Academic Appointments


  • Sr Research Engineer, Aeronautics and Astronautics

Administrative Appointments


  • Executive Director, Stanford Center for Position Navigation & Time (2020 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Leadership Award: Signals, GPSWorld (2014)
  • Michael Richey Medal, Royal Institute of Navigation (RIN) (2011)
  • Medal of Merit, International Loran Association (ILA) (2009)
  • Service Award, International Loran Association (ILA) (2009)
  • Early Achievement Award, Institute of Navigation (ION) (2005)
  • President's Award, International Loran Association (ILA) (2003)
  • William L. Polhemus Student Paper Award, International Loran Association (ILA) (2000)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Associate Editor, Navigation: The Journal of the Institute of Navigation (2019 - Present)
  • Associate Editor, Satellite Navigation (2019 - Present)
  • Technical Advisory Board, UrsaNav (2019 - Present)
  • Meetings Chair, Institute of Navigation (ION) (2016 - Present)
  • Western Region Vice President, Institute of Navigation (ION) (2013 - 2015)
  • Editorial Advisory Board, The Journal of Navigation, Royal Institute of Navigation (RIN) (2012 - Present)
  • Meetings Chair, Institute of Navigation (ION) (2011 - 2013)
  • Board Member, International Loran Association (ILA) (2007 - 2013)
  • Secretary, Institute of Navigation (ION), Northern California Chapter (2006 - Present)

Professional Education


  • BS, University of Maryland, College Park, Aerospace Engineering (1994)
  • BS, University of Maryland, College Park, Mathematics (1994)
  • MS, Stanford University, Aeronautics & Astronautics (1995)
  • MS, Stanford University, EES&OR (now Managerial Science & Engineering) (1998)
  • PhD, Stanford University, Aeronautics & Astronautics (2002)

Service, Volunteer and Community Work


  • Pre Major Advisor, Stanford University

    Advise undeclared Stanford Freshmen and Sophomores

    Location

    Stanford, CA

Patents


  • Qiu; Di (Menlo Park, CA), Lo; Sherman (San Mateo, CA), Enge; Per (Mountain View, CA), Scott; Logan (Fort Collins, CO), Boneh; Dan (Stanford, CA), Karpf; Ron (Corvallis, OR). "United States Patent 8,391,488 Method and apparatus for using navigation signal information for geoencryption to enhance security", Geocodex, Leland Stanford Junior University, Mar 5, 2013
  • Qiu; Di (Menlo Park, CA), Lo; Sherman (San Mateo, CA), De Lorenzo; David S. (Palo Alto, CA), Boneh; Dan (Palo Alto, CA), Enge; Per (Mountain View, CA). "United States Patent 8,315,389 Geosecurity methods and devices using geotags derived from noisy location data from multiple sources", Leland Stanford Junior University, Nov 20, 2012
  • David De Lorenzo, Sherman Lo, Per Enge. "United States Patent 8,300,813 Secure Information Transfer Based on Global Position", Oct 31, 2012
  • Sherman Lo, Per Enge, C. O. L. Boyce, Nicholas Alexeev. "United States Patent 8,120,533 METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DERIVING LOCATION INFORMATION FROM UTILITY LINES", Leland Stanford Junior University, Feb 12, 2012
  • Peter Levin, David De Lorenzo, Per Enge, Sherman Lo. "United States Patent 8,068,054 Receiver with means for ensuring bona fide of received signals", Nov 29, 2011
  • Peter Levin, David De Lorenzo, Per Enge, Sherman Lo. "United States Patent 8,068,533 Authenticating a signal based on an unknown component thereof", Nov 29, 2011
  • Peter Levin, David De Lorenzo, Per Enge, Sherman Lo. "United States Patent 8,068,533 Receiver for GPS-like signals", Nov 29, 2011
  • Peter Levin, David De Lorenzo, Per Enge, Sherman Lo. "United States Patent 7,969,354 Authenticating a signal based on an unknown component thereof", Jun 28, 2011

