Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Post-acute anti-NMDAR encephalitis mirrors schizophrenia. Trends in molecular medicine Muniz-Castrillo, S., Vogrig, A., Honnorat, J. 2022


    The post-acute evolution of the cognitive and psychiatric features of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been poorly investigated so far. In recent work published in Lancet Neurology, Guasp et al. report that the neuropsychiatric symptoms of the post-acute phase mirror those observed in schizophrenia, although only patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis showed improvements of their symptoms.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molmed.2022.09.010

    View details for PubMedID 36220717

  • Rank Wise Effect of HLA-DQ5 Explains Risk for the Development of Anti-IgLON5 Disease Yogeshwar, S. M., Peris-Sempere, V., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Luo, G., Finke, C., Honnorat, J., Mignot, E. WILEY. 2022: S143
  • Genetics of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis Muniz-Castrillo, S., Peris-Sempere, V., Fagundes-Bueno, F., Lomba, S., Honnorat, J., Mignot, E., Anti-Nmdare Collaborators Grp WILEY. 2022: S139
  • Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes associated with renal or bladder cancer: case series and PRISMA-IPD systematic review JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY Villagran-Garcia, M., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Ciano-Petersen, N., Vogrig, A., Farina, A., Villard, M., Psimaras, D., Alentorn, A., Goncalves, D., Fabien, N., Rogemond, V., Joubert, B., Honnorat, J. 2022


    The link between paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) and renal cell and bladder cancer (RCC/BC) is rare and uncertain. Our aim was to clinically evaluate, in light of the updated PNS criteria, these uncommon associations.Retrospective nationwide cohort chart review study and systematic review of the literature.After excluding 5 patients due to the diagnosis of another co-occurrent malignancy, 10/18 patients with RCC and 8/18 patients with BC were identified. A total of 31 cases were previously published, yielding an overall series of 27/49 RCC and 22/49 BC patients. There was a predominance of cerebellar syndromes in both cancers (10/27, 37% for RCC; 9/22, 41% for BC), followed by encephalitis in 9/27 (33%) patients with RCC and encephalomyelitis/sensory neuronopathy in 5/22 (23%) patients with BC. The detection of high-risk Abs was more frequent among BC patients (16/19, 84% vs. 3/13, 23% in RCC, p = 0.0009), Ri antibodies being the most frequent thereof. After applying the updated PNS criteria, patients with BC met highest degrees (possible, probable, and definite) of certainty for PNS diagnosis (20/22, 91% vs. 16/27, 59% in RCC, p = 0.021).A second neoplasm should always be ruled out before establishing the diagnosis of PNS in patients with RCC or BC. However, while this association remains dubious for most patients with RCC, a casual role is more probable in patients with BC and high-risk antibodies presenting with cerebellar ataxia, brainstem encephalitis or encephalomyelitis/sensory neuronopathy.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00415-022-11356-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000849276800002

    View details for PubMedID 36050418

  • Cerebellar Ataxia With Anti-DNER Antibodies: Outcomes and Immunologic Features. Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation Peter, E., Do, L. D., Hannoun, S., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Vogrig, A., Wucher, V., Pinto, A., Chounlamountri, N., Zakaria, W., Rogemond, V., Picard, G., Hedou, J., Ambati, A., Alentorn, A., Traverse-Glehen, A., Manto, M., Psimaras, D., Mignot, E., Cotton, F., Desestret, V., Honnorat, J., Joubert, B. 2022; 9 (5)


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is no report on the long-term outcomes of ataxia with antibodies against Delta and Notch-like epidermal growth factor-related (DNER). We aimed to describe the clinical-immunologic features and long-term outcomes of patients with anti-DNER antibodies.METHODS: Patients tested positive for anti-DNER antibodies between 2000 and 2020 were identified retrospectively. In those with available samples, immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass analysis, longitudinal cerebellum volumetry, human leukocyte antigen isotyping, and CSF proteomic analysis were performed. Rodent brain membrane fractionation and organotypic cerebellar slices were used to study DNER cell-surface expression and human IgG binding to the Purkinje cell surface.RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were included (median age, 52 years, range 19-81): 23 of 28 (82.1%) were male and 23 of 28 (82.1%) had a hematologic malignancy. Most patients (27/28, 96.4%) had cerebellar ataxia; 16 of 28 (57.1%) had noncerebellar symptoms (cognitive impairment, neuropathy, and/or seizures), and 27 of 28 (96.4%) became moderately to severely disabled. Half of the patients (50%) improved, and 32.1% (9/28) had no or slight disability at the last visit (median, 26 months; range, 3-238). Good outcome significantly associated with younger age, milder clinical presentations, and less decrease of cerebellar gray matter volumes at follow-up. No human leukocyte antigen association was identified. Inflammation-related proteins were overexpressed in the patients' CSF. In the rodent brain, DNER was enriched in plasma membrane fractions. Patients' anti-DNER antibodies were predominantly IgG1/3 and bound live Purkinje cells in vitro.DISCUSSION: DNER ataxia is a treatable condition in which nearly a third of patients have a favorable outcome. DNER antibodies bind to the surface of Purkinje cells and are therefore potentially pathogenic, supporting the use of B-cell-targeting treatments.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/NXI.0000000000200018

