Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response.
Nature human behaviour
The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive global health crisis. Because the crisis requires large-scale behaviour change and places significant psychological burdens on individuals, insights from the social and behavioural sciences can be used to help align human behaviour with the recommendations of epidemiologists and public health experts. Here we discuss evidence from a selection of research topics relevant to pandemics, including work on navigating threats, social and cultural influences on behaviour, science communication, moral decision-making, leadership, and stress and coping. In each section, we note the nature and quality of prior research, including uncertainty and unsettled issues. We identify several insights for effective response to the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight important gaps researchers should move quickly to fill in the coming weeks and months.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41562-020-0884-z
View details for PubMedID 32355299
What constitutes a 'successful' recovery? Patient perceptions of the recovery process after a traumatic injury.
Trauma surgery & acute care open
2020; 5 (1): e000427
Background: As the number of patients surviving traumatic injuries has grown, understanding the factors that shape the recovery process has become increasingly important. However, the psychosocial factors affecting recovery from trauma have received limited attention. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study to better understand how patients view recovery after traumatic injury.Methods: This qualitative, descriptive study was conducted at a Level One university trauma center. Participants 1-3years postinjury were purposefully sampled to include common blunt-force mechanisms of injuries and a range of ages, socioeconomic backgrounds and injury severities. Semi-structured interviews explored participants' perceptions of self and the recovery process after traumatic injury. Interviews were transcribed verbatim; the data were inductively coded and thematically analyzed.Results: We conducted 15 interviews, 13 of which were with male participants (87%); average hospital length of stay was 8.9 days and mean injury severity score was 18.3. An essential aspect of the patient experience centered around the recovery of both the body and the 'self', a composite of one's roles, values, identities and beliefs. The process of regaining a sound sense of self was essential to achieving favorable subjective outcomes. Participants expressed varying levels of engagement in their recovery process, with those on the high end of the engagement spectrum tending to speak more positively about their outcomes. Participants described their own subjective interpretations of their recovery as most important, which was primarily influenced by their engagement in the recovery process and ability to recover their sense of self.Discussion: Patients who are able to maintain or regain a cohesive sense of self after injury and who are highly engaged in the recovery process have more positive assessments of their outcomes. Our findings offer a novel framework for healthcare providers and researchers to use as they approach the issue of recovery after injury with patients.Level of evidence: III-descriptive, exploratory study.
View details for DOI 10.1136/tsaco-2019-000427
View details for PubMedID 32154383
- Implementation Challenges Using a Novel Method for Collecting Patient-Reported Outcomes After Injury JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH 2019; 241: 277–84
Differences among Asian/Asian American, and Caucasian breast and gynecologic cancer patient reported survivorship needs, symptoms, and illness mindsets (N=220).
AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2019
View details for Web of Science ID 000487345804287
Targeting Mindsets, Not Just Tumors
Trends in Cancer
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.trecan.2019.08.001
Implementation Challenges Using a Novel Method for Collecting Patient-Reported Outcomes After Injury.
The Journal of surgical research
2019; 241: 277–84
Monitoring longitudinal patient-reported outcomes after injury is important for comprehensive trauma care. Current methodologies are resource-intensive and struggle to engage patients.Patients ≥18 y old admitted to the trauma service were prospectively enrolled. The following inclusion criteria were used: emergency operation, ICU length of stay ≥2 midnights, or hospital length of stay ≥4 d. Validated and customized questionnaires were administered using a novel internet-based survey platform. Three-month follow-up surveys were administered. Contextual field notes regarding barriers to enrollment/completion of surveys and challenges faced by participants were recorded.Forty-seven patients were eligible; 26 of 47 (55%) enrolled and 19 of 26 (73%) completed initial surveys. The final sample included 14 (74%) men and 5 (26%) women. Primary barriers to enrollment included technological constraints and declined participation. Contextual field notes revealed three major issues: competing hospital tasks, problems with technology, and poor engagement. The average survey completion time was 43 ± 27 min-21% found this too long. Seventy-four percent reported the system "easy to use" and 95% reported they would "very likely" or "definitely" respond to future surveys. However, 10 of 26 (38%) patients completed 3-mo follow-up.Despite a well-rated internet-based survey platform, study participation remained challenging. Lack of email access and technological issues decreased enrollment and the busy hospitalization posed barriers to completion. Despite a thoughtful operational design and implementation plan, the trauma population presented a challenging group to engage. Next steps will focus on optimizing engagement, broadening access to survey reminders, and enhancing integration into clinical workflows.
View details for PubMedID 31042606
Mindsets Matter: A New Framework for Harnessing the Placebo Effect in Modern Medicine.