All Publications


  • GNSS interferometric reflectometry signature-based defense NAVIGATION-JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION Lewis, S. W., Chow, C., Geremia-Nievinski, F., Akos, D. M., Lo, S. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1002/navi.393

    View details for Web of Science ID 000574207400001

  • An Assessment of GPS Spoofing Detection Via Radio Power and Signal Quality Monitoring for Aviation Safety Operations IEEE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS MAGAZINE Miralles, D., Levigne, N., Bornot, A., Rouquette, P., Akos, D. M., Chen, Y., La, S., Walter, T. 2020; 12 (3): 136–46
  • 1090 MHz ADS-B-Based Wide Area Multilateration System for Alternative Positioning Navigation and Timing IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Jheng, S., Jan, S., Chen, Y., Lo, S. 2020; 20 (16): 9490–9501
  • Flight test of a pseudo-ranging signal compatible with existing distance measuring equipment (DME) ground stations NAVIGATION-JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION Lo, S., Chen, Y., Enge, P., Pelgrum, W., Li, K., Weida, G., Soelter, A. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1002/navi.376

    View details for Web of Science ID 000553177700001

  • Developing a Dual Polarization Antenna (DPA) for High Dynamic Applications Lo, S., Chen, Y., Rothmaier, F., Zhang, G., Lee, C., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2020: 1001–20
  • Accommodating Direction Ambiguities in Direction of Arrival based GNSS Spoof Detection Jain, H., Lo, S., Chen, Y., Rothmaier, F., Powell, J., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2019: 274–89
  • Analysis of raw GNSS measurements derived navigation solutions from mobile devices with inertial sensors Lee, D., Petit, M., Miralles, D., Lo, S., Akos, D., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2019: 3812–31
  • Going Back for the Future: Large/Mega LEO Constellations for Navigation Reid, T., Gunning, K., Perkins, A., Lo, S., Walter, T., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2019: 2452–68
  • Improvements to Steady State Spoof Detection with Experimental Validation using a Dual Polarization Antenna Rothmaier, F., Chen, Y., Lo, S., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2019: 967–83
  • Single GNSS Antenna Heading Estimation Rothmaier, F., Chen, Y., Lo, S., Powell, J., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2019: 2159–71
  • Real-Time Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Based Interference Localization in a GNSS Denied Environment Perkins, A., Chen, Y., Lo, S., Lee, C., Powell, J., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2019: 1003–19
  • An Augmentation and Integrity Monitoring Network for Railway and Automotive Transportation Salvatori, P., Stallo, C., Coluccia, A., Pullen, S., Lo, S., Neri, A., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2019: 790–801
  • Tests of Crowdsourced Smartphones Measurements to Detect GNSS Spoofing and Other Disruptions Lo, S., Chen, Y., Akos, D., Cotts, B., Miralles, D., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2019: 373–88
  • Measurement Characterization for Localizing Multiple RFI Sources Simultaneously from a UAS Perkins, A., Lo, S., Powell, J., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2019: 262–73
  • Characterization and Mitigation of Multipath for Terrestrial based Aviation Radionavigation NAVIGATION-JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION Schneckenburger, N., Fiebig, U., Lo, S., Enge, P., Lilley, R. 2018; 65 (2): 143–56

    View details for DOI 10.1002/navi.235

    View details for Web of Science ID 000439832100001

  • Demonstrating Single Element Null Steering Antenna Direction Finding for Interference Detection Chen, Y., Lo, S., Perkins, A., Rothmaier, F., Akos, D., Enge, P., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2018: 240–59
  • GNSS Multipath Detection in Urban Environment Using 3D Building Model Zhang, S., Lo, S., Chen, Y., Walter, T., Enge, P., IEEE IEEE. 2018: 1053–58
  • Crowdsourcing GNSS jamming detection and localization Strizic, L., Akos, D. M., Lo, S., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2018: 626–41
  • Effective GPS Spoofing Detection Utilizing Metrics from Commercial Receivers Manfredini, E., Akos, D. M., Chen, Y., Lo, S., Walter, T., Enge, P., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2018: 672–89
  • Geometric Rules for Terrestrial Radionavigation Multipath Mitigation by Averaging NAVIGATION-JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION Schneckenburger, N., Walter, M., Fiebig, U., Lo, S. 2017; 64 (2): 231–36