    View details for PubMedID 35940913

  • Cytokine dynamics and targeted immunotherapies in autoimmune encephalitis BRAIN COMMUNICATIONS Ciano-Petersen, N., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Birzu, C., Vogrig, A., Farina, A., Villagran-Garcia, M., Joubert, B., Psimaras, D., Honnorat, J. 2022; 4 (4): fcac196


    Autoimmune encephalitides constitute a diverse group of immune-mediated central nervous system disorders mainly characterized by the presence of antibodies targeting neuronal or glial antigens. Despite the notable contribution of antibody discovery to the understanding of their physiopathology, the specific immune cells and inflammatory mediators involved in autoimmune encephalitis are still poorly defined. However, cytokines have recently emerged as crucial signalling molecules in the pathogenesis of autoimmune encephalitis. Cytokines are biologically active, soluble, low-molecular-weight proteins or glycoproteins involved in a wide variety of physiological functions, including central nervous system development and homeostasis, immune surveillance, as well as proliferation and maturation of immune cells. Since unbalanced cytokine expression is considered a hallmark of many autoimmune central nervous system disorders, their identification and quantification has become an essential element in personalized medicine applied to the field of neuroimmunology. Several studies have explored the cytokine profile of autoimmune encephalitis, but their interpretation and comparison is challenging due to their small sample sizes and extremely high heterogeneity, especially regarding the cytokines analysed, type of sample used, and associated neural antibody. Only the cytokine profile of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis has extensively been investigated, with findings suggesting that, although humoral immunity is the main effector, T cells may also be relevant for the development of this disorder. A better understanding of cytokine dynamics governing neuroinflammation might offer the opportunity of developing new therapeutic strategies against specific immune cells, cytokines, antibodies, or intracellular signalling cascades, therefore leading to better outcomes and preventing undesired side effects of the presently used strategies. In this review, we first summarize the current knowledge about the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of autoimmune encephalitis, combining theoretical analysis with experimental validations, to assess their suitability as clinical biomarkers. Second, we discuss the potential applicability of the novel targeted immunotherapies in autoimmune encephalitis depending on the immunobiology of the associated antibody, their limitations, as well as the main limitations that should be addressed in future studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/braincomms/fcac196

    View details for Web of Science ID 000842123700001

    View details for PubMedID 35999839

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9392471

  • Long-term evolution and prognostic factors of epilepsy in limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY Guery, D., Cousyn, L., Navarro, V., Picard, G., Rogemond, V., Bani-Sadr, A., Shor, N., Joubert, B., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Honnorat, J., Rheims, S. 2022; 269 (9): 5061-5069


    To characterize the evolution of epilepsy in patients with leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 antibody-associated (LGI1ab) limbic encephalitis, including factors associated with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE).Retrospective analysis of patients with LGI1 encephalitis managed at two tertiary epilepsy centers between 2005 and 2019 and whose samples were confirmed by the French Reference Center of Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes. Raw clinical, biological, EEG, and MRI data were reviewed. Two endpoints were defined: (i) Epilepsy remission: patients seizure free and in whom anti-seizure medications (ASM) have been stopped for at least 1 year at the last follow-up visit (ii) DRE: patients with persistent seizures at the last follow-up despite at least two ASM used at efficacious daily dose.39 patients with LGI1 encephalitis were included with a median follow-up duration of 42 months (range 13-169). All of them reported seizures at the acute phase, with faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) in 23 (59%) and other focal seizures in 38 (97%), including 4 patients (10%) with de novo status epilepticus. At the last follow-up visit, 11 patients (28%) achieved epilepsy remission. Among the 28 patients with persistent epilepsy, eight (29%) fulfilled criteria of DRE. The only factor significantly associated with epilepsy remission was the time from clinical onset of the encephalitis to initiation of the first immunomodulatory treatment, with longer delay in patients with persistent epilepsy (7.5 ± 8.9 vs 2.4 ± 1.7 months, p = 0.006). Evolution to DRE was only driven by MRI evolution. Eight of the 15 patients (53%) who developed hippocampal atrophy (p = 0.007) also suffered from drug-resistant seizures at the last follow-up.In patients with LGI1 encephalitis, rapid initiation of immunomodulatory treatment favors long-term epilepsy remission. Evolution to DRE might primarily reflect the anatomical lesion of limbic structures. Determining what modalities of immune treatment may alter these outcomes requires prospective studies with long-term follow-up.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00415-022-11162-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000798106800002

