191908

  • Hydrothermal Synthesis of Graphene-TiO2 Nanotube Composites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity ACS CATALYSIS Perera, S. D., Mariano, R. G., Khiem Vu, K., Nour, N., Seitz, O., Chabal, Y., Balkus, K. J. 2012; 2 (6): 949-956

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cs200621c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304682600006