Honors & Awards
HCV2018 Bursary Awards, Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) (October, 2018)
Travel Award Winner, European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) (2013)
PhD Program Fellowship, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel (2010-2015)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Member, American Society for Microbiology (ASM) (2019 - Present)
Doctor of Philosophy, Hebrew University Of Jerusalem (2016)
Master of Science, Bharathidasan University (2003)
Bachelor of Science, Madurai-Kamaraj University (2001)
Ilana Kolodkin-Gal, Sathish Kumar and Hanna Engelberg-Kulka. "United States Patent 61/860,412 Identification and characterization of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeuriginosa peptides inducing bacterial cell death", The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, Aug 1, 2013
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
The goal of my research is to better understand virus-host protein interactions, and translate this knowledge into the development of novel, broad-spectrum, antiviral drugs
Shirit Einav, Einav Lab (8/1/2016)
MARCH8 Ubiquitinates the Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural 2 Protein and Mediates Viral Envelopment.
2019; 26 (7): 1800–1814.e5
The mechanisms that regulate envelopment of HCV and other viruses that bud intracellularly and/or lack late-domain motifs are largely unknown. We reported that K63 polyubiquitination of the HCV nonstructural (NS) 2 protein mediates HRS (ESCRT-0 component) binding and envelopment. Nevertheless, the ubiquitin signaling that governs NS2 ubiquitination remained unknown. Here, we map the NS2 interactome with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) via mammalian cell-based screens. NS2 interacts with E3 ligases, deubiquitinases, and ligase regulators, some of which are candidate proviral or antiviral factors. MARCH8, a RING-finger E3 ligase, catalyzes K63-linked NS2 polyubiquitination in vitro and in HCV-infected cells. MARCH8 is required for infection with HCV, dengue, and Zika viruses and specifically mediates HCV envelopment. Our data reveal regulation of HCV envelopment via ubiquitin signaling and both a viral protein substrate and a ubiquitin K63-linkage of the understudied MARCH8, with potential implications for cell biology, virology, and host-targeted antiviral design.
View details for PubMedID 30759391
Interactions between the Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural 2 Protein and Host Adaptor Proteins 1 and 4 Orchestrate Virus Release.
2018; 9 (2)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads via secreted cell-free particles or direct cell-to-cell transmission. Yet, virus-host determinants governing differential intracellular trafficking of cell-free- and cell-to-cell-transmitted virus remain unknown. The host adaptor proteins (APs) AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 traffic in post-Golgi compartments, and the latter two are implicated in basolateral sorting. We reported that AP-1A mediates HCV trafficking during release, whereas the endocytic adaptor AP-2 mediates entry and assembly. We demonstrated that the host kinases AAK1 and GAK regulate HCV infection by controlling these clathrin-associated APs. Here, we sought to define the roles of AP-4, a clathrin-independent adaptor; AP-1A; and AP-1B in HCV infection. We screened for interactions between HCV proteins and the μ subunits of AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 by mammalian cell-based protein fragment complementation assays. The nonstructural 2 (NS2) protein emerged as an interactor of these adaptors in this screening and by coimmunoprecipitations in HCV-infected cells. Two previously unrecognized dileucine-based motifs in the NS2 C terminus mediated AP binding and HCV release. Infectivity and coculture assays demonstrated that while all three adaptors mediate HCV release and cell-free spread, AP-1B and AP-4, but not AP-1A, mediate cell-to-cell spread. Live-cell imaging revealed HCV cotrafficking with AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 and that AP-4 mediates HCV trafficking in a post-Golgi compartment. Lastly, HCV cell-to-cell spread was regulated by AAK1 and GAK and thus susceptible to treatment with AAK1 and GAK inhibitors. These data provide a mechanistic understanding of HCV trafficking in distinct release pathways and reveal a requirement for APs in cell-to-cell viral spread.IMPORTANCE HCV spreads via cell-free infection or cell-to-cell contact that shields it from antibody neutralization, thereby facilitating viral persistence. Yet, factors governing this differential sorting remain unknown. By integrating proteomic, RNA interference, genetic, live-cell imaging, and pharmacological approaches, we uncover differential coopting of host adaptor proteins (APs) to mediate HCV traffic at distinct late steps of the viral life cycle. We reported that AP-1A and AP-2 mediate HCV trafficking during release and assembly, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that dileucine motifs in the NS2 protein mediate AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 binding and cell-free virus release. Moreover, we reveal that AP-4, an adaptor not previously implicated in viral infections, mediates cell-to-cell spread and HCV trafficking. Lastly, we demonstrate cell-to-cell spread regulation by AAK1 and GAK, host kinases controlling APs, and susceptibility to their inhibitors. This study provides mechanistic insights into virus-host determinants that facilitate HCV trafficking, with potential implications for pathogenesis and antiviral agent design.