    View details for PubMedID 35595970

  • Human Leukocyte Antigen Association Study Reveals DRB1*04:02 Effects Additional to DRB1*07:01 in Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis. Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation Peris Sempere, V., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Ambati, A., Binks, S., Pinto, A., Rogemond, V., Pittock, S. J., Dubey, D., Geschwind, M. D., Gelfand, J. M., Dilwali, S., Lee, S., Knight, J., Elliott, K. S., Irani, S., Honnorat, J., Mignot, E. 1800; 9 (2)


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To study human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele associations in anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis.METHODS: A multiethnic cohort of 269 patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis and 1,359 controls was included. Four-digit HLA sequencing and genome wide association single-nucleotide polymorphism typing imputation (0.99 concordance) were used for HLA typing. Significance of primary and secondary associations was tested using chi2, Fisher exact tests, or logistic regression with the control of population stratification covariates when applicable.RESULTS: DRB1*07:01 and DQA1*02:01, 2 alleles in strong linkage disequilibrium, were associated with the disease (90% vs 24%, OR = 27.8, p < 10e-50) across ethnicity independent of variation at DRB3 and DQB1, 2 flanking HLA loci. DRB1*07:01 homozygosity was associated with a doubling of risk (OR = 2.1, p = 0.010), suggesting causality. DRB1*07:01 negative subjects were younger (p = 0.003) and more frequently female (p = 0.015). Three patients with malignant thymomas did not carry DRB1*07:01, whereas patients with other tumors had high DRB1*07:01 frequency, suggesting that the presence of tumors other than thymomas may be coincidental and not causal. In both DRB1*07:01 heterozygous individuals and DRB1*07:01 negative subjects, DRB1*04:02 was associated with anti-LGI1 encephalitis, indicating an independent effect of this allele (OR = 6.85, p = 4.57 * 10-6 and OR = 8.93, p = 2.50 * 10-3, respectively). DRB1*04:02 was also independently associated with younger age at onset (beta = -6.68, p = 9.78 * 10-3). Major histocompatibility complex peptide-binding predictions using LGI1-derived peptides revealed divergent binding propensities for DRB1*04:02 and DRB1*07:01 alleles, suggesting independent pathogenic mechanisms.DISCUSSION: In addition to the established primary DRB1*07:01 association in anti-LGI1 encephalitis, we observe a secondary effect of DRB1*04:02 with lower age at onset. Our study provides evidence for secondary effects within HLA locus that correlate with clinical phenotypes in anti-LGI1 encephalitis.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/NXI.0000000000001140

    View details for PubMedID 35115410

  • Clinical and Prognostic Value of Immunogenetic Characteristics in Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis. Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation Muniz-Castrillo, S., Haesebaert, J., Thomas, L., Vogrig, A., Pinto, A., Picard, G., Blanc, C., Do, L., Joubert, B., Berzero, G., Psimaras, D., Alentorn, A., Rogemond, V., Dubois, V., Ambati, A., Tamouza, R., Mignot, E., Honnorat, J. 2021; 8 (3)


    OBJECTIVE: Antibodies against leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1-Abs) characterize a limbic encephalitis (LE) strongly associated with HLA-DRB1*07:01, although some patients lack LGI1-Abs in CSF or do not carry this allele. Whether they represent a different subtype of disease or have different prognoses is unclear.METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical features, IgG isotypes, and outcome according to LGI1-Ab CSF positivity and DRB1*07:01 in a cohort of anti-LGI1 LE patients.RESULTS: Patients with LGI1-Abs detected in both CSF and serum (105/134, 78%) were compared with those who were CSF negative (29/134, 22%). Both groups had similar clinical features and serum levels, but CSF-positive patients had shorter diagnostic delay, more frequently hyponatremia, inflammatory CSF, and abnormal MRI (p < 0.05). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping was performed in 72/134 (54%) patients and 63/72 (88%) carried DRB1*07:01. Noncarriers (9/72, 12%) were younger, more commonly women, and had less frequently psychiatric and frontal symptoms (p < 0.05). No difference in IgG isotypes according to CSF positivity or HLA was found (p > 0.05). HLA and IgG isotypes were not associated with poor outcome (mRS >2 at last follow-up) in univariate analyses; CSF positivity was only identified as a poor outcome predictor in the multivariate analysis including the complete follow-up, whereas age and female sex also remained when just the first year was considered.CONCLUSIONS: LE without CSF LGI1-Abs is clinically indistinguishable and likely reflects just a lesser LGI1-Ab production. HLA association is sex and age biased and presents clinical particularities, suggesting subtle differences in the immune response. Long-term outcome depends mostly on demographic characteristics and the intensity of the intrathecal synthesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/NXI.0000000000000974