International review of neurobiology
2018; 138: 137–60
The clinical utility of the placebo effect has long hinged on physicians deceptively administering an objective placebo treatment to their patients. However, the power of the placebo does not reside in the sham treatment itself; rather, it comes from the psychosocial forces that surround the patient and the treatment. To this end, we propose a new framework for understanding and leveraging the placebo effect in clinical care. In outlining this framework, we first present the placebo effect as a neurobiological effect that is evoked by psychological processes. Next, we argue that along with implicit learning and expectation formation, mindsets are a key psychological process involved in the placebo effect. Finally, we illustrate the critical role of the social environment and treatment context in shaping these psychological processes. In doing so, we offer a guide for how the placebo effect can be understood, harnessed, and leveraged in the practice of modern medicine.
View details for PubMedID 29681322
Side effects can enhance treatment response through expectancy effects: an experimental analgesic randomized controlled trial
2017; 158 (6): 1014–20
In randomized controlled trials, medication side effects may lead to beliefs that one is receiving the active intervention and enhance active treatment responses, thereby increasing drug-placebo differences. We tested these hypotheses with an experimental double-blind randomized controlled trial of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with and without the addition of atropine to induce side effects. One hundred healthy volunteers were told they would be randomized to either combined analgesics that might produce dry mouth or inert placebos. In reality, they were randomized double blind, double-dummy to 1 of the 4 conditions: (1) 100 mg diclofenac + 1.2 mg atropine, (2) placebo + 1.2 mg atropine, (3) 100 mg diclofenac + placebo, or (4) placebo + placebo, and tested with heat-induced pain. Groups did not differ significantly in demographics, temperature producing moderate pain, state anxiety, or depression. Analgesia was observed in all groups; there was a significant interaction between diclofenac and atropine, without main effects. Diclofenac alone was not better than double-placebo. The addition of atropine increased pain relief more than 3-fold among participants given diclofenac (d = 0.77), but did not enhance the response to placebo (d = 0.09). A chain of mediation analysis demonstrated that the addition of atropine increased dry mouth symptoms, which increased beliefs that one had received the active medication, which, in turn, increased analgesia. In addition to this indirect effect of atropine on analgesia (via dry mouth and beliefs), analyses suggest that among those who received diclofenac, atropine directly increased analgesia. This possible synergistic effect between diclofenac and atropine might warrant future research.
View details for DOI 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000870
View details for Web of Science ID 000402431700005
View details for PubMedID 28178072
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5435545
Efficacy and Safety of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors, and Placebo for Common Psychiatric Disorders Among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
2017; 74 (10): 1011–20
Depressive disorders (DDs), anxiety disorders (ADs), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common mental disorders in children and adolescents.To examine the relative efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and placebo for the treatment of DD, AD, OCD, and PTSD in children and adolescents.PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database from inception through August 7, 2016.Published and unpublished randomized clinical trials of SSRIs or SNRIs in youths with DD, AD, OCD, or PTSD were included. Trials using other antidepressants (eg, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors) were excluded.Effect sizes, calculated as standardized mean differences (Hedges g) and risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events, were assessed in a random-effects model.Primary outcomes, as defined by authors on preintervention and postintervention data, mean change data, and adverse event data, were extracted independently by multiple observers following PRISMA guidelines.Thirty-six trials were eligible, including 6778 participants (3484 [51.4%] female; mean [SD] age, 12.9 [5.1] years); 17 studies for DD, 10 for AD, 8 for OCD, and 1 for PTSD. Analysis showed that SSRIs and SNRIs were significantly more beneficial compared with placebo, yielding a small effect size (g = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.25-0.40; P < .001). Anxiety disorder (g = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.40-0.72; P < .001) showed significantly larger between-group effect sizes than DD (g = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.13-0.27; P < .001). This difference was driven primarily by the placebo response: patients with DD exhibited significantly larger placebo responses (g = 1.57; 95% CI, 1.36-1.78; P < .001) compared with those with AD (g = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.84-1.21; P < .001). The SSRIs produced a relatively large effect size for ADs (g = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.45-0.97; P < .001). Compared with participants receiving placebo, patients receiving an antidepressant reported significantly more treatment-emergent adverse events (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12; P = .01 or RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.22-1.82; P < .001, depending on the reporting method), severe adverse events (RR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.34-2.32; P < .001), and study discontinuation due to adverse events (RR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.38-2.32; P < .001).Compared with placebo, SSRIs and SNRIs are more beneficial than placebo in children and adolescents; however, the benefit is small and disorder specific, yielding a larger drug-placebo difference for AD than for other conditions. Response to placebo is large, especially in DD. Severe adverse events are significantly more common with SSRIs and SNRIs than placebo.
View details for PubMedID 28854296
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5667359
- The Placebo Effect in the Clinical Setting: Considerations for the Pain Practitioner Principles and Practice of Pain Medicine McGraw-Hill Education Medical. 2015; 3: 162–169