View details for PubMedID 29535204
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5850324
Quorum Sensing Extracellular Death Peptides Enhance the Endoribonucleolytic Activities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MazF Toxins.
2018; 9 (3)
mazEF is a toxin-antitoxin module located on chromosomes of most bacteria. MazF toxins are endoribonucleases antagonized by MazE antitoxins. Previously, we characterized several quorum sensing peptides called "extracellular death factors" (EDFs). When secreted from bacterial cultures, EDFs induce interspecies cell death. EDFs also enhance the endoribonucleolytic activity of Escherichia coli MazF. Mycobacterium tuberculosis carries several mazEF modules. Among them, the endoribonucleolytic activities of MazF proteins mt-1, mt-3, and mt-6 were identified. MazF-mt6 and MazF-mt-3 cleave M. tuberculosis rRNAs. Here we report the in vitro effects of EDFs on the endoribonucleolytic activities of M. tuberculosis MazFs. Escherichia coli EDF (EcEDF) and the three Pseudomonas aeruginosa EDFs (PaEDFs) individually enhance the endoribonucleolytic activities of MazF-mt6 and MazF-mt3 and overcome the inhibitory effect of MazE-mt3 or MazE-mt6 on the endoribonucleolytic activities of the respective toxins. We propose that these EDFs can serve as a basis for a novel class of antibiotics against M. tuberculosisIMPORTANCEMycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from infectious disease. M. tuberculosis is highly drug resistant, and drug delivery to the infected site is very difficult. In previous studies, we showed that extracellular death factors (EDFs) can work as quorum sensing molecules which participate in interspecies bacterial cell death. In this study, we demonstrated the role of different EDFs in the endoribonucleolytic activities of M. tuberculosis MazFs. Escherichia coli EDF (EcEDF) and the three Pseudomonas aeruginosa EDFs (PaEDFs) individually enhance the endoribonucleolytic activities of MazF-mt6 and MazF-mt3. The current report provides a basis for the use of the EDF peptides EcEDF and PaEDF as novel antibiotics against M. tuberculosis.