    View details for PubMedID 33848259

  • Distinctive clinical presentation and pathogenic specificities of anti-AK5 encephalitis. Brain : a journal of neurology Muniz-Castrillo, S., Hedou, J. J., Ambati, A., Jones, D., Vogrig, A., Pinto, A., Benaiteau, M., de Broucker, T., Fechtenbaum, L., Labauge, P., Murnane, M., Nocon, C., Taifas, I., Vialatte de Pemille, C., Psimaras, D., Joubert, B., Dubois, V., Wucher, V., Desestret, V., Mignot, E., Honnorat, J. 2021


    Limbic encephalitis (LE) with antibodies against adenylate kinase 5 (AK5) has been difficult to characterize because of its rarity. In this study, we identified 10 new cases and reviewed 16 previously reported patients, investigating clinical features, IgG subclasses, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), and CSF proteomic profiles. Patients with anti-AK5 LE were mostly men (20/26, 76.9%) of median age 66 years old (range 48-94). Predominant symptom was severe episodic amnesia in all patients, frequently associated with depression (17/25, 68.0%). Weight loss, asthenia, and anorexia were also highly characteristic, being present in 11/25 (44.0%) patients. Although epilepsy was always lacking at disease onset, seizures developed later in a subset of patients (4/25, 16.0%). All patients presented CSF abnormalities, such as pleocytosis (18/25, 72.0%), oligoclonal bands (18/25, 72.0%), and increased Tau (11/14, 78.6%). Temporal lobe hyper-intensities were almost always present at disease onset (23/26, 88.5%), evolving nearly invariably toward a severe atrophy in subsequent MRIs (17/19, 89.5%). This finding was in line with a poor response to immunotherapy, with only 5/25 (20.0%) patients responding. IgG1 was the predominant subclass, being the most frequently detected and the one with highest titres in nine CSF-serum paired samples. Temporal biopsy from one of our new cases showed massive lymphocytic infiltrates dominated by both CD4+ and CT8+ T-cells, intense granzyme B expression, and abundant macrophages/microglia. HLA analysis in 11 patients showed a striking association with HLA-B*08:01 (7/11, 63.6%; OR=13.4, 95% CI [3.8-47.4]), C*07:01 (8/11, 72.7%; OR=11.0, 95% CI [2.9-42.5]), DRB1*03:01 (8/11, 72.7%; OR=14.4, 95% CI [3.7-55.7]), DQB1*02:01 (8/11, 72.7%; OR=13.5, 95% CI [3.5-52.0]), and DQA1*05:01 (8/11, 72.7%; OR=14.4, 95% CI [3.7-55.7]) alleles, which formed the extended haplotype B8-C7-DR3-DQ2 in 6/11 (54.5%) patients (OR=16.5, 95% CI [4.8-57.1]). Finally, we compared the CSF proteomic profile of five anti-AK5 patients with that of 40 controls and 10 cases with other more common non-paraneoplastic LE (five with antibodies against leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 and five against contactin-associated protein-like 2), as well as 10 cases with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (five with antibodies against Yo and five against Ma2). These comparisons revealed, respectively, 31 and seven significantly up-regulated proteins in anti-AK5 LE, mapping to apoptosis pathways and innate/adaptive immune responses. These findings suggest that the clinical manifestations of anti-AK5 LE result from a distinct T-cell mediated pathogenesis, with major cytotoxicity-induced apoptosis leading to a prompt and aggressive neuronal loss, likely explaining the poor prognosis and response to immunotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/brain/awab153