    View details for DOI 10.1002/navi.201

    View details for Web of Science ID 000405923400004

  • Development of a Three-Element Beam Steering Antenna for Bearing Determination Onboard a UAV Capable of GNSS RFI Localization Perkins, A., Chen, Y., Lee, W., Lo, S., Enge, P., INST NAVIGAT INST NAVIGATION. 2017: 2758–69
  • Projected Performance of a Baseline High Integrity GNSS Railway Architecture under Nominal and Faulted Conditions Lo, S., Pullen, S., Blanch, J., Enge, P., Neri, A., Palma, V., Salvitti, M., Stallo, C., INST NAVIGAT INST NAVIGATION. 2017: 2148–71
  • Feasibility of fault exclusion related to advanced RAIM for GNSS spoofing detection Kuusniemi, H., Blanch, J., Chen, Y., Lo, S., Innac, A., Ferrara, G., Honkala, S., Bhuiyan, M. H., Thombre, S., Soderholm, S., Walter, T., Phelts, R., Enge, P., INST NAVIGAT INST NAVIGATION. 2017: 2359–70
  • Design of a Passive Ranging System Using Existing Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Signals & Transmitters NAVIGATION-JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION Lo, S. C., Enge, P. K., Narins, M. J. 2015; 62 (2): 131-149

    View details for DOI 10.1002/navi.83

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357031000004

  • Containing a Difficult Target: Techniques for Mitigating DME Multipath to Alternative Position Navigation and Timing (APNT) International Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Lo, S., Chen, Y. H., Segal, B., Peterson, B., Enge, P., Erikson, R., Lilley, R. INST NAVIGATION. 2014: 413–423
  • Potential radio frequency interference with the GPS L5 band for radio occultation measurements ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES Wolff, A. M., Akos, D. M., Lo, S. 2014; 7 (11): 3801-3811
  • Development of a Real-time GNSS Software Receiver for Evaluating RAIM in Multi-constellation International Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Chen, Y., Lo, S., Akos, D. M., Choi, M., Blanch, J., Walter, T., Enge, P. INST NAVIGATION. 2014: 525–533
  • Multipath Benefits of BOC vs. BPSK Modulated Signals Using On-Air Measurements International Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Lee, C., Chen, Y., Wong, G., Lo, S., Enge, P. INST NAVIGATION. 2013: 742–751
  • Validation of a Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna (CRPA) Receiver Built from Inexpensive General-purpose Elements During Several Live Jamming Test Campaigns International Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Chen, Y., Lo, S., Akos, D. M., De Lorenzo, D. S., Enge, P. INST NAVIGATION. 2013: 154–163
  • Design and Implementation of Real-Time Software Radio for Anti-Interference GPS/WAAS Sensors SENSORS Chen, Y., Juang, J., Seo, J., Lo, S., Akos, D. M., De Lorenzo, D. S., Enge, P. 2012; 12 (10): 13417-13440

    Abstract

    Adaptive antenna array processing is widely known to provide significant anti-interference capabilities within a Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receiver. A main challenge in the quest for such receiver architecture has always been the computational/processing requirements. Even more demanding would be to try and incorporate the flexibility of the Software-Defined Radio (SDR) design philosophy in such an implementation. This paper documents a feasible approach to a real-time SDR implementation of a beam-steered GNSS receiver and validates its performance. This research implements a real-time software receiver on a widely-available x86-based multi-core microprocessor to process four-element antenna array data streams sampled with 16-bit resolution. The software receiver is capable of 12 channels all-in-view Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna (CRPA) array processing capable of rejecting multiple interferers. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions assembly coding and multithreaded programming, the key to such an implementation to reduce computational complexity, are fully documented within the paper. In conventional antenna array systems, receivers use the geometry of antennas and cable lengths known in advance. The documented CRPA implementation is architected to operate without extensive set-up and pre-calibration and leverages Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) to provide adaptation in both the frequency and space domains. The validation component of the paper demonstrates that the developed software receiver operates in real time with live Global Positioning System (GPS) and Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) L1 C/A code signal. Further, interference rejection capabilities of the implementation are also demonstrated using multiple synthetic interferers which are added to the live data stream.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/s121013417