View details for DOI 10.1128/mBio.00685-18
View details for PubMedID 29717013
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5930309
Escherichia coli Quorum-Sensing EDF, A Peptide Generated by Novel Multiple Distinct Mechanisms and Regulated by trans-Translation
2016; 7 (1)
Eshcerichia coli mazEF is a stress-induced toxin-antitoxin module mediating cell death and requiring a quorum-sensing (QS) extracellular death factor (EDF), the pentapeptide NNWNN. Here we uncovered several distinct molecular mechanisms involved in its generation from the zwf mRNA encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In particular, we show that, under stress conditions, the endoribonuclease MazF cleaves specific ACA sites, thereby generating a leaderless zwf mRNA which is truncated 30 codons after the EDF-encoding region. Since the nascent ribosome peptide exit tunnel can accommodate up to 40 amino acids, this arrangement allows the localization of the EDF residues inside the tunnel when the ribosome is stalled at the truncation site. Moreover, ribosome stalling activates the trans-translation system, which provides a means for the involvement of ClpPX in EDF generation. Furthermore, the trans-translation is described as a regulatory system that attenuated the generation of EDF, leading to low levels of EDF in the single cell. Therefore, the threshold EDF molecule concentration required is achieved only by the whole population, as expected for QS.Bacteria communicate with one another via quorum-sensing (QS) signal molecules. QS provides a mechanism for bacteria to monitor each other's presence and to modulate gene expression in response to population density. Previously, we added E. coli pentapeptide EDF to this list of QS molecules. We showed that, under stress conditions, the induced MazF, an endoribonuclease cleaving at ACA sites, generates EDF from zwf. Here we studied the mechanism of EDF generation and asked whether it is related to EDF density dependency. We illustrated that, under stress conditions, multiple distinct complex mechanisms are involved in EDF generation. This includes formation of leaderless truncated zwf mRNA by MazF, configuration of a length corresponding to the nascent ribosome peptide exit tunnel, rescue performed by the trans-translation system, and cleavage by ClpPX protease. trans-Translation is described as a regulatory system attenuating EDF generation and leading to low levels of EDF in the single cell, as expected for QS.
View details for DOI 10.1128/mBio.02034-15
View details for Web of Science ID 000373933100041
View details for PubMedID 26814184
Yet another way that phage manipulates its Escherichia coli host: rexB is involved in the lysogenic-lytic switch
2015; 96 (4): 689-693
The life cycle of phage λ has been studied extensively. Of particular interest has been the process leading to the decision of the phage to switch from lysogenic to lytic cycle. The principal participant in this process is the λcI repressor, which is cleaved under conditions of DNA damage. Cleaved λcI no longer acts as a repressor, allowing phage λ to switch from its lysogenic to lytic cycle. The well-known mechanism responsible for λcI cleavage is the SOS response. We have recently reported that the Escherichia coli toxin-antitoxin mazEF pathway inhibits the SOS response; in fact, the SOS response is permitted only in E. coli strains deficient in the expression of the mazEF pathway. Moreover, in strains lysogenic for prophage λ, the SOS response is enabled by the presence of λrexB. λRexB had previously been found to inhibit the degradation of the antitoxin MazE, thereby preventing the toxic action of MazF. Thus, phage λ rexB gene not only safeguards the prophage state by preventing death of its E. coli host but is also indirectly involved in the lysogenic-lytic switch.
View details for DOI 10.1111/mmi.12969
View details for Web of Science ID 000354436700002
View details for PubMedID 25684601
The SOS Response is Permitted in Escherichia coli Strains Deficient in the Expression of the mazEF Pathway
2014; 9 (12)
The Escherichia coli (E. coli) SOS response is the largest, most complex, and best characterized bacterial network induced by DNA damage. It is controlled by a complex network involving the RecA and LexA proteins. We have previously shown that the SOS response to DNA damage is inhibited by various elements involved in the expression of the E. coli toxin-antitoxin mazEF pathway. Since the mazEF module is present on the chromosomes of most E. coli strains, here we asked: Why is the SOS response found in so many E. coli strains? Is the mazEF module present but inactive in those strains? We examined three E. coli strains used for studies of the SOS response, strains AB1932, BW25113, and MG1655. We found that each of these strains is either missing or inhibiting one of several elements involved in the expression of the mazEF-mediated death pathway. Thus, the SOS response only takes place in E. coli cells in which one or more elements of the E. coli toxin-antitoxin module mazEF or its downstream pathway is not functioning.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0114380
