Management and Outcomes in Children with Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Urinary Tract Infections.
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
BACKGROUND: Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant urinary tract infections (UTIs) often have limited oral antibiotic options with some children receiving prolonged parenteral courses. Our objectives were to determine predictors of long parenteral therapy and the association between parenteral therapy duration and UTI relapse in children with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTIs.METHODS: We conducted a multisite retrospective cohort study of children <18 years presenting to acute care at 5 children's hospitals and a large managed care organization from 2012 to 2017 with a third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTI from Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. Long parenteral therapy was ≥3 days and short/no parenteral therapy was 0-2 days of concordant parenteral antibiotics. Discordant therapy was antibiotics to which the pathogen was non-susceptible. Relapse was a UTI from the same organism within 30 days.RESULTS: Of the 482 children included, 81% were female and the median age was 3.3 years (interquartile range: 0.8-8). Fifty-four children (11.2%) received long parenteral therapy (median duration: 7 days). Predictors of long parenteral therapy included age <2 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 67.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.4-275.7), limited oral antibiotic options (aOR 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8-12.3), and genitourinary abnormalities (aOR 5.4; 95% CI: 1.8-15.9). UTI relapse occurred in 1 of the 54 (1.9%) children treated with long parenteral therapy and in 6 of the 428 (1.5%) children treated with short/no parenteral therapy (P = .57). Of the 105 children treated exclusively with discordant antibiotics, 3 (2.9%, 95% CI: 0.6%-8.1%) experienced UTI relapse.CONCLUSIONS: Long parenteral therapy was associated with age <2 months, limited oral antibiotic options, and genitourinary abnormalities. UTI relapse was rare and not associated with duration of parenteral therapy. For UTIs with limited oral options, further research is needed on the effectiveness of continued discordant therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1093/jpids/piab003
View details for PubMedID 33595081
Clinical Response to Discordant Therapy in Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant UTIs.
To describe the initial clinical response and care escalation needs for children with urinary tract infections (UTIs) resistant to third-generation cephalosporins while on discordant antibiotics.We performed a retrospective study of children <18 years old presenting to an acute care setting of 5 children's hospitals and a large managed care organization from 2012 to 2017 with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTIs (defined as the growth of ≥50 000 colony-forming units per mL of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. nonsusceptible to ceftriaxone with a positive urinalysis). We included children started on discordant antibiotics who had follow-up when culture susceptibilities resulted. Outcomes were escalation of care (emergency department visit, hospital admission, or ICU transfer while on discordant therapy) and clinical response at follow-up (classified as improved or not improved).Of the 316 children included, 78% were girls and the median age was 2.4 years (interquartile range 0.6-6.5). Children were evaluated in the emergency department (56%) or clinic (43%), and 90% were started on a cephalosporin. A total of 7 of 316 children (2.2%; 95% confidence interval 0.8%-4.5%) experienced escalation of care. For the 230 children (73%) with clinical response recorded, 192 of 230 (83.5%; 95% confidence interval 78.0%-88.0%) experienced clinical improvement. In children with repeat urine testing while on discordant therapy, pyuria improved or resolved in 16 of 19 (84%) and urine cultures sterilized in 11 of 17 (65%).Most children with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTIs started on discordant antibiotics experienced initial clinical improvement, and few required escalation of care. Our findings suggest that narrow-spectrum empiric therapy is appropriate while awaiting final urine culture results.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2019-1608
View details for PubMedID 31953316