Stanford Advisors

2020-21 Courses

All Publications

  • South African Fathers Involvement and Their Adolescents' Sexual Risk Behavior and Alcohol Consumption. AIDS and behavior Kim, S., Jemmott, J. B., Icard, L. D., Zhang, J., Jemmott, L. S. 2021


    Although considerable research has examined the influence of parent-adolescent relationships on the sexual health of adolescents, there is a great need for research to understand the influence of fathers on their children's HIV sexual risk behavior, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined how the residence and the involvement of fathers are related to their children's HIV sexual risk and alcohol consumption behaviors. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 175 sixth-grade adolescents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Analyses showed that adolescents living with their fathers had fewer sexual partners (B=-0.606, SE=0.299, p=.043) and consumed alcohol less frequently (B=-0.642, SE=0.294, p=.029). Adolescents who spent more quality days with their fathers in the past 30days had fewer sexual partners (B=-0.103, SE=0.039, p=.008) and had condomless sex less frequently (B=-0.097, SE=0.047, p=0.041). It was also found that there were significant father-residence*child-gender interactions on sexual debut (B=1.132, SE=0.564, p=.045) and on frequency of condomless sex (B=-2.140, SE=0.924, p=.021). These interactions indicate that boys living with their fathers were less likely to have had vaginal intercourse than girls and that girls living with their fathers were less likely to have unprotected sex than boys. This study highlights the importance of South African fathers' roles in their adolescent children's HIV sexual risk and alcohol drinking behaviors and the need to promote father-child relationships for adolescent health. The results suggest that health programs aiming to reduce South African adolescents' HIV sexual risk behaviors and alcohol consumption consider strategies that target their fathers.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10461-021-03323-8

    View details for PubMedID 34076813

  • Reasoned Action Approach Correlates of Fruit and Vegetable Diet Among African American Men Living With HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study. Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education Kelly, T., Kim, S., Jemmott, L. S., Icard, L. D., Chittamuru, D., Jemmott, J. B. 2021: 10901981211011938


    Epidemiological evidence of the protective role of fruits and vegetables for a host of chronic health conditions is well-documented. However, there is a dearth of studies examining predictors of fruit and vegetable intake among African American men living with HIV. We report secondary analyses-multiple regression and logistic regression models fitted to examine the strength of the relationships between the reasoned action approach constructs; namely, attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms, self-efficacy and intention to consume fruits and vegetables, and self-reported adherence to 5-A-DAY guidelines. We used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of a physical activity intervention trial with 302 African American men aged 40 years or older (M = 53.9; SD = 7.2) living with HIV. Attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms, and self-efficacy were positively associated with intention to meet 5-A-DAY guidelines. More positive attitudes toward 5-A-DAY guidelines were associated with higher odds of meeting 5-A-DAY guidelines. More positive attitudes and self-efficacy were also positively associated with meeting the guidelines for intake of vegetable servings and fruit-and-vegetable servings combined. To increase fruit and vegetable intake among African American men living with HIV, interventions should be tailored to address the perceived benefits of consumption.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/10901981211011938

    View details for PubMedID 33978502

  • Predictors of Colorectal Cancer Screening Among African American Men Living with HIV. Journal of community health Kelly, T., Kim, S., Jemmott, L. S., Jemmott, J. B. 2021


    African American men living with HIV are at high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Screening to detect CRC is associated with a reduced risk of CRC mortality. However, little is known about CRC screening predictors in this population. This study examined the relation of self-efficacy, a potential mediator of screening that interventions could target, to CRC screening. It also investigated several variables that might identify subpopulations of African American men non-adherent to CRC screening recommendations. We report a secondary analysis on baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of a health promotion intervention for African American men living with HIV. Before their intervention, they completed measures of CRC screening, self-efficacy, marital status, age, education, and adherence to physical activity guidelines and were assessed for obesity. A total of 270 African American men aged 45 to 88 (Mean=55.07; SD=6.46) living with HIV participated. About 30% reported CRC screening in the past six months. Multiple logistic regression revealed greater CRC screening self-efficacy and meeting physical activity guidelines were associated with receiving CRC screening. Obese men and men reporting higher education were less likely to report screening. Age and marital status were unrelated to screening. The results of this study suggest CRC screening rates may be low among African American men living with HIV, and interventions targeting self-efficacy may improve their screening uptake. Moreover, public-health efforts to increase screening should prioritize interventions with subpopulations of African American men living with HIV who are physically inactive and obese.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10900-021-00997-y

    View details for PubMedID 33963984

  • Political partisanship influences behavioral responses to governors' recommendations for COVID-19 prevention in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Grossman, G., Kim, S., Rexer, J. M., Thirumurthy, H. 2020; 117 (39): 24144-24153


    Voluntary physical distancing is essential for preventing the spread of COVID-19. We assessed the role of political partisanship in individuals' compliance with physical distancing recommendations of political leaders using data on mobility from a sample of mobile phones in 3,100 counties in the United States during March 2020, county-level partisan preferences, information about the political affiliation of state governors, and the timing of their communications about COVID-19 prevention. Regression analyses examined how political preferences influenced the association between governors' COVID-19 communications and residents' mobility patterns. Governors' recommendations for residents to stay at home preceded stay-at-home orders and led to a significant reduction in mobility that was comparable to the effect of the orders themselves. Effects were larger in Democratic- than in Republican-leaning counties, a pattern more pronounced under Republican governors. Democratic-leaning counties also responded more strongly to recommendations from Republican than from Democratic governors. Political partisanship influences citizens' decisions to voluntarily engage in physical distancing in response to communications by their governor.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2007835117

    View details for PubMedID 32934147

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7533884

  • Directionality of information flow and echoes without chambers PLOS ONE Kim, S. 2019; 14 (5): e0215949


    How do echo chambers operate? Why does social propagation of information become trapped within the boundaries of social groups? Previous studies of these questions have identified informational and structural factors which hinder information exchange across group boundaries; these factors constitute "chambers" in which information flows are confined and transformed into "echoes." However, empirical evidence has indicated that these factors may not sufficiently explain the mechanism of echo chambers. Hence, the present study investigated whether the insular flow of information emerges and endures without the chambers. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted in which participants, who were classified into two political groups, exchanged randomly selected articles with the same number of ingroup and outgroup neighbors. The experiment manipulated the directionality of incoming information flow by varying the number of articles sent from ingroup neighbors across two conditions. Analyses revealed that the ingroup-slanted inflow induced ingroup-slanted outflow, suppressing transmission toward neighbors in a different social group. The biased inflow also promoted positive reactions to information exchanges and reduced negative evaluations on the exchanged information. Furthermore, the ingroup-slanted inflow increased false perceptions of ingroup majority, which is known to encourage information dissemination by a social group. The present study suggests two self-reinforcing mechanisms of ingroup-biased flows that generate echoes even without the chambers. These mechanisms may enable a small group of strategic actors to exacerbate polarization within a large population by manipulating directions of information flow.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0215949

    View details for Web of Science ID 000467949100020

    View details for PubMedID 31091248

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6519792

  • Does newspaper coverage influence or reflect public perceptions of the economy? RESEARCH & POLITICS Hopkins, D. J., Kim, E., Kim, S. 2017; 4 (4)