    View details for PubMedID 33843981

  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Autoimmunity: A French Cohort Study. Neurology Dumonceau, A. G., Ameli, R., Rogemond, V., Ruiz, A., Joubert, B., Muñiz-Castrillo, S., Vogrig, A., Picard, G., Ambati, A., Benaiteau, M., Rulquin, F., Ciron, J., Deiva, K., de Broucker, T., Kremer, L., Kerschen, P., Sellal, F., Bouldoires, B., Genet, R., Biberon, J., Bigot, A., Duval, F., Issa, N., Rusu, E. C., Goudot, M., Dutray, A., Devoize, J. L., Hopes, L., Kaminsky, A. L., Philbert, M., Chanson, E., Leblanc, A., Morvan, E., Andriuta, D., Diraison, P., Mirebeau, G., Derollez, C., Bourg, V., Bodard, Q., Fort, C., Grigorashvili-Coin, I., Rieul, G., Molinier-Tiganas, D., Bonnan, M., Tchoumi, T., Honnorat, J., Marignier, R. 2021


    To report the clinical, biological, imaging features, and the clinical course of a French cohort of patients with glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) autoantibodies.We retrospectively included all patients tested positive for GFAP antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid, by immunohistochemistry and confirmed by cell-based assay using cells expressing human GFAPα, since 2017, from two French referral centers.We identified 46 patients with GFAP antibodies. Median age at onset was 43 years, and 65% were men. Infectious prodromal symptoms were found in 82%. Other auto-immune diseases were found in 22% of patients, and coexisting neural autoantibodies in 11%. Tumors were present in 24%, and T cell dysfunction in 23%. The most frequent presentation was subacute meningoencephalitis (85%) with cerebellar dysfunction in 57% of cases. Other clinical presentation included myelitis (30%), visual (35%) and peripheral nervous system involvement (24%). MRI showed perivascular radial enhancement in 32%, periventricular T2 hyperintensity in 41%, brainstem involvement in 31%, leptomeningeal enhancement in 26%, and reversible splenial lesions in 4 cases. 33/40 patients had a monophasic course, associated to a good outcome at last follow-up (Rankin Score≤2: 89%), despite a severe clinical presentation. Adult and pediatric features are similar. Thirty-two patients were treated with immunotherapy. 11/22 patients showed negative conversion of GFAP antibodies.GFAP auto-immunity is mainly associated with acute/subacute meningoencephalomyelitis with prodromal symptoms, for which tumors and T cell dysfunction are frequent triggers. The majority of patients followed a monophasic course with a good outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013087

    View details for PubMedID 34799461

  • Genetics of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis Implicates Natural Killer Cells Ambati, A., Lin, L., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Pinto, A. M., Ollila, H., Rogemond, V., Finke, C., Leypoldt, F., Titulaer, M., Honnorat, J., Mignot, E., NMDAR-Ab Working Grp WILEY. 2020: S52
  • Primary DQ effect in the association between HLA and neurological syndromes with anti-GAD65 antibodies. Journal of neurology Muniz-Castrillo, S., Ambati, A., Dubois, V., Vogrig, A., Joubert, B., Rogemond, V., Picard, G., Lin, L., Fabien, N., Mignot, E., Honnorat, J. 2020


    The primary cause of neurological syndromes with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65-Ab) is unknown, but genetic predisposition may exist as it is suggested by the co-occurrence in patients and their relatives of other organ-specific autoimmune diseases, notably type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and by the reports of a few familial cases. We analyzed the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in 32 unrelated patients and compared them to an ethnically matched sample of 137 healthy controls. Four-digit resolution HLA alleles were imputed from available Genome Wide Association data, and full HLA next-generation sequencing-based typing was also performed. HLA DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01-DRB1*03:01 was the most frequent class II haplotype in patients (13/32, 41%). DQB1*02:01 was the only allele found to be significantly more common in patients than in controls (20/137, 15%, corrected p=0.03, OR 3.96, 95% CI [1.54-10.09]). There was also a trend towards more frequent DQA1*05:01 among patients compared to controls (22/137, 16%; corrected p=0.05, OR 3.54, 95% CI [1.40-8.91]) and towards a protective effect of DQB1*03:01 (2/32, 6% in patients vs. 42/137, 31% in control group; corrected p=0.05, OR 0.15, 95% CI [0.02-0.65]). There was no significant demographic or clinical difference between DQ2 and non-DQ2 carriers (p>0.05). Taken together, these findings suggest a primary DQ effect on GAD65-Ab neurological diseases, partially shared with other systemic organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as T1DM. However, it is likely that other non-HLA loci are involved in the genetic predisposition of GAD65-Ab neurological syndromes.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00415-020-09782-8

    View details for PubMedID 32152690