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310507800027

    View details for PubMedID 23202002

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3545573

  • Calibrating adaptive antenna arrays for high-integrity GPS GPS SOLUTIONS De Lorenzo, D. S., Lo, S. C., Enge, P. K., Rife, J. 2012; 16 (2): 221-230
  • Signal Structure Study for a Passive Ranging System using Existing Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) International Technical Meeting (ITM) of the Institute-of-Navigation (ION) Lo, S. C., Enge, P. K. INST NAVIGATION. 2012: 97–107
  • The Need for a Robust Precise Time and Frequency Alternative to Global Navigation Satellite Systems Narins, M., Enge, P., Peterson, B., Lo, S., Chen, Y., Akos, D., Lombardi, M., ION INST NAVIGATION. 2012: 2057–62
  • Capacity Study of Multilateration (MLAT) based Navigation for Alternative Position Navigation and Timing (APNT) Services for Aviation NAVIGATION-JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION Lo, S. C., Enge, P. 2012; 59 (4): 263-279

    View details for DOI 10.1002/navi.25

    View details for Web of Science ID 000209006500002

  • Assessing the Capability of Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) to Support Future Air Traffic Capacity NAVIGATION-JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION Lo, S. C., Enge, P. 2012; 59 (4): 249-261

    View details for DOI 10.1002/navi.24

    View details for Web of Science ID 000209006500001

  • A Real-Time Capable Software-Defined Receiver Using GPU for Adaptive Anti-Jam GPS Sensors SENSORS Seo, J., Chen, Y., De Lorenzo, D. S., Lo, S., Enge, P., Akos, D., Lee, J. 2011; 11 (9): 8966-8991

    Abstract

    Due to their weak received signal power, Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are vulnerable to radio frequency interference. Adaptive beam and null steering of the gain pattern of a GPS antenna array can significantly increase the resistance of GPS sensors to signal interference and jamming. Since adaptive array processing requires intensive computational power, beamsteering GPS receivers were usually implemented using hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). However, a software implementation using general-purpose processors is much more desirable because of its flexibility and cost effectiveness. This paper presents a GPS software-defined radio (SDR) with adaptive beamsteering capability for anti-jam applications. The GPS SDR design is based on an optimized desktop parallel processing architecture using a quad-core Central Processing Unit (CPU) coupled with a new generation Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) having massively parallel processors. This GPS SDR demonstrates sufficient computational capability to support a four-element antenna array and future GPS L5 signal processing in real time. After providing the details of our design and optimization schemes for future GPU-based GPS SDR developments, the jamming resistance of our GPS SDR under synthetic wideband jamming is presented. Since the GPS SDR uses commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and processors, it can be easily adopted in civil GPS applications requiring anti-jam capabilities.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/s110908966

    View details for PubMedID 22164116

  • Alternative Position Navigation & Timing (APNT) Based on Existing DME and UAT Ground Signals 24th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS) Lo, S. C., Peterson, B., Akos, D., Narins, M., Loh, R., Enge, P. INST NAVIGATION. 2011: 3309–3317
  • Capacity Study of Two Potential Alternative Position Navigation and Timing (APNT) Services for Aviation International Technical Meeting of the Institute of Navigation Lo, S. C., Enge, P. INST NAVIGATION. 2011: 192–205
  • Reliable Location-Based Services from Radio Navigation Systems SENSORS Qiu, D., Boneh, D., Lo, S., Enge, P. 2010; 10 (12): 11369-11389

