Clinical Instructor, Obstetrics & Gynecology - Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility
Basal metabolic rate in women with PCOS compared to eumenorrheic controls
2015; 83 (3): 384-388
PCOS is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Efforts have focused on whether an abnormal energy homeostasis contributes to the development of obesity in these patients. There are conflicting results in the literature regarding whether women with PCOS have an altered basal metabolic rate (BMR), thereby leading to difficulties in weight loss. The objective of this study is to compare basal metabolic rate (BMR) in women with PCOS and controls.Cross-sectional study.One hundred and twenty-eight PCOS patients diagnosed by original NIH consensus criteria and 72 eumenorrheic, non-hirsute controls were recruited from an academic medical centre.Assessment of BMR using the InBody portable bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) device and insulin resistance by HOMA-IR indices.PCOS women were younger than controls. As expected, PCOS subjects had higher body mass index (BMI), serum androgens and estimated insulin resistance. After adjusting for age and BMI, there was no significant difference in BMR between PCOS subjects (adjusted mean 5807 kJ/day, 95% CI 5715-5899) and controls (adjusted mean 5916 kJ/day, 95% CI 5786-6046) (P = 0·193). BMR was also comparable in a secondary analysis comparing PCOS women with and without insulin resistance.After adjusting for age and BMI, there was no difference in BMR between PCOS women and controls.
View details for DOI 10.1111/cen.12740
View details for Web of Science ID 000360459600016
View details for PubMedID 25660380
Radical Trachelectomy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer A Survey of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology and Gynecologic Oncology Fellows-in-Training
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER
2015; 25 (4): 681-687
The aim of this study was to survey gynecologic oncologists and fellows-in-training regarding the role of radical trachelectomy (RT) and conservative surgery in patients with early-stage cervical cancer.From June 2012 to September 2012, the Society of Gynecologic Oncology member practitioners (n = 1353) and gynecologic oncology fellows (n = 156) were sent group-specific surveys investigating current practice, training, and the future of RT for early-stage cervical cancer management.Twenty-two percent of practitioners (n = 303) and 24.4% of fellows (n = 38) completed the surveys. Of the practitioners, 50% (n = 148) report performing RT, 98% (n = 269) support RT as treatment for squamous carcinoma, and 71% (n = 195) confirm the use of RT for adenocarcinoma. Most practitioners offer RT treatment for stages IA2 to IB1 smaller than 2 cm (n = 209, 76.8%) regardless of grade (77.7%) or lymph vascular space invasion (n = 211, 79.3%). Only 8% (n = 23) of practitioners feel that RT is appropriate for stage IBI larger than 2 cm. Respectively, both practitioners and fellows most frequently perform robotic-assisted (47.0%, n = 101 and 59.1%, n = 13) and abdominal (40.5%, n = 87 and 68.2%, n = 15) RT approaches. After training, fellows project the use of robotic-assisted (71%, n = 22) or abdominal methods (58.1%, n = 18). Overall, 75% (n = 227) of practitioners and 60% (n = 23) of fellows speculate that over the next 5 years, less radical procedures will be used to manage early-stage cervical cancer.Our findings suggest that practitioners and fellows believe RT remains an option for early-stage cervical cancer patients. However, a significant proportion of all respondents believe that less radical surgery may be a future consideration for patients with low-risk early-stage cervical cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1097/IGC.0000000000000397
View details for Web of Science ID 000354103000021
View details for PubMedID 25675042
Why overlearned sequences are special: distinct neural networks for ordinal sequences
FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE
Several observations suggest that overlearned ordinal categories (e.g., letters, numbers, weekdays, months) are processed differently than non-ordinal categories in the brain. In synesthesia, for example, anomalous perceptual experiences are most often triggered by members of ordinal categories (Rich et al., 2005; Eagleman, 2009). In semantic dementia (SD), the processing of ordinal stimuli appears to be preserved relative to non-ordinal ones (Cappelletti et al., 2001). Moreover, ordinal stimuli often map onto unconscious spatial representations, as observed in the SNARC effect (Dehaene et al., 1993; Fias, 1996). At present, little is known about the neural representation of ordinal categories. Using functional neuroimaging, we show that words in ordinal categories are processed in a fronto-temporo-parietal network biased toward the right hemisphere. This differs from words in non-ordinal categories (such as names of furniture, animals, cars, and fruit), which show an expected bias toward the left hemisphere. Further, we find that increased predictability of stimulus order correlates with smaller regions of BOLD activation, a phenomenon we term prediction suppression. Our results provide new insights into the processing of ordinal stimuli, and suggest a new anatomical framework for understanding the patterns seen in synesthesia, unconscious spatial representation, and SD.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00328
View details for Web of Science ID 000312580400001
View details for PubMedID 23267320
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3526771