Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • The FAR protein family of parasitic nematodes PLOS PATHOGENS Parks, S. C., Nguyen, S., Boulanger, M. J., Dillman, A. R. 2022; 18 (4): e1010424


    Fatty acid-and retinol-binding proteins (FARs) belong to a unique family of excreted/secreted proteins (ESPs) found exclusively in nematodes. Much of our understanding of these proteins, however, is limited to their in vitro binding characteristics toward various fatty acids and retinol and has provided little insight into their in vivo functions or mechanisms. Recent research, however, has shown that FARs elicit an immunomodulatory role in plant and animal model systems, likely by sequestering lipids involved in immune signaling. This alludes to the intricate relationship between parasitic nematode effectors and their hosts.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010424

    View details for Web of Science ID 000792694100005

    View details for PubMedID 35446920

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9022830

  • Parasitic nematode fatty acid- and retinol-binding proteins compromise host immunity by interfering with host lipid signaling pathways PLOS PATHOGENS Parks, S. C., Nguyen, S., Nasrolahi, S., Bhat, C., Juncaj, D., Lu, D., Ramaswamy, R., Dhillon, H., Fujiwara, H., Buchman, A., Akbari, O. S., Yamanaka, N., Boulanger, M. J., Dillman, A. R. 2021; 17 (10): e1010027


    Parasitic nematodes cause significant morbidity and mortality globally. Excretory/secretory products (ESPs) such as fatty acid- and retinol- binding proteins (FARs) are hypothesized to suppress host immunity during nematode infection, yet little is known about their interactions with host tissues. Leveraging the insect parasitic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae, we describe here the first in vivo study demonstrating that FARs modulate animal immunity, causing an increase in susceptibility to bacterial co-infection. Moreover, we show that FARs dampen key components of the fly immune response including the phenoloxidase cascade and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production. Our data also reveal that FARs deplete lipid signaling precursors in vivo as well as bind to these fatty acids in vitro, suggesting that FARs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by altering the availability of lipid signaling molecules necessary for an efficient immune response. Collectively, these data support a complex role for FARs in immunosuppression in animals and provide detailed mechanistic insight into parasitism in phylum Nematoda.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000715226300001

    View details for PubMedID 34714893

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8580252