    Abstract

    Loran is a radio-based navigation system originally designed for naval applications. We show that Loran-C's high-power and high repeatable accuracy are fantastic for security applications. First, we show how to derive a precise location tag--with a sensitivity of about 20 meters--that is difficult to project to an exact location. A device can use our location tag to block or allow certain actions, without knowing its precise location. To ensure that our tag is reproducible we make use of fuzzy extractors, a mechanism originally designed for biometric authentication. We build a fuzzy extractor specifically designed for radio-type errors and give experimental evidence to show its effectiveness. Second, we show that our location tag is difficult to predict from a distance. For example, an observer cannot predict the location tag inside a guarded data center from a few hundreds of meters away. As an application, consider a location-aware disk drive that will only work inside the data center. An attacker who steals the device and is capable of spoofing Loran-C signals, still cannot make the device work since he does not know what location tag to spoof. We provide experimental data supporting our unpredictability claim.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/s101211369

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285708700050

    View details for PubMedID 22163532

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3231104

  • Improving Loran Coverage with Low Power Transmitters JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION Lo, S. C., Peterson, B. B., Hardy, T., Enge, P. K. 2010; 63 (1): 23-38
  • Methodology and Design for the Broadcast of GNSS Integrity Information derived from SBAS on Low Bandwidth Data Channels NAVIGATION-THE JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION Lo, S. C., Enge, P. K. 2010; 57 (1)
  • Preliminary Assessment of Alternative Navigation Means for Civil Aviation 2010 International Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Lo, S., Niles, F., Loh, R., Eldredge, L., Narins, M. INST NAVIGATION. 2010: 314–322
  • Simple Loran Cycle Error Detection Algorithms for Maritime Harbor Entrance Approach Operations 2010 International Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Peterson, B. B., Lo, S. C., Enge, P. K. INST NAVIGATION. 2010: 472–479
  • Authenticating Aviation Augmentation System Broadcasts Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS) Lo, S. C., Enge, P. K. IEEE. 2010: 502–511
  • The WAAS/L5 Signal for Robust Time Transfer: Adaptive Beamsteering Antennas for Satellite Time Synchronization 23rd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute-of-Navigation (ION GNSS-2010) De Lorenzo, D. S., Lo, S. C., Seo, J., Chen, Y., Enge, P. K. INST NAVIGATION. 2010: 2106–2116
  • Compass-M1 Broadcast Codes in E2, E5b, and E6 Frequency Bands IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN SIGNAL PROCESSING Gao, G. X., Chen, A., Lo, S., De Lorenzo, D., Walter, T., Enge, P. 2009; 3 (4): 599-612
  • Physical Pseudo Random Function in Radio Frequency Sources for Security 2009 International Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Qiu, D., De Lorenzo, D., Lo, S., Boneh, D., Enge, P. INST NAVIGATION. 2009: 84–92
  • Developing and Validating the Loran Temporal ASF Bound Model for Aviation NAVIGATION-THE JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION Lo, S., Wenzel, R., Morris, P., Enge, P. 2009; 56 (1): 9-21
  • Robust Location Tag Generation from Noisy Location Data for Security Applications 2009 International Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Qiu, D., Boneh, D., Lo, S., Enge, P. INST NAVIGATION. 2009: 586–597
  • Design and Performance of a Minimum-Variance Hybrid Location Algorithm Utilizing GPS and Cellular Received Signal Strength for Positioning in Dense Urban Environments 2009 International Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation De Lorenzo, D. S., Lo, S. C., Enge, P. K., Feuerstein, M., Bhattacharya, T. K., Spain, S., Kang, Z. INST NAVIGATION. 2009: 784–792