View details for Web of Science ID 000349128700111
View details for PubMedID 25470502
Quorum sensing peptides mediating interspecies bacterial cell death as a novel class of antimicrobial agents
CURRENT OPINION IN MICROBIOLOGY
2014; 21: 22-27
mazEF is a toxin-antitoxin stress-induced module which is abundant on the chromosome of most bacteria including pathogens and most extensively studied in Escherichia coli. E. coli mazEF mediated cell death is a population phenomenon requiring the quorum-sensing (QS) 'Extracellular Death Factor' (EDF), the E. coli peptide NNWNN. E. coli mazEF-mediated cell death can also be triggered by different QS peptides secreted by the Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the Gram negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the different EDFs belong to a family of QS peptides that mediates interspecies cell death. We suggest that members of the EDF family may become the basis for a novel class of antimicrobial agents to trigger death from outside the bacterial cells.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mib.2014.09.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000345543700006
View details for PubMedID 25244032
Novel Quorum-Sensing Peptides Mediating Interspecies Bacterial Cell Death
2013; 4 (3)
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli mazEF is a toxin-antitoxin stress-induced module mediating cell death. It requires the quorum-sensing signal (QS) "extracellular death factor" (EDF), the penta-peptide NNWNN (EcEDF), enhancing the endoribonucleolytic activity of E. coli toxin MazF. Here we discovered that E. coli mazEF-mediated cell death could be triggered by QS peptides from the supernatants (SN) of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the SN of B. subtilis, we found one EDF, the hexapeptide RGQQNE, called BsEDF. In the SN of P. aeruginosa, we found three EDFs: the nonapeptide INEQTVVTK, called PaEDF-1, and two hexadecapeptides, VEVSDDGSGGNTSLSQ, called PaEDF-2, and APKLSDGAAAGYVTKA, called PaEDF-3. When added to a diluted E. coli cultures, each of these peptides acted as an interspecies EDF that triggered mazEF-mediated death. Furthermore, though their sequences are very different, each of these EDFs amplified the endoribonucleolytic activity of E. coli MazF, probably by interacting with different sites on E. coli MazF. Finally, we suggest that EDFs may become the basis for a new class of antibiotics that trigger death from outside the bacterial cells. IMPORTANCE Bacteria communicate with one another via quorum-sensing signal (QS) molecules. QS provides a mechanism for bacteria to monitor each other's presence and to modulate gene expression in response to population density. Previously, we added E. coli EDF (EcEDF), the peptide NNWNN, to this list of QS molecules. Here we extended the group of QS peptides to several additional different peptides. The new EDFs are produced by two other bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, in this study we established a "new family of EDFs." This family provides the first example of quorum-sensing molecules participating in interspecies bacterial cell death. Furthermore, each of these peptides provides the basis of a new class of antibiotics triggering death by acting from outside the cell.
View details for DOI 10.1128/mBio.00314-13
View details for Web of Science ID 000321187400031
View details for PubMedID 23736285
The Escherichia coli Extracellular Death Factor EDF Induces the Endoribonucleolytic Activities of the Toxins MazF and ChpBK
2011; 41 (6): 625-635
Escherichia coli (E. coli) mazEF is a toxin-antitoxin (TA) stress-induced module that mediates cell death requiring the quorum-sensing pentapeptide NNWNN designated EDF (extracellular death factor). E. coli toxin MazF is a sequence-specific endoribonuclease cleaving single-stranded mRNAs at ACA sequences. E. coli ChpBK, a toxin homologous to MazF, is a sequence-specific endoribonuclease cleaving single-stranded mRNAs at ACA, ACG, and ACU sequences. Here we report that, in vitro, the signaling molecule EDF significantly amplifies the endoribonucleolytic activities of both MazF and ChpBK. EDF also overcomes the inhibitory activity of the antitoxins MazE over the toxin MazF and ChpBI over ChpBK. EDF sequence is important for both functions. Moreover, direct sequence-specific binding of EDF to MazF has been confirmed. Peptide-protein modeling revealed parallel contacts between EDF-MazF and MazE-MazF. These findings are intriguing, since most known quorum-sensing molecules monitor gene expression on the transcriptional level, while EDF monitors posttranscriptionally.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.02.023
View details for Web of Science ID 000288827500004
View details for PubMedID 21419338