Highly multiplexed tissue imaging using repeated oligonucleotide exchange reaction.
European journal of immunology
Multiparameter tissue imaging enables analysis of cell-cell interactions in situ, the cellular basis for tissue structure, and novel cell types that are spatially restricted, giving clues to biological mechanisms behind tissue homeostasis and disease. Here, we streamlined and simplified the multiplexed imaging method CO-Detection by indEXing (CODEX) by validating 58 unique oligonucleotide barcodes that can be conjugated to antibodies. We showed that barcoded antibodies retained their specificity for staining cognate targets in human tissue. Antibodies were visualized one at a time by adding a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide complementary to oligonucleotide barcode, imaging, stripping, and repeating this cycle. With this we developed a panel of 46 antibodies that was used to stain five human lymphoid tissues: three tonsils, a spleen, and a lymph node. To analyze the data produced, an image processing and analysis pipeline was developed that enabled single-cell analysis on the data, including unsupervised clustering that revealed 31 cell types across all tissues. We compared cell-type compositions within and directly surrounding follicles from the different lymphoid organs and evaluated cell-cell density correlations. This sequential oligonucleotide exchange technique enables a facile imaging of tissues that leverages pre-existing imaging infrastructure to decrease the barriers to broad use of multiplexed imaging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1002/eji.202048891
View details for PubMedID 33548142
- Cellular neighborhoods predict pembrolizumab response in cutaneous T cell lymphoma AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2020
Landscape of coordinated immune responses to H1N1 challenge in humans.
The Journal of clinical investigation
Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Here we show changes in the abundance and activation states of more than 50 immune cell subsets in 35 individuals over 11 time points during human A/California/2009 (H1N1) virus challenge monitored using mass cytometry along with other clinical assessments. Peak change in monocyte, B cell, and T cell subset frequencies coincided with peak virus shedding, followed by marked activation of T and NK cells. Results led to the identification of CD38 as a critical regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell function in response to influenza virus. Machine learning using study-derived clinical parameters and single-cell data effectively classified and predicted susceptibility to infection. The coordinated immune cell dynamics defined in this study provide a framework for identifying novel correlates of protection in the evaluation of future influenza therapeutics.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI137265
View details for PubMedID 33044226
Coordinated Cellular Neighborhoods Orchestrate Antitumoral Immunity at the Colorectal Cancer Invasive Front.
Antitumoral immunity requires organized, spatially nuanced interactions between components of the immune tumor microenvironment (iTME). Understanding this coordinated behavior in effective versus ineffective tumor control will advance immunotherapies. We re-engineered co-detection by indexing (CODEX) for paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays, enabling simultaneous profiling of 140 tissue regions from 35 advanced-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with 56 protein markers. We identified nine conserved, distinct cellular neighborhoods (CNs)-a collection of components characteristic of the CRC iTME. Enrichment of PD-1+CD4+ T cells only within a granulocyte CN positively correlated with survival in a high-risk patient subset. Coupling of tumor and immune CNs, fragmentation of T cell and macrophage CNs, and disruption of inter-CN communication was associated with inferior outcomes. This study provides a framework for interrogating how complex biological processes, such as antitumoral immunity, occur through concerted actions of cells and spatial domains.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2020.07.005
View details for PubMedID 32763154
- Dynamics of the Bone Marrow Microenvironment during Leukemic Progression Revealed By Codex Hyper-Parameter Tissue Imaging AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2018
CRISPR Activation Screens Systematically Identify Factors that Drive Neuronal Fate and Reprogramming.
Cell stem cell
Comprehensive identification of factors that can specify neuronal fate could provide valuable insights into lineage specification and reprogramming, but systematic interrogation of transcription factors, and their interactions with each other, has proven technically challenging. We developed a CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) approach to systematically identify regulators of neuronal-fate specification. We activated expression of all endogenous transcription factors and other regulators via a pooled CRISPRa screen in embryonic stem cells, revealing genes including epigenetic regulators such as Ezh2 that can induce neuronal fate. Systematic CRISPR-based activation of factor pairs allowed us to generate a genetic interaction map for neuronal differentiation, with confirmation of top individual and combinatorial hits as bona fide inducers of neuronal fate. Several factor pairs could directly reprogram fibroblasts into neurons, which shared similar transcriptional programs with endogenous neurons. This study provides an unbiased discovery approach for systematic identification of genes that drive cell-fate acquisition.
View details for PubMedID 30318302
Deep Profiling of Mouse Splenic Architecture with CODEX Multiplexed Imaging.
A highly multiplexed cytometric imaging approach, termed co-detection by indexing (CODEX), is used here to create multiplexed datasets of normal and lupus (MRL/lpr) murine spleens. CODEX iteratively visualizes antibody binding events using DNA barcodes, fluorescent dNTP analogs, and an in situ polymerization-based indexing procedure. An algorithmic pipeline for single-cell antigen quantification in tightly packed tissues was developed and used to overlay well-known morphological features with de novo characterization of lymphoid tissue architecture at a single-cell and cellular neighborhood levels. We observed an unexpected, profound impact of the cellular neighborhood on the expression of protein receptors on immune cells. By comparing normal murine spleen to spleens from animals with systemicautoimmune disease (MRL/lpr), extensive and previously uncharacterized splenic cell-interaction dynamics in the healthy versus diseased state was observed. The fidelity of multiplexed spatial cytometry demonstrated here allows for quantitative systemic characterization of tissue architecture in normal and clinically aberrant samples.
View details for PubMedID 30078711