  • Pattern Classification for Geotag Generation 22nd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute-of-Navigation (ION GNSS-09) Qiu, D., Lo, S., Enge, P., Boneh, D. INST NAVIGATION. 2009: 1819–1827
  • Hysteresis in RAIM 22nd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute-of-Navigation (ION GNSS-09) Blanch, J., Mayer, C., Lo, S., Walter, T., Enge, P. INST NAVIGATION. 2009: 2818–2823
  • Compass-M1 Broadcast Codes and Their Application to Acquisition and Tracking 2008 National Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Gao, G. X., Chen, A., Lo, S., De Lorenzo, D., Walter, T., Enge, P. INST NAVIGATION. 2008: 133–141
  • A measure of Loran location-based information IEEE/ON Position, Location and Navigation Symposium Qiu, D., Lo, S., Enge, P. IEEE. 2008: 1227–1234
  • Assessment of the Methodology for Bounding Loran Temporal ASF for Aviation 2008 National Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Lo, S. C., Wenzel, R., Johnson, G., Enge, P. K. INST NAVIGATION. 2008: 432–442
  • Loran data modulation: A primer IEEE AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS MAGAZINE Lo, S. C., Peterson, B. B., Enge, P. K. 2007; 22 (9): 31-51
  • Loran data modulation: Extensions and examples IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS Lo, S. C., Peterson, B. B., Enge, P. K., Swaszek, P. 2007; 43 (2): 628-644
  • Geoencryption Using Loran 2007 National Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Qiu, D., Lo, S., Enge, P., Boneh, D., Peterson, B. INST NAVIGATION. 2007: 104–115
  • Proving the Integrity of the Weighted Sum Squared Error (WSSE) Loran Cycle Confidence Algorithm NAVIGATION-THE JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION Lo, S. C., Peterson, B. B., Enge, P. K. 2007; 54 (4): 277-291
  • Galileo GIOVE-A Broadcast E5 Codes and their Application to Acquisition and Tracking 2007 National Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Gao, G. X., De Lorenzo, D. S., Chen, A., Lo, S. C., Akos, D. M., Walter, T., Enge, P. INST NAVIGATION. 2007: 936–946
  • Proving the Integrity of the Weighted Sum Squared Error (WSSE) Loran Cycle Confidence Algorithm 2007 National Technical Meeting of the Institute-of-Navigation Lo, S. C., Peterson, B. B., Enge, P. K. INST NAVIGATION. 2007: 187–200
  • Mitigating Atmospheric Noise for Loran 19th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute-of-Navigation Boyce, C. O., Lo, S. C., Powell, J. D., Enge, P. K. INST NAVIGATION. 2006: 77–82
  • WAAS performance in the 2001 Alaska flight trials of the high speed Loran data channel IEEE Position Location and Navigation Symposium Lo, S. C., Akos, D., Houck, S., Normark, P. L., Enge, P. IEEE. 2002: 328–335
  • The Loran Integrity Performance Panel Proceedings of the 15th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GPS 2002) Lo, S., Enge, P., Boyce, L., Peterson, B., Gunther, T., Wenzel, B., Carroll, K., Bridges, K., Narins, M. Institute of Navigation. 2002: 1002–1012
  • Broadcasting Data from an SBAS Reference Network over Low Rate Broadcast Channels Proceedings of the International Symposium on Integration of LORAN-C/Eurofix and EGNOS/Galileo Lo, S., Enge, P. DGON. 2000: 199–209
  • Data Transmission Using LORAN Proceedings of the International Loran Association 29th Annual Meeting Lo, S., Enge, P. International Loran Association. 2000
  • GPS Supplemental Navigation Systems for Use During the Transition to a Sole-Means-GPS National Airspace System National Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation Gebre-Egziabher, D., Lo, S., Powell, J. D., Enge, P. 1999: 91–100
  • Algorithms for crossover point determination COMPUTERS & MATHEMATICS WITH APPLICATIONS Lo, S., Kee, C., Enge, P. 1997; 33 (11): 117-131
  • System identification of an autonomous aircraft using GPS 10th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute-of-Navigation Evans, J., Elkaim, G., Lo, S., Parkinson, B. INST NAVIGATION. 1997: 1065–1071